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Full text of "The Teutonic name-system applied to the family names of France, England, and Germany"

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TEUTONIC NAME-SYSTEM. 



THE 



TEUTONIC NAME SYSTEM 



APPLIED TO THE 



FAMILY NAMES 



OF 



FRANCE, ENGLAND, & GERMANY. 



BY 



EGBERT FERGUSON, 

Author of *' The River-Names of Europe," " Swiss Men 
AND Swiss Mountains," &c. 




V 



LONDON : WILLIAMS k NORGATE, 

14, HENRIETTA STREET, COVENT GARDEN ; 
AND 20, SOUTH FREDERICK STREET, EDINBURGH. 

CARLISLE : R. & J. STEEL. 
1864. 



CARLISLE : 
PRINTED BY R. AND J. STEEL, ENGLISH STREET. 



TO 



JOHN ANSTER, LL.D., 



FKOM HIS FRIEND 



THE AUTHOR. 



PREFACE. 



The present work, though founded on one pre- 
viously published by me under the title of 
" EngHsh Surnames and their place in the 
Teutonic Family/' is so entirely changed, not only 
in its general principle but also in all its details, 
that it cannot be considered in any other light 
than that of a new work. Even the former title, 
as inadequately describing its present contents, 
has necessarily been abandoned. 

It is now put forward as an attempt to con- 
nect the family names of France, England, and 
Germany — so far as the ancient Teutonic element 
in each is concerned — as members of one common 
family, and to form them into a definite system 
in accordance with the nomenclature of the old 
Germans. It undertakes to shew that as the 
Saxons and other German tribes in the names of 
England and Germany, so are the old Franks 
represented in the present names of France. And 
it further undertakes to shew that in each case 
this correspondence does not consist merely in 
the casual resemblance here and there of individual 
names, but is to be traced in the coincidence of a 



Vlli PREFACE. 

complete and connected system common both to 
the old peoples and the new. 

The basis of my theory is the Altdeutsches 
Namenbuch of Forstemann, in which the ancient 
names of Germany are collected, arranged, and in 
most cases explained. Of this work, which I fear 
is not so well known in England as it deserves, I 
cannot speak in terms more suitable than those 
in which Mr. Taylor refers to the companion 
volume on the names of places, as a work " which 
even in Germany, must be considered a marvel- 
lous monument of erudite labour.'' 

But Forstemann draws the line of the Old 
German period sharply at the end of the 11th 
century, and as has been shewn by Stark in a 
Kttle work containing some observations and 
criticisms on the Altdeutsches Namenbuch, an 
extension of the survey over the three centuries 
following would throw much additional light 
upon the subject. From this little work (which 
I have unfortunately mislaid and of which I am 
consequently not able to give the precise title) 
are taken the few ancient names which are of a 
later date than the 11th century. 

A more important supplement to the Alt- 
deutsches Namenbuch will be found in the names 
which I have introduced from our own early 
records, and in particular from the Codex Diplo- 
maticus of Kemble, and the Liber Vitye or list 
of benefactors to the shrine of St. Cuthbert at 
Durham. The latter record commences about 



PREFACE. IX 

the ninth and is continued up to the thirteenth 
century, but the names which I have introduced 
may be taken to be generally of the early period- 
For the names of later date taken from the 
Hundred Rolls drawn up in the reign of Edward 
1st I am indebted to the Patronymica Britannica 
of Mr. Lower. 

Though the explanation of Old German names 
is a subject which has engaged the attention of 
almost all the leading philologists of Germany, 
and though conclusions have in many cases been 
arrived at which have met with general accept- 
ance, there still remains much which is unsettled 
and obscure. And further — there are many 
names now for the first time brought to light 
through the labours of Forstemann, of which in 
some cases he has offered an explanation and in 
others not. Though as a general rule I have 
adopted the conclusions of the German scholars, 
I have in some instances ventured to express a 
difference of opinion, and in a still greater number 
of cases I have been thrown upon my own 
resources for the explanation of names not dealt 
with by any other writer. 

The English names, with very few exceptions, 
are taken from the London Directory, the two 
works of Mr. Lower, and that of Mr. Bowditch. 
The little work by Mr. Clark called " Surnames 
metrically arranged," and which, by the way, is 
executed with no little ingenuity, contains a few 
names not found elsewhere. The French names 



X PREFACE. 

are taken from the directory of Paris, and the 
Modern German names from the works of Forste- 
mann, Pott, and the other writers elsewhere enu- 
merated. It has not always been an easy task 
to ascertain the nationality of a name, particularly 
as the directory of Paris does not generally give 
the christian names, which might be a guide in a 
doubtful case. The same remark applies to Suffolk 
Surnames, some of the names of which look very 
much like German in an English guise. The 
interchange which has taken place between the 
respective countries at a comparatively recent 
period, as for instance the immigration of French- 
men into England at the Revocation of the Edict 
of Nantes and of Scotchmen at an earlier period 
into France, must also be taken into account. 
This introduces an element of uncertainty which 
must to a certain extent modify the particular 
classification of modern names, though not affect- 
ing the general theory of their origin. 

In the arrangement of the different groups I 
have taken, first the simple form or the stem- 
name, and then the various forms which have 
grown out of, or which have been built upon it. 
It will be observed that while there are some 
groups, as at pages 115, 202, 231, 289, 454, which 
shew the connection between the ancient and 
modern names in a very complete form, there are 
many others which exist in a more or less frag- 
mentary state — the system which I have adopted 
allowing the missing links, as they may turn up, 



PREFACE. XI 

to fall into their respective places. It follows, 
therefore, that a random reference to any par- 
ticular group might be by no means convincing, 
and that my theory must be judged as a whole. 
The dates which I have aflfixed to the Old 
German names, and for which I am indebted 
to Forstemann, shew the earliest period at which 
that particular form has so far been found — as to 
the real antiquity of the name of course they are 
no guide whatever. 

In conclusion, while expressing my obligation 
to the scholars of Germany for the standing point 
on which to form my theory, I may perhaps 
not be thought presumptuous in expressmg a 
hope that I have done at least something to pay 
off the debt which I have incurred — no such 
systematic attempt having as yet been made 
even in Germany to connect the past and the 
present in men's names as will be found in these 
pages. 

R. F. 

Morion^ Carlisle. 



LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL WORKS CONSULTED. 



Altdeutsches Namenbuch, von Dr. Ernst Forstemann. Vol. 

I., Personennamen. Nordhausen, 1856. 

Die Personennamen, insbesondere die Familiennamen, von 

August Friedrich Pott. Leipzig, 1853. 

Grimm. Deutsche Grammatik. Gottingen. 

Grimm. Deutsche Mythologie. Gottingen, 1854. 

Grimm. Geschichte der Deutschen Sprache. 

Leipzig, 1848. 

Grimm. Frauennamen aus Blumen. Berlin, 1852. 

Weinhold. Die Deutschen Frauen in dem Mittelalter. 

Vienna, 1851. 

Weinhold. Altnordisches Leben. Berlin, 1856. 

Graff. Althochdeutscher Sprachschatz. Berlin, 1834. 

Zeuss. Die Deutschen und die Nachbarstamme. 

Munich, 1837. 

Mone. Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der Teutschen 

Helden sage. Leipzig, 1836. 

Gliick. Die bei C. Julius Caesar vorkommenden Keltischen 

Namen. Vienna, 1857. 

Wassenberg. Verhandeling over de Eigennaamen der 

Friesen. Franeker, 1774. 

Frohner. Karlsruher Namenbuch. Karlsruhe, 1856. 

Outzen. Glossarium der Friesischen Sprache. 

Copenhagen, 1837. 
Islands Landnamabok, hoc est, liber originum Islandise. 

Copenhagen, 1774. 
Kemble. Codex Diplomaticus -^vi Saxonici. 

London, 1845-48. 

Kemble. Names, Surnames, and Nic-names of the Anglo- 
Saxons. London, 1846. 



LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL WORKS CONSULTED. XUl 

Liber Vitas Ecclesise Dunelmensis, published by the Surtees 
Society. London^ 1841. 

Polyptyque de I'Abbe Irminon ou Denombrement des 
manses, des serfs, et des revenus de I'Abbaye de Saint- 
Germain-des-Pres sous le regne de Charlemagne. 

Paris, 1841 

Polyptyque de I'Abbaye de Saint Remi de Reims, ou Denom- 
brement des manses, des serfs, et des revenus de cette 
abbaye vers le milieu du neuvieme siecle de notre ere. 

Paris, 1853. 

Salverte. History of the names of men, nations, and places. 
Translated by the Rev. L. H. Mordacque. 

London, 1862. 

Lower. English Surnames. London, 1849. 

Lower. Patronymica Britannica. London, 1860. 

Bowditch. Suflfolk Surnames, 3rd Edition. Boston, 1861. 

(Suffolk means Boston and its vicinity^ hut the work in reality takes in 
a much wider range.) 

Miss Yonge. History of Christian Names. London, l^QZ. 
Taylor. Names and Places. London, 1864. 

Thorpe. Northern Mythology. London, 1851. 

Thorpe. The Anglo-Saxon poem of Beowulf, the Scop or 
Gleeman's tale, and the fight at Finnesburg. 

Oxford, 1845. 
Worsaae. Danes and Norwegians in England, Scotland, 
and Ireland. London, 1852. 

Bosworth. Origin of the English and Germanic languages 
and nations. London, 1848. 

Talbot. English Etymologies. Lond(m, 1847. 

Halliwell. Archaic and Provincial Dictionary. 

London, 1831. 
Wedgwood. Dictionary of English Etymology. 

London, 1859-62. 

Brockie. The Family Names of the Folks of Shields traced 

to their Origin. Shields, 1857. 



CONTENTS. 



Chapter I. Page. 

INTRODUCTION 1 

Chapter II. 
SIMPLE FORMS 17 

Chapter III. 

DIMINUTIVES 20 

Chapter IV. 

PHONETIC ADDITIONS 28 

Chapter V. 
PATRONYMICS 31. 

Chapter VI. 
COMPOUNDS ... 34 

Chapter VII. 
LETTER CHANGES 44 

Chapter VIII. 
OUR NATURAL ENEMIES 50 

Chapter IX. 

MAN AS THE TYPE OF POWER 67 

Chapter X. 
THE BRUTE AND ITS ATTRIBUTES 67 

Chapter XI. 
THE GODS OF THE NORTH 113 

Chapter XIL 
THE HEROES OF THE NORTH 145 

Chapter XIII. 
THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS 161 

Chapter XIV. 
THE PROTECTOR AND THE FRIEND 260 

Chapter XV. 
ANCESTOR AND KINSMAN 287 

Chapter XVI. 
THE NATION AS THE NAME-GIVER 295 



CONTENTS. XV 

Chapter XVII. 
THE SEA AND THE SEA LIFE 320 

Chapter XVIII. 
THE RULER AND THE PRINCE 327 

Chapter XIX. 
WISDOM AND KNOWLEDGE 347 

Chapter XX. 
THE TRUMPET OF FAME 368 

Chapter XXI. 
WEALTH AND PROSPERITY 381 

Chapter XXII. 
THE OUTER MAN 389 

Chapter XXIII. 
THE INNER MAN 426 

Chapter XXIV. 
THE STATION IN LIFE 451 

Chapter XXV^ 
ALL FLESH IS AS GRASS 464 

Chapter XXVI. 
THE STUFF A MAN IS INIADE OF 474 

Chapter XXVIL 
THE CHRISTIAN ERA 482 

Chapter XXVIII. 
THEY CALL THEIR LANDS AFTER THEIR OWN NAMES 489 

Chapter XXIX. 
OLD SAXONS AND ANGLO-SAXONS 504 

Chapter XXX. 
THE SCANDINAVIAN VIKINGS 510 

Chapter XXXI. 
A CHAPTER OF FRAGMENTS 516 

Chapter XXXII. 
CONCLUSION 526 



ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS... 
INDEX 



529 
531 



CHAPTER I. 



INTRODUCTION. 

The Directory of London is perhaps the crown- 
ing wonder of that wonderful place. There may 
have been in ancient times — who knows 1 — cities 
as great. There may be even now an uncounted 
population as prodigious at Pekin. But was there 
ever a city so registered, and classified, and 
chronicled, as is this teeming Babylon of ours 1 
No poor man in a dark corner can turn his face 
to the wall and give up the key of his house un- 
noticed — no petty shop be shut — no humble name 
be painted out. As surely as the place which 
knew him loiows him no more, ere many months 
can pass there is a new name in the Domesday of 
London. 

Here it is — the book of the Modern Babylon 
— bound in her own scarlet too — two thousand 
two hundred and sixty pages of names ! How 
dreary seems the catalogue, and yet what a world 
of hidden history is there within the pages of this 
book ! For of all these thousands of names not 
one has been given in vain. There are deeds of 
forgotten valour that are summed up in a word — 
there are trivial incidents that have named genera- 
tions of men — there are good Christians that are 
called after heathen gods — there are gentle women 

A 



2 INTRODUCTION. 

that are called after savage brutes — there are 
nanies on the signs of Regent Street that were 
given in the unhewn forests of Germany. 

Truly then the question, " Who gave you this 
name V if it could be answered rightly — and in 
many instances it can — would give us interesting 
records. One might say — " Eight centuries ago 
an Anglo-Saxon*^ bravely withstood the Norman 
usurpation, and so harassed their forces by his 
stratagems that he was surnamed Praet, or the 
crafty — therefore it is that I am called Pratt." 
Another might say — " A Northman had a son 
mischievous and full of pranks, so that he was 
called Lok, after the god of mischief Steady 
enough our family has become since then. We 
have produced the most sober of philosophers — 
one of the most practical of engineers — yet still 
we bear the name of Locke t from the mischief 
of our ancestor." And a third might say — " See 
you yon white horse cut on the turf of the 
southern down — whence came that white horse 
came my name. The great Roman historian tells 
us how our ancestors held the white horse sacred. 
Hence, when the early invaders wrested the soil 
from its British owner, they stamped it with this 
as the sign at once of their victory and of their 
faith. And, unconsciously as the Wiltshire 
peasant does reverence to the heathen symbol 



* One of the companions of the Saxon hero Ilereward. 

t This may obtain in some individual cases, but I do not think, on con- 
sideration, that it is the general origin of the name. 



INTRODUCTION. '-^ 

when he annually clears away the grass from the 
outlines of the white horse, as his fathers have 
done for perhaps a thousand years before him, so 
do I, good Christian as I am, preserve a record of 
that same pagan superstition in my name of 

HiNCKS."'"' 

The etymology of proper names is the only 
branch then of the subject which can in any sense 
be called popular ; for most men, even of those 
who care not to enquire the origin of the language 
they speak, feel some interest or curiosity in 
knowing the meaning of the names they bear. 

In the investigation of this subject tradition 
gives us little or no assistance. Not but that 
there are many traditions as to the origin of 
names, but in almost all cases they are worthless 
and delusive. Indeed it is rather curious how 
tradition, in matters of history so often substan- 
tially correct, in matters of etymology is generally 
sheer invention. 

Thus I have no faith in such legends as that 
which derives Turnbull from a man having 
turned by the head a wild bull which ran against 
Bobert Bruce. Or in that which derives Bull- 
strode from an ancestor of the family, having, 
along with his followers, sallied forth to a conflict 
mounted upon bulls. Or in Purseglove from a 
man having found, at a time when he much 

* HiNCKS seems to be a corruption of Hengist or Hingest, which signifies a 
stallion. Some traditions make Hengist a Frisian, in which language the word i» 
hingst, which approaches near to Hincks. In the names of places Hengist has 
become changed into Ilinks, as in Hioksey, Berks. — Ang.-Sax. Hengestesige. 



4 INTKODUCTION. 

needed it, a purse of gold wrapped up in a glove. 
Or in LocKHART, from an ancestor of the family 
having accompanied Sir James Douglas to the 
Holy Land with the heart of the Bruce. 

Nor do I give much more credit to the German 
story which accounts for the name of the poet 
Saphir in this wise. The grandfather of Saphir, 
a Jew named Israel Israel, being required, in con- 
formity with an ordonnance of the Austrian 
government, to change his name, expressed his 
own perfect indifference on the subject, and his 
readiness to take any name which the authorities 
might recommend. " You have a very handsome 
sapphire ring," said the official, " have you any 
objections to let Saphir be your name V " Not 
the least in the world," replied this accommodat- 
ing Jew, and so Saphir became his name. Now 
I cannot take upon myself to say unhesitatingly 
that this story is a myth, but it is at least sus- 
picious, and a different origin can readily be sug- 
gested for the name. 

Neither is much value to be attached to the 
old Latinization of names. When we find the 
Aug.- Sax. Goodrick rendered " De bono fossato" 
— Godshall, the Old German Gottshalck, " De 
casa Dei" — when we find Armine, the glorious old 
hero Arrainius, made into a " Sancta Ermina, — 
when we find such childish attempts as Dimoak, 
" De umbrosa quercu" — Sal vein, '* De salicosa 
vena," we see clearly that these are simply guesses 
— perhaps not unworthy of the age in which they 



INTRODUCTION. 5 

were formed, but certainly of no account in this. 

Archaeology and genealogy will do a great 
deal, and what they will do has been well done 
by Mr. Lower in his two works on English Sur- 
names, which will always remain standard books 
of reference on the subject. It is to him that the 
credit must be given of being the first to bring to 
bear on the subject the researches of modern 
science. 

The history of Christian names, which, accord- 
ing to my view, is to a great extent the history 
also of surnames, has received a most valuable 
contribution in the recent work of Miss Yonge, 
which does much to place the subject on a more 
solid basis than heretofore. And from the other 
side of the Atlantic we have a work, Suffolk 
Surnames, by Mr. Bowditch, which, though with- 
out pretensions to etymological research, con- 
tains the most curious catalogue of names that 
has yet been published. 

With respect to the names of France, there is, 
as far as I know, no work on the subject which 
does much more than skim the surface. That by 
Salverte is elegant and philosophical, but does 
not go much into etymological detail, and is not 
always to be depended upon when it does. 

In Germany, family names have received a 
large share of attention, and the same system of 
patient analysis which has raised the character of 
German philology has been applied to them. The 
preliminary step has been to collect all the ancient 



6 INTRODUCTION. 

names, and arrange them under their respective 
roots. This gives a firm standing-ground for the 
investigation of modern names. In this depart- 
ment the Altdeutsches Namenhiich of Forstemann 
is a most complete, solid, and trustworthy work, 
extremely well arranged, and throwing, indirectly, 
more light on English names than any other book 
I know. This, as the latest work, is the best and 
the most complete, but the works of Graff and 
others which it supplements, are of the highest 
value and importance. Grimm, himself, the 
father of Teutonic philology, has, in his various 
writings, supplied knowledge upon which all 
others have drawn. Professor Pott's book on 
Modern German family names is also one of great 
learning and research, and the want of an index, 
which sadly diminished the debt of gratitude on 
the part of whose who had to consult him, has at 
length been supplied. 

The study of English names embraces a wider 
field than that of the English language, because 
we have no longer the same Ang.-Sax. starting 
point. The dialects of the various tribes who 
came over to this country were fused into one 
common language, and that was Anglo-Saxon — 
but there was no such fusion of their names. In 
all their dialectic variations the names of those 
early settlers still stand in the London directory. 
Certainly there did spring up in after times a 
nomenclature properly Anglo-Saxon, formed in 
accordance with the general Teutonic system, but 



INTRODUCTION. 7 

still liavinof its own distinctive character. But 
this nomenclature, as I am inclined to believe, 
never pervaded the mass of the people, who still 
held on to the old sort of names which they had 
brought over with them, and which they carried 
through Anglo-Saxon times up to the present 
day. 

A word then on the antiquity of our Enghsh 
names. How far some of them may remount we 
cannot even guess. All we know is that when 
the dim Hght of history first shows us the German 
tribes battling in their rude strength against the 
legions of imperial Kome, the names they bore 
were such as are current now. Among some of 
those mentioned by Tacitus are Verritus, a prince 
of the Frisians, same I take as our Werritt and 
Verity. Sigimer, the father of Arminius, is the 
same as oui Seymour; and Segimund, his brother- 
in-law, as our SiGMUND and Simmon ds. Arpus, A^y^^^ 
a prince of the Catti, is the same as our Harp — 
YiBELLius, a general of the Hermanduri, as our 
WiPPELL. Then there are several compound 
names, as Inguiomer, Cariovalda, Maroboduus, 
and Molorix, of which we have the simj^le forms, 
which we may fairly suppose to have been the 
first in use. This leads me to remark that many 
of our short and simple names are, as being such 
root-names, among the most ancient that we have. 
And not a few there are, which in the chano-es 
and chances of this mortal life have become of 
small account, yet which were names of honour 



%. 



8 ' INTRODUCTION. 

in the days — aye, and long before the days — when 
the Redeemer walked the earth. There is a name 
in the directory, Siggs — it has no very distin- 
guished sound, and its owner is but a worker in 
tin plate — yet it is older than the Sigimer, and 
the Segimund of Tacitus. Nibbs and Nobbs are 
not names which command respect, yet they are 
probably the parents of the Nibelungs renowned 
in German song — of the courtly Nevilles, and, 
according to a German writer, of the mighty 
Napoleon. Then there are other names ap- 
parently honourable — yet thrice honourable when 
their meaning is made clear. Thus Ahminger 
has been supposed to be a corruption of Armiger 
— that is, " one entitled to bear arms." Entitled 
— aye, well entitled to bear arms ! — no herald's 
college needs to furnish them — for he bears the 
spear of Arminius.'"' Generally speaking, the 
names derived from war are among the most 
ancient — probably also some of those derived from 
animals, as the bear, the wolf, and the boar — and 
some of those of which the meaning is simply 
" man." Such names as Sun and Moon we must 
also include — we do not meet with them before 
the fourth or fifth century — but the thouo^ht is 
an oriental one, — and there are no names which 
might more probably have been brought with 
them by the wanderers from their ancient eastern 
home. 

' Arminoer is a compound of Armin (Arminius), and ger, spoar. 



INTRODUCTION. 9 

In referring to the high antiquity of some of 
our Enghsh names, it is necessary to call atten- 
tion to their two-fold origin. They are derived 
in part from original surnames, and in part from 
ancient single or baptismal names. The term 
"baptismal" must be understood in a modified 
sense, as implying a name bestowed in infancy, 
and probably with some attendant rite or cere- 
mony, for many of these names are in reality older 
than Christianity. The former of these two 
classes of course cannot be older than the period 
at which surnames became hereditary — a period 
not earlier than the Conquest, or if earlier, only 
in some very exceptional cases. The latter — 
those derived from ancient baptismal names — 
may remount to the highest Teutonic antiquity. 
For those names were not, like surnames, coined 
as the occasion required, but handed down from 
generation to generation, perhaps even in some 
cases, as I have elsewhere suggested, without any 
reference to their meaning. It will be my object 
to prove, throughout the present work, that a 
very much larger proportion of English names 
than has been generally supposed, are from the 
latter origin. 

I have already made the remark that while 
the dialects of the various tribes who came over 
to this country were fused into one common lan- 
guage, which was Anglo-Saxon, their names still 
retained all their dialectic variations. To the 
period from Anglo-Saxon times to the present 

B 



10 INTRODUCTION. 

day the same principle applies. English names 
have not shared pari passu, with the changes 
which have taken place m the English language. 
The reason of this must be obvious to any one 
who considers the subject. When a word changes, 
it changes altogether, because there is only one 
standard of the language. But this is nob the 
case v/ith names ; one man s name is no rule for 
another's, and each name separately resists inno- 
vation on its own account. Names do change — 
because the same principles of phonetic mutation 
affect them — but only individually and partially. 
Hence we have them in all stages, pure Anglo- 
Saxon, wholly English, and half-way between the 
two. In our names Nagle and Nail, we have 
the Anglo-Saxon ncegel, and the English nail — in 
our names Wegg and Way we have the Anglo- 
Saxon weg, and the English way — in our names 
Gum and Groom, we have the Anglo-Saxon 
guma, and the English groom. And in the names 
FuGGLE, Fuel, Fowell, and Fowle, we have all 
the stages of mutation from the Anglo-Saxon 
fugel to the English fowl. 

In one respect names have been subjected to 
an influence from which the English language 
has been exempt ; they have frequently been cor- 
rupted from the desire to make sense out of them. 
Of course all names have originally had a mean- 
ing ; I speak of cases in which the ancient mean- 
ing has become obsolete. When a name has no 
approach towards making sense, men are content 



INTRODUCTION. 1 1 

to let it alone, but when it is very nearly making 
some sort of modern sense, it is very apt to be 
corrupted. Thus, Ashkettle is no doubt the 
Danish name Asketil ; Goodluck is very pro- 
bably a corruption of Guthlac. There is a place 
in Norwich called Goodluck's close, formerly 
Guthlac's close. We have the name Thorough- 
good, and we have the name Thurgood. The 
latter is a Danish name, and at once suggests to 
us that the former is a corruption. So also pro- 
bably Grumble and Tremble for Grimbald and 
Trumbold, Halfyard for Alfhard, Inchboari^ 
for Ingobert, Gumboil for Gundbald, &c. 

This principle, which is indeed natural to man, 
pervades also Modern German nomenclature. 
Thus the name of Maria Theresa's minister was 
corrupted from its original form of Tunicotto into 
Thunichtgut, which she again, thinking- there ivas 
something in a name, changed into Thugut.'"' Our 
friend Todleben, who gave us so much trouble at 
Sebastopol, and whose name appears to be such a 
paradoxical compound,t is another example. The 
name is in fact, as I take it, formed of two words 
of the same meaning, both implying affection, and 
would be more properly Todlieben. 

It is to be noted, however, that there are not 
a few cases in which names have come to us in a 
corrupted form. We have a name, Archam- 
BAUD, and the French have the same name, 

* Thunichtgut, " do not good.'' Thugut, " do good." 
t Tod, death, leben, life. 






1 2 INTRODUCTION. 

Archambault. This is a corruption of an old 
German Ercanbald, but as a corruption it is nine 
hundred years old, being found in the 10th cen- 
tury in the form of Archembald. And upon the 
whole, English names are much less corrupted 
from their ancient forms than might be expected. 
Independently of names which have been cor- 
rupted to a meaning, it follows almost as a matter 
of course from my theory that I shoidd believe a 
large proportion of the apparent meanings of 
English names to be merely coincidences. This 
I do to a very considerable extent, both in regard 
to our own names, and also, as elsewhere stated, 
to those of France. In many of these cases there 
is a primd facie probability in favour of the 
alteration. Thus, when I suggest that Bastard, 
Paramour, Harlott, Wanton, Outlaw, Scul- 
lion, Coward, Vassall, are not what they 
seem, but on the contrary ancient names of the 
highest respectability, the reader, already puzzled 
to account for the transmission of such disreput- 
able titles, will be disposed to fall readily in with 
the amendment. Again, when such names as 
Purchase, Wedlock, Flattery, Melody, Par- 
don, Power, and such as Vinegar, Marigold, 
Dandelyon, are referred to ancient compounds, 
there will not be mucli objection, because the 
English meaning is not very satisfactory. But 
when I go on to argue that Pilgrfm is an Old 
German name, and that it does not mean one who 
has made a pilgrimage, some of those who have 



INTRODUCTION. 13 

followed me thus far may begin to draw back. 
" Why," it may be said, " meddle with a name 
which has already so good a meaning '? What 
can be more natural than that a man who had 
visited the holy places, and come back an object 
of wonder and reverence to those around him, 
should from this, the one great event of his life, 
derive a name to be transmitted to his posterity V 
All this I grant — Pilgrim, in this sense, might 
naturally — might very naturally — become a man s 
name. But in the sense which I propose it was 
a man's name. And the best of " might he's" is 
not so good as a " was." Again, the system 
which thus explains Pilgrim explains also Pill, 
Pillow, Billow, Bilkb, Billet, Billiard, and 
a number of other names, both English and 
French. Not but that I recognize the possi- 
bility, both in this and other cases, of two dif- 
ferent origins for the same name. 

With respect to the period at which surnames 
became hereditary in England I am inclined to 
concur with Mr. Lower in the probability of their 
being in occasional use before the Conquest, 
though I do not feel so sure that the particular 
document on which he relies for proof (a grant of 
land to the Abbey of Croyland, dated ] 050) is 
sufficient to bear out the conclusions wliich he 
draws from it. 

There is a document quoted from the MSS. 
Cott. by Mr. Turner, in his History of the Anglo- 
Saxons, in which we find an Anglo-Saxon family 



14 INTRODUCTION. 

with unquestionably a regular surname. " Hwita 
Hatte'^ was a keeper of bees in Haethfelda ; and 
Tate Hatte, his daughter, was the mother of Wul- 
sige, the shooter ; and Lulle Hatte, the sister of 
Wulsige, Hehstan had for his wife in Wealadene. 
Wifus, and Dunne, and Seoloce, were born in 
Haethfelda ; Duning Hatte, the son of Wifus, is 
settled at Wealadene ; and Ceolmund Hatte, the 
son of Dunne, is also settled there ; and j^theleah 
Hatte, the son of Seoloce, is also there ; and Tate 
Hatte, the sister of Cenwald, Maeg hath for his 
wife at Weligan ; and Ealdelm, the son of 
Herethrythe, married the daughter of Tate. 
Werlaf Hatte, the father of Werstan, was the 
rightful possessor of Hsethfelda, &c." 

This document, which is numbered 1356 in 
Mr. Kemble's collection, is without a date, but 
has every appearance of being earlier than the 
Conquest, and if so, Hatt is the oldest surname 
we have on record. 

But at a much earlier period we may observe 
a sort of approach to a family name in particular 
instances. Mr. Kemble (Names, Surnames, and 
Nic-names of the Anglo-Saxons), refers to the 
manner in which the first word of a comjjound is 
reproduced in some Anglo-Saxon genealogies. 
** I think it evident that a great family often de- 
sired to perpetuate among its branches a noble 
name, which was connected with the glories of 



• Wlut a curious name this would be in English — "White Hatt I" 



INTRODUCTION. 15 

the country, and had been distinguished in the 
arts of war or peace, by mihtary ]3rowess or suc- 
cessful civil government. ... Of the seven 
sons of JEthelfrith, king of Northumberland, five 
bore names compounded with Os, thus Oslaf 
Oslac, Oswald, Oswin, and Oswidu. In the suc- 
cessions of the same royal family we find the male 
names Osfrith, Oswine, Osric, Osraed, Oswulf, 
Osbald, and Osbeorht, and the female name 
Osthryth : and some of these are repeated seve- 
ral times." Here Os, which signifies demi-god, is 
a sort of family title, and contains a claim to a 
divine lineage. And the various compounds 
Oslaf, Oslac, &c., seem to be formed with a view 
of preserving this title, and at the same time giv- 
ing distinctive names, by adding to it suffixes in 
common use. 

But in the Polyptyque de I'Abbe Irminon, 
compiled in the time of Charlemagne, I find still 
stronger instances of the individual yearning after 
a family name. Thus a man called Hildebodus 
gives to his two sons the names of Hildoardus 
and Hildebodus, and to his daughter the name of 
Hildeberga. One Nodalricus calls his son Nodal- 
gis, and his two daughters Nodalgrima and 
Nodal trudis. In other cases the mother's name 
shares in the family nomenclature. Thus, a man s 
name being Ermengardus, and his wife's Sicle- 
verga, one son is called Ermengaudus after his 
father, and the other Sicledulfus after his mother. 
In another instance, a man s name being Ercan- 



1 6 INTRODUCTION. 

fredus, and his wife's Ermena, the two sons are 
called Ercanricus and Ercanradus after the father, 
and of the two daughters one is called Ercantru- 
dis after the father, and the other Ermenberga 
after the mother. 



CHAPTER II. 



SIMPLE FORMS. 

As the basis of the etymological system which 
it is my object in the present work to construct, 
must be taken the class of names which consist 
of a single word, without any other modification 
than the vowel-endinsf usual in men's names. 
This class of names we may presume to be the 
most ancient of all — perhaps indeed it may have 
been originally the most common, though in the 
earliest Teutonic records that we possess, we find 
a decided preponderance of compounded names. 
At the same time, the remark of Miss Yonge that 
Teutonic names " were almost all compounds of 
two words," is certainly too strong. 

These names appear very rarely indeed in 
ancient times without the ending a, i, or o, though 
at present in the family names both of England 
and Germany, it is very frequently lost. Thus 
we have variously, with and without such end- 
ing, the names Ell, Elley, and Ella, Coll, 
CoLLEY, and Colla, Hann, Hanney, and 
Hanna, Mile, Miley, and Milo. When I 
further adduce Bill, Billy, Billow, Pill, Pil- 
ley. Pillow, as variations of one single name, 
with and without this ending, it will be seen how 
great a revolution my theory, if it can be sus- 

c 



18 SIMPLE FORMS. 

tained, must create in the received notions on the 
subject. 

In the next place we have to consider what 
was the value of this termination. We know 

that the Anglo-Saxon had the property, by the 
addition of a to a noun, of forming another word 
implying connection with it. Thus from scip, 
a ship, is formed scipa, a sailor, — from hus, a 
house, husa, a domestic. This principle is more 
fully carried out in proper names ; by the ad- 
dition of the Teutonic terminations a, i, or o, a 
name would be formed out of a noun, or an ad- 
jective, or a verb. And it is still a living prin- 
ciple among us. Thus, when we hear a man with 
a remarkable nose called in vulgar parlance 
*' Nosey," we have a name formed according to 
Teutonic analogy. Nurse-maids carry it still 
further, and form a name out of a verb — thus 
a child given to screaming they would call 
" Screamy.'' This prmciple lies at the bottom of 
Teutonic names. And thus it is that a man from 
the South is called Southey. 

Of these three terminations a is the most 
ancient. It is that found in Gothic names, as 
Wulfila, Amala, Totila, though in after times it 
became changed among the High Germans into 
the weaker form o. It also prevailed among the 
Old Saxons, and descended from them to the 
Anglo-Saxons. But among both, the weaker 
ending i was also common, and it is evident from 
the names in Domesday and in the Liber Vitse of 



SIMPLE FORMS. 19 



Durham that there was a large infusion of it 
among the tribes who settled in this country. 
In the latter record, for instance, we find such 
names as Tydi, Bynni, Terri, Betti, Tilli, Cuddi, 
Cynni, Locchi, every one of which is still existing 
at the present day. Indeed this is the form 
which is most in accordance with the genius of 
the English language ; that is to say, if we had 
to form names now, we would, as it appears to 
me, form them in that manner. And as this end- 
ing is now much more common in Enghsh names 
than the reo^ular Ano^lo-Saxon form a, it seems to 
me very probable that the process of change from 
a into i may have been still going on. The end- 
ing in is also not uncommon in our early his- 
tory ; in Domesday, for instance, we have Dodo, 
Baco, Bugo, Odo, Wido, Heppo ; and tliere are 
not a few still remaining among our family 
names. 

The termination in a sometimes appears in its 
simple form, as in Colla, Ella, Saxon names 
without change — sometimes in the form of ay, as 
in Hannay and Hayday. The termination in i 
is sometimes y, as in Brandy — sometimes ey, as 
in Attey — sometimes ie, as in Lockie. The ter- 
mination m appears most frequently in its 
simple form, as in Haddo, Cutto, but sometimes 
in oe, as in Pardoe, sometimes in oh, as in Scot- 
TOH, and sometimes in ow, as in Hadow. 



I 



CHAPTER III. 



DIMINUTIVES. 

A diminutive in the language implies small- 
ness Thus inanneibi« is a little man -streamZe* 
a little stream— satchel a little sack. But in pro- 
per names. I take it-at least as the general rule 
Lthat the sense is that of aifection or familiarity 
expressed through the medium of smallness. ^ 

The English language is not strong m dimmu- 
tives • in this respect the Scottish language, 
which in such a phrase as " wee bit lassie, can 
string three diminutives together, has much more 
power of expression. English names, on the 
other hand, are very rich, both in the number and 
variety of their diminutives, almost every ieu- 
tonic form being represented. 

The principal diminutive endings contained m 
our proper names are, according to my estimate, 
seven, viz., that in h, that iri ^. that m Im, that m 
lin, that in s, that in ns, and that m m There 
arecertam other endings, elsewhere referred to, 
which may be in some cases diminutives. 

The diminutive in k, eh or ock is common to 
all the Germanic branch. Hence from Gabe we 
have Gaeeick, from Love we have LovicK, from 



DIMINUTIVES. '2\ 

Fiz we have Physic.^'^ From Jelly we liave 
Jellicoe, from Sim we have SiMCO — these have 
the old German termmation in o. From Mann 
we have Mannico and Mann ak ay, with the two 
terminations in o and a ; from Willey we have 
WiLKiE (Williki) with the termination in i. 

The French diminutive in et appears to some 
extent in our language to have superseded the 
Saxon form in ec. Thus we use linnet mstead of 
the Ang.-Sax. linece. But there is a continual 
tendency among the uneducated to substitute — 
or rather to retain — the old form. Thus wdaen 
our friend Jeames, of immortal memory, con- 
tributed to the pages of Punch what he was 
pleased to call a " sonnick" — he merely substi- 
tuted one diminutive for another. Let us then 
forbear contempt when we hear this vulgar form 
— it is a relic of that stern old struggle which 
preserved us our glorious language. 

The diminutive in Z, el or il is common to both 
the Germanic and Scandinavian branches. In 
the latter, as well as in the English language, it 
is much used in verbs. In all such words as 
quarrel, wrangle, squabble, scuffle, shuffle, wriggle, 
higgle, smuggle, grumble, tinkle, tipple, the sense 
of pettiness is more or less prominent. In this 
form, from Benn we have Bennell, from Dunn 
we have Bunnell, from Hase we have Hasell. 



* Here is an instance of the way in which names turn up, and missing links 
are supplied. In the former edition I had to say "from an old German Fizo we 
have PHYbicK." But there comes a new directory, and it brings us an English Fiz. 



22 DIMINUTIVES. 

From Barr, Barry, Barrow, we have Bar- 
RELL, Barley, Barlow.*" Grimm refers to an 
Old German Kunilo as a diminutive of E/Uno ; we 
have a name, Bunicles, which seems to be a 
double diminutive, viz., this and the former com- 
bined. This double form obtains sometimes in 
Old High German. 

The diminutive in hin is of later growth, and 
is more common in Modern German than in Old 
German names. It is not, as has been supposed, 
cognate with German kind, child, but is more 
probably formed by the addition of a phonetic n 
to the diminutive in k. From Dunn we have 
DuNKiN, from Benn we have Benkin, from 
Parr we have Parkin, from Will we have 
Wilkin, &c. 

The diminutive in lin is probably formed in a 
similar manner to the preceding by the addition 
of a phonetic n to the diminutive in I. Hence we 
have Cattlin, Tomlin, Evelyn, &c., and in the 
form ling, which also appears both in ancient and 
modern names, Butling, Watling, Bowling, &c. 
Neither the diminutive in kin, nor that in lin, are, 
like the more ancient forms in eh and el, found 
with the endings a, i, or o (except with the first 
as a female ending.) 

The diminutive in s, like those in k and I, is 
of great antiquity, being found in the name 
Cotiso, of a Dacian mentioned in Borace. This 



♦ The endings in ley and low, though sometimes from this diminutive, are 
doubtless in some cases local, from ley, a meadow, and from low, a mound. 



DIMINUTIVES. 23 

name — elsewliere referred to — I take to be a 
Hiofli German form of the later name Godizo, and 
to be still surviving in our Godsoe. From the 
Old German names Milo, Willo, Walo, Rico are 
formed with this diminutive Milizo, WiKzo, 
Walizo, Richizo, Avhence our Mtllis, Willis, 
Wallis, Riches. I think also that this diminu- 
tive is frequently represented in our names simply 
by a final s, and that Mills, Wills, Walls, 
Ricks are probably the same as the above, 
though an 6^ final is no doubt often added only 
phonetically. With the ending in i we find in 
Domesday Copsi and Brixi (Bricsi), which we still 
have as Copsey and Brixey. A Saxon bishop 
of Worcester was called Leofsy, and an archbishop 
of York Cynsy ; these two names still exist as 
LovESY and Kinsey. But there enters here an 
element of doubt on account of these Saxon names 
sometimes appearing with, the ending si or sy, and 
sometimes with sige, as if from sig, victory. Thus 
the Archbishop Cynsy signs in a charter as 
Cynsige ; Wynsy, bishop of Lichfield, appears as 
Winsige ; Albsi as ^Ifsige, &c. Has the guttu- 
ral been added in the one case, or has it been lost 
in the other '? The former supposition would be 
most in accordance with analogy, for as diminu- 
tives, Cynsy, Wynsy, Albsi, Leofsy would corres- 
pond with the Old Germ, names Cuniza, Winizo, 
Albizo, and Luviz. 

Occasionally, though very rarely, the form s 
becomes sc in ancient names. More frequently 



24 DIMINUTIVES. 

in English names, as Burnish, Mellish, Var- 
nish, for it is in accordance with the character of 
the language. Indeed, I am inclined to think 
that the diminutive in question is that which we 
still use in adjectives, as smalKs^ and brown^s^. 

The ending 7is I take also to be diminutive, 
and to be formed by the addition of a phonetic n 
to the preceding. Hence from an Old German 
Custanzo we have Custance ; from the Old 
German Cholensus we Colenso and Collins. 

The ending m, which I take to be also 
diminutive, is supposed by Forstemann, who finds 
it to prevail especially among the West Franks, 
to be in some cases of other than German origin. 
And so, in some present French names, as BoN- 
AMY and Bellamy, we can hardly help thinking 
of ami, friend. And yet, when we find this end- 
ing to prevail most extensively at present among 
Friesic names, where it can hardly be otherwise 
than German, and when we find the names BoN- 
NEMA and Ballema corresponding with the 
above, it suggests the possibihty, even for these, 
of a common German origin. Another instance 
of coincidence between the Friesic and the French 
is found in the name of the well-known tragedian 
Talma, which corresponds with the Friesic Tial- 
LEMA and TiALMA. 

Among English names we have Jessmay, 
Whitmee, Ivymey, and Wakem, which seem to 
be from this origin, and to correspond with the 
ancient names Gisoma, Widomia, Ivamus, and 



^ 



DIMINUTIVES. 25 

Wakimus quoted by Fcirstemann. To this source 
also I am inclined to refer the names Youngmay, 
MiLDMAY,^* and Crickjniay, the first of Avhich cor- , 
responds with a Friesic Jongma. and the second .^ - — 
possibly with a Friesic Mellema. ' I before took ^^?^^|^^^^^^^^^ 
the ending in these names to be from Ang.-Sax. ^g^iz^,.*^;/.^ 
ramg. Old Eng. may, maiden, for which there ^^^^^ZZ^.^0^ 
seemed a reasonable probability in each case — ^ ^ e^ 
the name Crickmay being referred to Izrieg, war, ^-.^^ _^. 
and supposed to be connected with the war- 
maidens of Odin — while the others seemed too 
natural to require explanation. But the forms in 
which this endinof is found in ancient names seem 
irreconcileable with this theory. Among other 
names from this origin may be mentioned that of 
the Dutch painter Hobbema. 

The ending sm, which is also found in some 
Frankish names, Forstemann seems more de- 
cidedly to consider as not German. But here 
again its prevalence in present Friesic names 
seems to me to militate against this opinion. Can 
it be the Ang.-Sax. smea, small, delicate, used 
like the Danish lille as in ToYelille (Dovey), 
'Rosolilla (Rosie) 1 The fact of its being anciently 
used more especially in the names of women, and 
of its always appearing in the form sina, seem 
^ rather in favour of this opinion. And the fact of 
its being added to compound names, as in the 
case of the scholar Halbertsma, stamps it with 

• Mr, Lower says [Pat. Brit.) that " the family are traced to 1147, and the 
name to Mildm§." 



Ck'„^' ^../^^ J^tititA^ ^xU^n^^^i^ ^— ^Txci^^^i^ ^^^-i.^^^ 



26 DIMINUTIVES. 

a different character to that of the other diminu- 
tives. Among the few English names which 
seem to be from this source is Balsam, which 
compares with the ancient name Balsmus. I have 
also found in Lancashire the name Erasmus ; it 
seems not to be a new name in England, for in 
the Liber Vitce there is an -<^rasmus ; it seems 
curious that in both these cases, as well as that 
of the well-known scholar, the name should be in 
the Latinized form. I rather think that the 
French name Doussamy may be from this source, 
representing the Old Frankish name Teodisma, 
and comparing with the present Friesic names 
Diudesma, Doytsema. 

The termination et, as a German ending there 
is no ground for thinking to be a diminutive. 
But as a French diminutive it is frequently added 
to German compound names, as in the French 
names Henriquet, Henriot, Bernardet, &c. 

The same rule applies to the ending in en, 
which is often added as a French diminutive to 
German names. Probably in this manner are 
formed the French names Girardin, Bernardin, 
GuiLLOTiN, Lamartine, from Gerard, Bernard, 
GuiLLOT, Lam ART, all likewise French names in 
use. Pure German names do not thus form 
diminutives out of compounds — they resolve them 
first into their simple forms — thus Willico, accord- 
ing to Pott, is a Frisian diminutive of Wilhelm. 
When therefore we find en or in added to a com- 
pound name, as in Girardin, we may, I think. 



DIMINUTIVES. 27 

take it to be the French dmiiiiutive. But when 
we find it added to a simple form, as in Wallen, 
it must be taken to be from the origin referred 
to in next chapter. 

The ending in let may probably be in some 
cases the French diminutive et added to the 
German el. But in other cases it is no doubt the 
second part of a compound name. 

There is no doubt that in the English language 
ey or ie is a diminutive form. It is more particu- 
larly common in the Lowland Scotch, which has 
such words as doggie, monsie, lassie, dearie. It 
is of Teutonic origin, and occurs also in the Dutch 
and in the Swiss. Hence might be such names 
as MiNNEY, Deary. But more probably they 
are only the ending of men's names in i. 

The ending in cock, as in Hancock, Wilcock, 
is included by Mr. Lower among diminutives. 
It is found in French names as well as Enghsb, 
as, for instance, in Balcoq, Billecoq, Vilcocq, 
Videcocq. But nothing that I have met v^dth 
in the study of ancient names helps me to throw 
any further light upon the subject. 



CHAPTER IV. 



PHONETIC ADDITION S. 

By a phonetic addition we mean something 
which is added to a word only for the sake of 
sound, and which leaves the sense exactly where 
it was before. There are two kinds of phonetic 
additions common in Teutonic names — one in 
the middle of a word, and the other at the end, 
the former occurring only in compound, and the 
latter only in simple names. 

The favourite sound employed at the end of a 
word is n, and thus from the Old German names 
Godo, Hatto, Lando, Waldo, Aldo, Baldo, are 
formed Godino, Hattin, Landina., Waldin, Aldini, 
Baldin ; and the corresponding English names 
GoDDEN, Hatten, Landon, Walden, Alden, 

BOLDEN. 

Now as proper names are of course subject to 
all the tendencies of the language to which they 
belong, we may expect to find in the popular 
speech a parallel principle to that which I have 
assumed for names. Or rather, I should say, it 
is because I find this principle in the popular 
speech, that I feel warranted in applying it to 
proper names. Now, if we compare the German 
rabe with the English raven, and conversely, the 
English bow with the German hogen, we find that 



VIIONETIC ADDITIONS. 29 

while, ill meaning, the two words are in each case 
perfectly identical, there is an ending added which 
serves as a finish or rounding off of the word. 
So also in the provincial word ratteu for rat, and 
many other cases. 

A similar office is also performed by the letter 
r. Thus to the simple form contained in the 
Gothic ivato, while all the Scandinavian dialects 
add n, as in Swedish vatten, all the German add 
r, as in EngHsh ivater. We have examples in our 
own provincial dialect ; for, as Mr. Latham ob- 
serves, " wolfer, a wolf, hiuiker, a haunch, flitcher, 
a flitch, teamer, a team, fresher, a frog, are north 
country forms of the present English." The end- 
ing er in our names (so far as they are derived 
from Old Teutonic names), is generally to be 
referred to Gothic hari, warrior, but there are 
cases in which the form of the ancient name is 
incompatible with this derivation. At the same 
time, the phonetic origin of r is not so clear when 
it occurs as an ending, as when it occurs in the 
middle of a name. 

When a phonetic addition is made in the 
middle of a name, it comes in between the two 
words of the compound, and generally consists of 
one of the liquids, I, n, or r. Thus Godulf be- 
comes Godenulf, whence, I take it, our Good- 
enough. So Godehar becomes Godelhar, whence 
probably the French Godelier. Godeman be- 
comes Goderman, whence the French Gauder- 
MEN ; and also Godalmand, whence perhaps our 



30 PHONETIC ADDITIONS. 

GoDLiMAN. Thus when I find the names Syca- 
MOKE and SiCKLEMORE, the former of which cor- 
responds with the Old German name Sicumar, I 
know how to account for the second, since, though 
the particular name to correspond does not turn 
up, I see that the phonetic I is very frequent in 
the ancient names of that group. So also, finding 
the ancient name Siginiu, I can at least suggest 
an origin for Sigouhney. The above forms of 
phonetic addition seem to be found chiefly in 
Old Frankish names. 

C 



CHAPTER V. 



PATRONYMICS. 

Of the two patronymic forms, ing and son, the 
former is more properly German, and the latter 
Scandinavian. The form ing was discontinued 
about the time of the Conquest, and consequently 
all the names in which it appears are carried back 
to Anglo-Saxon times. (In some few cases the 
termination ing may be local, from ing a meadow, 
and not a patronymic.) Many apparently adjec- 
tive and participial forms, such as Willing, Liv- 
ing, Dining, Panting, are from this origin, the 
simple forms bemg found as Will, Livey, Dine, 
Pant. 

The termination son is a characteristic feature 
of all the Scandinavian countries, while in Ger- 
many on the other hand it is of comparatively 
rare occurrence. So well is this distinction under- 
stood that a writer on " Nationality and Language 
in the Duchy of Sleswick and South Jutland'' 
advances the frequency of names ending in son, as 
an argument for the Danish character of the 
population. Of the twelve most common names 
in the directory of Copenhagen, there are only 
two, MoUer and Smidt, that are not patronymics. 
The most common of all are Jansen, Johnsen, or 
Hansen, Petersen, Andresen or Andersen, and 



32 PATRONYMICS. 

Nielsen. Verstegan, in his " Kestitution of 
decayed intelligence," refers to a tradition " among 
some of our country people that those whose sur- 
names end in son, as Johnson, Tliomson, Nichol- 
son, Davison, Saunderson, and the like, are 
descended of Danish race." Either he mistakes 
the tradition, or the tradition overstates the truth. 
Some of these are no douht Scotch, and others 
are German — though the termination itself may 
be of Scandinavian origin. Many of our names, 
however, correspond altogether with current 
Danish names — as Hanson, Nanson, Jephson, 
Erickson, Gunson, Iverson, Jesson, Hebson, 
HiPSON, LowsoN, Anderson, with Hansen, Nan- 
sen, Jepsen, Ericksen, Gunnesen, Iversen, Jessen> 
Ebsen, Ipsen, Lauesen, Andersen, names common 
over the whole of Denmark. It does not follow 
that all the above names are exclusively Scan- 
dinavian, but I do take it that the prevalence in 
England of names in so7i is a relic of the Danish 
conquests. 

It is to be observed that when a name ends 
in .9, we cannot be certain of the patronymic form. 
Thus Jesson and Masson may not be Jess-son 
and Mass-son, but Jess-en, and Mass-en. 

The final s so frequently added to names, as 
Wffls for WiU, Watts for Watt, Box for Bock, 
may be sometimes a patronymic form. It is so 
used in Frisian names, according to Pott. In 
other cases I take it to be a diminutive, see p.- 22. 
But in the majority of cases, and particularly 



PATRONYMICS. 33 

when it is added to compound names, I take it to 
be merely a phonetic addition. 



£ 



CHAPTER VI. 



COMPOUNDS. 

Almost all the names which occur in simple 
forms occur also compounded with other words. 
The extent to which these compounds are trans- 
latable, or in other words, to which they have a 
meaning, seems to me an exceedingly doubtful 
point. Some of our highest authorities hold the 
affirmative opinion. Thus Mr. Kemble, speaking 
of Anglo-Saxon names, says, " These compound 
words are translatable, intelligible, in other words 
their conjoint meaning depends upon the separate 
meanings of the words which unite to form them.^^ 
And Mr. Turner, on a similar principle, translates 
Anglo-Saxon names — thus JEthelwulf, " the noble 
wolf," Dunstan, " the mountain stone," &c. The 
earlier German writers, as Wiarda and Beneken, 
certainly followed the same rule, and I think that 
the principle is also recognised by the modern 
school of German pliilologists. I therefore feel 
bound to use all deference in suggesting a doubt 
whether Teutonic compound names are in all 
cases translatable, and formed with a meaning. I 
am of opinion, however, that even simple names 
were in most cases bestowed in ancient times 
without reference to their meaning. There can 
be no doubt that the first man who was called 



COMPOUNDS. 35 

Wulf was named directly after the animal. But 
of the thousands of men who were called Wulf in 
the long centuries after, I think that the most 
part must have been called after other men. 
Much on the same prmciple, I take it, as that on 
which baptismal names are given now they were 
given then — sometimes after a relative or friend, 
sometimes after a name of popular renown — the 
word itself becoming in such cases, as regards 
sense, an abstraction. If this theory be correct, 
it will follow as a matter of course that compound 
names must also have been formed without a 
meaning. 

It is true that in many cases a certain sort of 
sense may be screwed out of such compounds, yet 
even to get any kind of a meaning we are often 
driven to great shifts. Thus though Frithu-ric 
as "powerful in peace" may be held to have a 
sufficient meaning, yet Frithu-gar, as " the spear 
of peace" would have to be explained in a sort of 
metaphorical sense. Again Frithu-bald, " bold in 
peace," seems rather satirical. And as to Fride- 
gunt, "the peace of war," and the Old Norse 
Snae-frid, " the peace of snow," let those find a 
meaning who can. Mr. Turner appears to see 
this difficulty when he observes that Anglo-Saxon 
names are frequently " rather expressive of cap- 
rice than of appropriate meaning." 

But to my mind the strongest argument 
against giving a meaning to compound names is 
not so much the difficulty of making sense in any 



36 COMPOUNDS. 

particular case, as the fact that there is a certain 
set of words with which almost all names are com- 
pounded. And it does not seem consistent with 
reason to expect that promiscuous words, with 
all sorts of meanings, should make sense when 
compounded with a set of a dozen or twenty par- 
ticular words. 

But if compounds were not formed with a 
meaning, what was their value or intention '? One 
of the priaciples upon which they might be given 
may perhaps be traced in Old Norse names. 
Thus Ketel was a very common Scandinavian 
name ; its meaning can hardly be anything else 
than English " kettle," and Grimm suggests a 
mythological origin. Ulf, signifying wolf, and 
Bjorn, signifying bear, were also common names. 
In Ulf ketel and in Ketelbjorn, these names are 
severally joined together. Now there can be no 
possible sense or meaning in such compounds as 
these — they are in fact not two words joined 
together, but two names joined together. And 
the principle upon which such names were formed 
might be the same as that on which a father 
might now call his son John Henry Smith, com- 
bining the names of two relatives, or persons 
whom he respected. Or it might be for the sake 
of distinction — Ulf and Ketel both being common 
names — Ulfketel would, without travelling out 
of the customary range, be sufficiently distinctive. 
It seems probable that many German names are, 
on the same principle, not two words compounded. 



COMPOUNDS. 37 

but ratlier two names joined together. Such, for 
instance, as those whicli contain the names of two 
animals, as Arnulf, Ebarulf, Wolfpirin, Wolfraban, 
respectively " Eagle-wolf," " Boar-wolf," Wolf- 
bear," "Wolf-raven." All these were common 
names singly. 

Again, perhaps another principle may be traced 
in such a name as the Old German Zeizolf. This, 
if we translate it, means " darling wolf" But if 
we suppose " wolf to have been used as a common 
name, and without reference to its meaning, then 
the idea of darlino^ would attach rather to the 
child that was called Wolf than to the abstract 
meaning of wolf. 

But that there were compound names with a 
meaning I do not for a moment doubt, only it 
seems to me that it was not the universal, nor, 
perhaps, the ordinary rule. 

Again, there are many names which are simply 
compound words taken bodily out of the language. 
Thus, Garwood is the Anglo-Saxon garwudu, 
" spear-wood,"^a poetical or pleonastic expression 
for a spear. And Askw^ith is "ash- wood," a 
similar expression for a spear — spears being made 
of that w^ood. So also Skipwith, " ship-wood," 
a ship. (With, as compared with wood, is the 
Gothic form instead of the Saxon.) Again, 
BoNiGER seems to be from the Anglo-Saxon 
hon-gar, a fatal spear. These, then, are not com- 
pound names, but compound words adopted as 
names. 



38 COMPOUNDS. 

Almost all the words which appear in com- 
pounds are found also as substantive names, and 
will therefore find their places under the various 
heads into which I have distributed them. But 
for the sake of facility of reference, I introduce in 
this place a list of the principal terminations of 
those English names, which may be referred to 
ancient compounds. 

Am, lam, as in Willam, Wilijam, Hillam, 
HiLLiAM. Ang.-Sax. helm, helmet. This 
was a common postfix, but in our names it 
is difficult to separate it from the local 
ending, ham, home, and from the ending m 
referred to p. 24. It is probable, however, 
that more names than are suspected are from 
this origin. The French generally have it as 
aume or ea.ume. Hence the French 
Allaume, Alleaxjme, are probably the 
same as our Allam, Allom, Allum. 

Aud, Aut as in Eenaud, Renaut. And, the 
Gothic form of Ang.-Sax. ead, prosperity. 
This is very common in French names, but 
in English, following the Saxon form, it 
becomes more frequently et or ot, and is very 
liable to mix up with other words. 

Be7't, as in Herbert. Ang.-Sax. heort, bright, 
illustrious. Pert, as in Rupert, is the High 
Germ. form. 

Bold, Ball, Ble, as in Eumbold, Rumball, 
Rumble. Ang.-Sax. bald, bold. 



COMPOUNDS. 39 

Bull in many cases is the same as the above. 

Thus our Claringbull is no doubt the same 

name as Claringbold. 
Bault, in French names, as Herbault, Gerbault, 

the same as bold. 
Brand, as in Hildebrand, Gillibrand. Ang.- 

Sax. brand, sword, Eng. " brand." 
Brown, as in Gorebrown, Phillibrown. Either 

brown, fuscus, or cognate with Eng. " burn" 

in the sense of fiery or impetuous. 
Burn, as in Osburn. Old Norse hjorn. Old 

Germ, her 171, bear. 
Pern, as in Asperne, is the High Germ. form. 
Butt, Bott, Body, as in Garbutt, Talbot, Pea- 
body. Anglo-Saxon boda. Old Norse hodi. 

Germ, bote, envoy or messenger. 
Cough, Copp, as in Ayscough, Whincopp, I take 

to be Ang.-Sax. c6f, strenuous. 
Day, as in Loved ay, Hockaday.. Anglo-Saxon 

dceg, day. Grimm suggests the sense of 

brightness, glory. 
Dew, Die, Dy, as in Ingledew, Purdie, Abdy, 

French Abbadie. Old High German die, 

servant. 
Er, Ery, as in Warner, Gunnery, Hillary. 

Har, hari, warrior. 
Forth, as in Garforth. Perhaps Anglo-Saxon 

ferhth, life, spirit. Perhaps in some cases a 

corruption of frith, peace. There is also a 

root, farth, faerd, travel, but it is uncertain 

whether it occurs as a termination. 



40 COMPOUNDS. 

Fred, Frey, as in Manfred, Humfrey. Anglo- 
Saxon yri^^, peace. 

Gar, Ger, Ker, as in Edgar, Eodger, Harker. 
Gar, ger, her, spear. 

Gill, as in Harqill. Old High German gisaU 
hostage. Or local, from " gill/' a ravine. 

Good, as in Hargood, Bidgood. God, deus, 
good, bonus, and perhaps Goth as the 
people's name, are difficult to separate. 

Hard, Ard, as in Bernhard, Bernard. Ang.- 
Sax. heard, hard, strong. 

Kiss, as in Atkiss, Hadkiss, Watkiss, is from 
gis, which Grimm thinks the same as gisal, 
hostage. 

Lake, Loch, as in Wedlake, Havelock. Pro- 
bably Ang.-Sax. lacan. Old Norse leiha, to 
play, in a war-like sense. 

Land, Lond, as in Garland, Dolland. Ang.- 
Sax. land, Eng. land. It is also no doubt 
sometimes a local termination. And also 
sometimes a corruption of lind, probably 
shield. 

Let, as in Hamlet, Harlot, may be from Ang.- 
Sax. Idd, Old Sax. led, in the sense of 
terrible. In some cases it may be a diminu- 
tive. 

Love, Liff, as in Cutlove, Manlove, Ratliff. 
Ang.-Sax. leof, dear. 

Man, as in Harman, Redman. Ang.-Sax. man, 
Eng. man. 



OOMPOTJNDS. 41 

Mer, Morey as in Mutimer, Phillimore. Goth. 

mer, Aiig.-Sax. mdr, famous. 
Mot, as in Willmot, Hickmot, Old Higli Germ. 
m6t. Mod. German miifh, courage. 

Mond, Ment, as in Redmont, Garment. Ang.- 
Sax. muiid, protection. 

Nanty Nan, as in Remnant, Pennant, Quil- 
LINAN. Goth. naniJijan, to dare. 

Ney, as in Rodney, Goldney. Ang.-Sax. niw, 
Dan. and Swed. ny, new, in the probable 
sense of young. - <^ /r 

Not, Net, Nut, as in Harnott, Harnett, Dil- 
NUTT. Ang.-Sax. ndth, bold. 

Ram, as in Bertram, Outram, Ingram, seems, 
from the ancient forms in which it appears, 
to be a corruption of lirahan, raven. 

Rand, as in Eng. Bertrand, Walrond. Ang.- 
Sax. rand, shield. 

Red Rat, Ret, as in Alfred, Tancred, Garrett. 
Ang.-Sax. red. Old High Germ, rat, counsel 
Some terminations ofivright, as Arkwright, 
are evidently corruptions of rat. But there 
is also an ancient termination rit, apparently 
of the same meaning as Eng. ride. 

Rick, Rich, Ridge, Ry, as in Frederick, Ald- 
RiCH, Aldridge, Baldry. Ang.-Sax. rice. 
Old High Germ, inclvi, powerful. In some 
cases hridge, as in Groombridge, may be 
from this origin. 

E 



42 COMPOUNDS. 

i2on, i?e7i, as in Waldkon, Calderon, Children. 

This termination, which is exclusively femi- 
nine, Grimm derives from rhi, socia, arnica. 

In French names it is often a corruption of 

raban, raven. 
Sant, Sent, as in Hersant, Millicent. Old 

High Germ, sind, via. Or perhaps in some 

cases a corruption of sivind, vehement. 
Stone, Stin, as in Freestone, Garstin. Ang\- 

Sax. stdn, stone, in the sense of firmness. 
Thus, Tuss, Tiss, as in Malthus, Feltuss, 

Anstiss. Goth, thius, servant. See also 

dew and thew. 
Thew, as in Willthew. Anglo-Saxon theoiv, 

servant, corresponding with Goth, thius, and 

High Germ. dio. 
Ulph, Olph, as in Biddulfh, Eandolph, Must- 

OLPH. Ang.-Sax. toidf, Old Norse ulf(r), 

wolf 
Ward, Wart, as in Howard, Seward, Tewart. 

Ang.-Sax. iveai^d, guardian. 
Wold, as in Oswald. Ang.-Sax. weald, power. 

The terminations in old are from the same 

origin. 
Way, Wick, Vey, Vig, as in Hathway, Harvey, 

Haryig. Wig, wih, war. The termination 

in wick is probably in most cases local. 
Win, Wine, as in Baldwin, Brightwine. 

Ang.-Sax. wine, friend. 
Wood, With, Weed, as in Gurwood, Askwith, 

Digweed. Ang.-Sax. umdti, Goth, vid(s). 



COMPOUNDS. 43 

wood. Forstemann also suggests Old High 
Germ, ivit, wide, whicli may obtain in certain 
cases. This ending is no doubt also often 
local. 

Out of the above list there are many which do 
not often occur, and the range of really common 
terminations is not more than about twenty. 

The terminations a, ^, o, are not found in 
compound names, and such names as Ricardo, 
Alphonso, Grimaldi, though of German origin, 
are Italian or Spanish as regards the termination. 



CHAPTER VII. 



LETTER CHANGES. 

The greater part of the letter changes which 
occur in our names are to be accounted for by the 
differences of Teutonic dialects, and, in particular, 
by the variations between High and Low 
German. The High German prefers aspirated 
and hard — the Low German soft and liquid 
sounds. The former may be taken to be repre- 
sented generally by the present German, and the 
latter by the present English, though it is to be 
observed that the standard language of Germany 
does not present the extreme phases of High 
German. Take, for instance, the range of names 
of which the root is Germ, gehan, Eng. give, and 
from which we have Gieve, Gibb, Gipp, and 
Kipp. The two former, Gieve and Gibb, show the 
form contained in English and in German, the 
difference between which is a Low German v for 
a High German h. But in the name Gipp we 
have another point of difference in favour of the 
High German, viz., p for h. While the last name 
Kipp shows the extreme point to which, in that 
word, the High German can go, by changing g 
into k. In addition to the four forms above 
quoted, we have also four others, viz., Jebb, Jipp, 



LETTER CHANGES. 45 

KiBBE, and Chipp, the last form being, I think, 
Franklsh. Nor yet do these eight names exhaust 
the permutations of this Httle word — there being 
also, as will be seen in its place, a vowel change 
which scarcely comes within the range of the 
present chapter. 

Another of the most common interchanges is 
that of d and t. The latter is High German, as 
in Germ, laid, Eng. loud, Germ, hette, Eng. bed. 
Hence we have Dodd and Todd, Dandy and 
Tandy, Dennison and Tennyson, &c. 

The High German frequently changes t into s 
or z, as in Germ, siiss, Eng. siveet, Germ, scdz, Eng. 
salt. Hence our Suse and Susans may corres- 
pond as High German forms with Sweet and 
Sweeten. And our name Salt may be the 
same as the Mod. Germ, name Salz. So also our 
Grote and Grose may be respectively Low 
German and High German forms of great. 

Another High German form is sch for s. This 
is very common in Mod. German names — thus, 
German Schmidt, Eng. Smith, German Schwann, 
Eng. Swan, Germ. Schneider, Eng. Snider, Dutch 
Snyders. This form is very uncommon in English 
names, because it is of comparatively modem 
growth in Germany. 

These are for the most part the common varia- 
tions of High and Low German. But there are 
other peculiarities of ancient dialects which are 
not without their effect upon our names. In the 
Frankish dialect of the Merovingian period it is a 



46 LETTER CHANGES. 

peculiarity to change h at tlie beginning of a 
word into ch, or sometimes into simple c. Hence 
the names of the Merovingian kings Childibert 
and Childeric for Hildibert and Hilderic. This 
seems to be the origin of some of our names, such 
as Chillman (in the Hundred KoUs Childman), 
for Hildman — Charm an for Harm an — Chil- 
dren for Hilderannus or Hilderuna — Chillmaid 
for Hildimod, &c. 

This peculiarity of the Frankish dialect has 
had the effect of prefixing c to many names begin- 
ning with I and r, in the following manner. 
Several of these names anciently began with hi 
and lir : this h was aspirated, or in other words, 
it had something of a guttural sound. The 
Frankish dialect, increasing the guttural, made 
this h into a c. In English, this guttural sound 
of h at the beginning of a word is altogether lost. 
On the other hand, when it has been so com- 
pletely defined as to become a c, it has preserved 
itself by its own strength. The result is that we 
have in English the same names variously, as 
Croad and Rode, Crotch and Eotch, Crook 
and EooK, Croager and Roger, Cloud and 
Loud, &c. Hence also the French names Clod- 
OMiR and Clovis still existing, and the Christian 
name Clotilde. 

Another point to be noticed is that in some 
German dialects g is prefixed to words beginning 
with w. We have an instance of this in the name 
of our gracious Sovereign, Guelph for Welp. So 



LETTER CHANGES. 47 

we have Gwillan for Willan, Gwillam for 
William, Gw alter for Walter, &c. Hence 
comes, I take it, the name of the Itahan painter 
GuiDO, corresponding with our Widow. Perhaps 
also GuizoT, if it be the same as a Guizo found 
in the 11th century in the Niederrlieinisches 
Urkundenbuch. The High German prefixing c 
instead of g, gives us many names beginning with 
q (which is only c added to iv). Thus we have 
QuiN for Winn, Quarrell for Warrell, 
QuARRiER for Warrier, Quill for Will, Quil- 
LAN for Willan, Quilliams for Williams. 
Hence comes Quillinan from an Old German 
Willinant. Hence also Quaritch, known to 
bibliophilists, from an Old German Wericho, also 
found, with the other prefix, as Guerich. 

On the other hand, as g is sometimes added, 
so it is much more frequently lost. As a ter- 
mination this is very commonly the case in 
English, as in Anglo-Saxon lag, English " law," 
Ang.-Sax. hog, Eng. " bow." Hence as names we 
have Wagg and Way, Bogue and Bowe, Bugg 
and Bew ; perhaps Begg and Bee, Bigg and 
Bye. But this occurs also in Anglo-Saxon and 
other ancient dialects. Indeed the g in such cases 
can hardly be said to belong to the root ; it does 
not seem to occur in the parent Sanscrit, but to 
be a hardening of the sound which has accrued 
in the Gothic languages. Again, g between two 
vowels, or between a vowel and a liquid, is very 
commonly dropped. Thus we have Megen and 



48 LETTER CHA:NGES. 

Mayne, Bagley and Bailey, Beagle and 
Beale, Buglea and Bewley, Dagley, and 
Daly. This again is common also in ancient 
names — thus we have Old German names Megin- 
hard and Mainhard, Beginhard and Bainard, 
Baganar and Beinher,, Bagingar and Baingar. 
Hence our Maynard, Benard, Bayner, and 
Banger. 

Another change of frequent occurrence in Old 
Frankish names is that of 7i, before h, j9, or m, into 
on. We may trace the same tendency among the 
French at present in their change of Edinburg 
into Edimbourg. The few names that we have 
in which it occurs, such as Gimbert for Ginbert, 
Wimble for Winbald, may not, however, always 
be due to French influence, but to a natural prin- 
ciple of euphony. It is more common, however, 
m French than in English, as in Masimbert for 
our Massingberd. 

The vowel changes are less capable of being 
reduced to definite rules. But a,s a general prin- 
ciple the Low German prefers simple vowels, 
while the High German is partial to diphthongs. 
Take the German tauhe, English ''"dove." The 
difference here is, first, d for t — secondly, v for h 
— and thirdly, the simple vowel for the diphthong. 
So our name Strtjtt may be the same as the 
German Strauss — ss for t, as before noted, and 
the simple vowel for the diphthong. I have before 
referred to Grose and Grote as respectively 
High and Low German forms of the same name. 



LETTER CHANGES. 49 

But the German gi^oss, great, is in some High 
German dialects grauss. So that while Grose 
and Grote are High and Low German, we have 
another name Grouse, which may be extra High 
German. 

With regard to the simple vowels, there is in 
proper names — and has been from the most 
ancient times — an interchange which it would be 
difficult to refer to any strict rules. 

But Wemhold (Deutsche Fntuen), sets forth 
something of a more definite principle, and sup- 
poses that a variation of the vowel was sometimes 
employed for the perpetuation of a family name. 
" Thus if the father had a name with a simple 
sound, the son takes the same name with an 
augmented vowel. The Germans share this 
pecuharity with the Indians (Grimms geschiclite 
der Deutschen sprache 441.^ Thus, if a German 
mother were called Ada, the daughter might be 
called Ida ; . the mother Baba, the daughter 
Buoba ; the mother Tata, the daughter Tuota ; 
the mother Wada, the daughter Wida, kc" I 
do not think, however, that this amounted to 
anything like a general principle. 

It is to be observed that the quantity of a 
vowel often varies in the same name ; thus we 
have Godding and Gooding, Godman and Good- 
man, GoDRiCH and Goodrich, Godwin and 
Goodwin, &c. We have only, for an instance of 
this, to cross the border, and we shaU often find 
Tom and Bob for Tom and Bob. 

a 



CHAPTER VIII. 



OUR NATURAL ENEMIES. 

That a large proportion of French Christian 
names, as Albert, Adolphe, Edouard, Frederic, 
Gudlaume, Henri, Robert, &c., are of German 
origin, is a point about which there can be no 
dispute. The extent to which the present family 
names of France may also be referred to a German 
origin is a subject which has not hitherto been 
investigated. A few there are, such as Arbo- 
GAST, Armengaud, Clodomir, Grimault, and 
IsAMBERT, which, as corresponding with names of 
liistorical Franks, carry their own origin on their 
front. It is not difficult, again, to trace in 
Dacbert and Degobert the name of the Frankish 
kin Of Dapfobert — in Fermond and Ferment that 
of Faramund — in Charmond and Charmont 
that of Charimund — or to find in Gombault a 
form of Gundobald less perverted than our own 
Gumboil. But the names of historical person- 
ages are few, and the comparison serves rather to 
suggest, than to fulfil an enquiry. Nor are the 
materials of investigation wanting, for in the two 
Polyp tyques whose titles I have elsewhere quoted, 
will be found a register of thousands of men and 
women of the Frankish period, and chiefly of that 
class which history allows to live and die un- 



OUR NATUBAL ENEMIES. 51 

noticed. Further, as the Frank and the Saxon, 
and all the other members of the Teuton race 
were branches of one common family, cognate in 
the names they bore as well as in the dialects 
they spoke, so all such records, of the one or of the 
other, find their mutual parallels in each other. 
The result then of the enquiry which I propose in 
these pages to make, will be to show, as I 
believe, that a very large proportion, indeed I may 
almost say the staple, of French, as of English 
names, is German in its origin. And may not 
mutual sympathies be encouraged, and mutual 
antipathies be rebuked, if it can thus be shown 
that there is more in common between the two 
races — perhaps even than is suspected by ethno- 
logists — certainly than is present to the minds of 
people in general. And why, after all, should we 
be surprised if the French turn out to be — what 
their name describes them — Franks 1 

It must not be forgotten, however, that a 
second Teutonic element, of great political im- 
portance to them and to us, has entered into the 
composition of French nationality. We shall, I 
think however, be disappomted if we expect to 
find any strongly-marked Scandinavian element 
in French names. If that element had been more 
distinct, it might have remained more conspicu- 
ous ; as it is, though it may not have been with- 
out its efiect in modifying the nomenclature, yet 
it seems essentially to have been absorbed in the 
predominant element of the Frankish. And thus. 



52 OUR NATURAL ENEMIES. 

though here and there we find names, such as 
Odin, Anquetil, Kaoul, which seem more par- 
ticularly to bespeak a northern origin, yet such 
names are not sufficient to give a character to the 
nomenclature. ^ 

With very few exceptions, I have taken the 
modern French names from the Annuaire de 
Paris, and following the analogy of the language, 
have in all cases adopted the spelling and not the 
pronunciation. 

The Frankish dialect being more nearly allied 
to the High German than to the Low, the differ- 
ences between French and. English names will, to 
a considerable extent, be the differences between 
High and Low German, as referred to in last 
chapter. Thus, though the French Christian 
name happens to be fixed as Edouard, yet the 
form most in accordance with the Frankish 
language would be Audouard. And Audouard, 
AuDEVARD, &c., is in fact the form which in 
French family names is the most common. So 
also AuDOUiN, AuDiGUiER, and Audibert, pre- 
vail rather than Edwin, Edgar, and Edbert. 

The most common ending for simple names, 
among the French, as among the Old Franks, is 
o, or with the usual superfluous letters, eau. 
Thus French Couteau corresponds, as I take it, 
with Eng. Coote — the same name with the end- 
ing and without. And as I have before observed 
that the ending in i is that which is in accordance 
with the genius of the English language, and 



OUR NATURAL ENEMIES. 53 

that, if we had to form names now, we would 
give them that ending, so the same remark 
apphes to the French and the ending in o. 

It has been remarked that names derived 
from trades are more common in France than in 
England. I should rather say that it is the ter- 
mination in e?' which is more common, and that 
among a multitude of names with this termina- 
tion there are many which accidentally coincide 
with names of trades. I do not for a moment 
doubt that there are names derived from trades 
both in France and England, but what I say is 
that in a number of cases these names may be 
accounted for — and often more satisfactorily — 
othermse. This view is confirmed by the fact 
that many French names correspond with English 
names of trades. M. de Gerville has noticed one, 
French Houelleur, English Wheeler, and he 
has been driven to the shift of supposing that "it 
was introduced into Normandy during the thirty- 
two years occupation by the English in the 
fifteenth century." Truly the French must have 
been apt to learn, or the lesson must have been 
sharply taught. For they have also Collier, 
Tanniere, Miller, Glaeser, Brazier, Krier, 
EiNGiER, Tascher, Cartier, Pottier, Pacquier, 
corresponding with our Collier, Tanner, Miller, 
Glazier, Brazier, Cryer, Einger, Tasker, 
Carter, Potter, Packer. Now my theory is 
that all these are, or may be in some cases, 
ancient compounds, and as I shall elsewhere show. 



54 OUR NATURAL ENEMIES. 

we have in almost all cases, both in French and 
English, names which contain the roots, and 
names which form other compounds. 

Eegarded from this point of view, French and 
English names mutually throw great light upon 
each other. When I doubt whether our Potter 
means a maker of pots, it very much strengthens 
my suspicion to find not only a French Pottier, 
but also Poterie, with a corroborative termina- 
tion. So when I doubt whether the French 
Notaire means a notary, an English Notter is 
at hand to back me out. 

In another point of view French and English 
names throw hght upon each other — it often 
happens that the group is more complete in one 
language than in the other, and there is always a 
doTible chance of a missing link being supplied. 

It seems natural to expect that at a transi- 
tional period in France there might be a certain 
mixing up of Teutonic and Romanic forms. And 
we find accordingly that there are some names 
which, though they run through a range of 
Teutonic compounds, do not themselves appear 
to be of Teutonic origin. Such are harh, dulc, 
just, which seem to be French or Latin, and yet 
which are found with the usual German endings, 
such as hert, hard, &c., appended to them. So 
also some words of Christian import, as Crist, 
Sanct, &c., seem to have been treated in a similar 
manner, in order to make German names of them. 
These forms, however, are not very common, and 



OUR NATURAL ENEMIES. 55 

it is not always certain that the word in question 
is not German. 

This chapter may not inappropriately be con- 
cluded by an argument to prove that the present 
ruler of the French may have a name of German 
origin — that Bonaparte in fact may be an Old 
Frankish name, come back, after long exile, to its 
native land. The case stands thus. Bonibert in 
the 7th and Bonipert in the 9 th century, appear 
as Frankish names. In that part of Italy which 
was subdued by the Franks I find the present 
Itahan name Boniperti — it is — or was — that of a 
jeweller at Turin — and there is no doubt that it 
is the same name as the Frankish Bonipert. Now 
from the same part of Italy came originally also 
the Bonapartes, and the question is simply this — 
May not the name Bonaparte be nothing more 
than an attempt to shape the other name, Boni- 
perti, to something of an Italian meaning 1 Still, 
the name may be German, and yet not Frankish, 
for the Lombards, who held that part of Italy 
■ before them, were also Germans, and may have 
had the same name Bonipert. Curiously enough 
too, firom the other side of the Atlantic the name 
comes back to us in a Saxon form, for the Bon- 
bright quoted by Mr. Bowditch — Anglo-Saxon 
briht=0\d High German per^ — is evidently the 
same as Bonipert. 

As to the etymology of the name, it may be 
taken to be from hana, bona, a slayer, and bert 
or pert, famous. 






56 OUR NATURAL ENEMIES. 

A famous slayer indeed was he who called 
men " food for powder !" 



CHAPTER IX. 



MAN AS THE TYPE OF POWER. 

There are several names of which the etymo- 
logical meaning is simply Man. And there appear 
to be some — but generally these are not so certain 
— of which the meaning is simply Woman. Into 
many of the names signifying man there enters 
no doubt something of a higher sense — that of 
manliness or heroism. And the words appear to 
be used 'par excellence, as we apply the terms 
manly and manful. Something of this sense 
appears in the hne of Burns' — 

" A man's a man for a' that." 
Still there are cases in which it is difficult to 
trace any other sense than that of mere sex. 

At the head of the Hst is Mann, which is 
in a more direct manner connected with hero- 
worship than the rest, if, as is probably the case, 
its use as a name is to be traced up to the 
Mannus of Tacitus, the fabled son of the hero or 
god Tuisco, and founder of the German nation. 
We do not, however, meet with the name in after 
times, at least in its simple form, before the 7th 
cent., though in a compound form, it is foiuid as 
early as the 4th. Two other forms are Men and 
Mon, the latter of which was Anglo-Saxon, and is 
still used in the Lowland Scotch. 

H 



Man. 



58 MAN AS THE TYPE OF POWER. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Manno, Manni, Meni, 7tli cent. Ang.-Sax. 

Mann, Manni, Mon. Eng. MAKJf, Many, Menne, Mennie, 

Homo. Mennow. Modern German Mann. French Mann, Many, 

Maneau, Menne, Meny, Meneau, Monny, Monneau. Ital. 

Manni. 

diminutives. 

Old German Mannila, Manili, 6th cent. — Anglo-Saxon 
Mannel — Eng. Mannell, Manley — Manlay, Roll of Battle 
Abbey — Modern Germ. Mannel, Mennel — French Manley, 
Menel. Old Germ. Manniko, Mannic, 9th cent. — English 
Mannico, Mannakay, Manchee, Mannix — Mod. German 
Manecke, Manneck — French Manec. Old Germ. Mannikin, 
Mennechin — Eng. Manchin. — Modern German Mannikin, 

Mannchen. 

patronymics. 

Old Friesic Manninga — English Manning — French 

Maningue. 

compounds. 

(Frid, peace) Old Germ. Manfrit — Eng. Manfred — Mod. 
German Manfried — French Manfray, Monfrat — Italian 
Manfredi. (Gar, (/er, her, spear) Old Germ. Mangar, 8th 
cent. — Eng. Manger,* Monger ? Moncur. (Here, warrior) 
English MoNERY — French Mannier, Menier, Monnier. 
(Liub, leof, dear) Old German Manaliiib, 7 th cent. — English 
Manlove. {Hard, fortis) Modern German Manhardt, 
Mannert — French Monard. {Gold, galda, virere) Old 
German Managold, 7th cent. — Eng. MANiGAULT,t Mangles 
— Mod. Germ. Mangold — French Mangal. {Wald, power) 
Old Germ. Manold, 8th cent. — ll'ench Manalt, Menault. 

In the former edition I thought that Oman 
might be from Old Norse omannr, a nobody, o 
negative and manvr, a man. But it is more pro- 
bably the same as Homan, from hoh, high. (See 

* If this is pronounced like the English word " manger," it is probably the 
same as an Old Germ. Meginger. 

t Manigault, a South Carolina name, may be of French origin, ocy^-t^ - 



MAN AS THE TYPE OF POWER. 59 

what it is to drop our li's !) Orman again, which 
I thought might be from the corresponding Ang.- 
Sax. negative particle or, is probably the same as 
an Old Germ. Oraman of uncertain meaning. 

Another word signifying a man, a male, is 
Ang.-Sax. early Old High Germ, charal. This was 
a very common name, both German and Scan- 
dinavian, and is found as early as the 7th cent., 
but it does not seem, like most other words, to 
occur often in a compound form. A notable 
exception, however, is that of the Frankish king 
Carloman, the combination in whose name of two 
words both signifjdng man, gives, as in the Old 
Norse harhnenni, the sense of hero. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Karol, Carolus, 7th cent. Ang.-Sax. Cearl. 
Old Norse Karl. Eng. Carl, Carley, Charles, Carroll, q^^^^ 
Carloss, Carless (Carolus ?) Mod. German Karl. French Man. 
Carol, Charle. Span. Carlos. 

A third root signifying man is Ang.-Sax. gum, 
gom, Old High German gomo, como, cJwmo, per- 
haps cognate with Latin homo. Hence comes 
the' Eng. " groom," assuming a phonetic r. 

simple forsis. 
Old Germ. Goma, Como, Chomo, 7th cent. Old Dan. Gom, Gum, 
Gummi. Eng. Gumma, Gummoe, Gomsi, Gumm, Groom, com. 
Combe. Mod. German Gomm, Komm, Kumm. French Gom, ^'*°' 
Gomme, Com, Chomeau, Grumay. 

compounds. 

(Bice, Riche, powerful) Old German Gumarich, Gomarih, 
Komerili — English Groombridge, Combridgr,* Gomery, 



* Hence the Scotch name Mc.Cambuidqb quoted by Lower. 



60 MAN AS THE TYPE OF POWER 

CoMRTE — Modern German Gummbich — French Gombrich. 
{Mund, protection) Old Germ. Gummund, Cummunt — Eng. 
Gkummant, Comont — French Gomant, Comont, (Leihy 
carmen) Old Germ. Gomaleih, Comaleih — English Gumley, 
CoMLEY. (Mary mer, illustrious) Old Germ. Gummar, Kum- 
mar — Eng. Gummer, Comer — French Gomer, Chaumer. 

Seeing the interchange of c and g in this root, 
it may be worth while to enquire whether our 
word " comely," for which there is no quite satis- 
factory etymon in the dictionaries, may not be 
from gom or com, a man, in the sense of manly 
beauty. 

From the Gothic aha, man, Forstemann de- 
rives the following group of ancient names. 
Stark, however, recommends to go back to the 
root-meaning, as found in the lost verb aban, 
pollere, referred to by Grimm. But if we suppose 
the sense to be that of man as the impersonation 
of power, we may, I think, as well take that 
meaning as the abstract one. Whether the root 
lb should be included also in the group, is not so 

certain. 

simple forms 

Old Germ. Abbo, Abbi, Abba, Appo, Appa, Ebbo, Hebo, 

' ' * Heppo, Ibba, Hibba, Ippo, 5 th cent. Ebba, queen of the 

South Saxons, A.D., 678. Ibbe, an Ang.-Sax. (Kemhle.) 

Ebbi, a Northman (Ann. I si.) Abo (Domesday Line.) 

Eng. Abbe, Abbey, Abba, App, Happey, Epp, Hebb, Hep- 

PEY, Hipp. Mod. Germ. Abbe, Appe, Heb, Ibe. Mod. 

Dan. Ebbe, Erba. French Abbi^, Appay, Habay, Haby, 

Happe, Happey, Hipp. ^ 

diminutives. 

Old Germ. Abiko, Eppiko — Eng. Appach, Ebbidge — 
Mod. Germ. Abich, Ebbecke — French HabiciJ, Happich* 



MAN AS THE TYPE OF POWER. 61 

Old German Ibikin, Ipcin — English Hipkin. Old German 
Abbilin, Appulin — Eng. ArrLiN. Abissa, son of Hengest — 
Eng. Abbiss, Apsey — French Habez. 

PATRONYMICS. 

English Abson, Hebson, Ibison, Hibson — Dan. Ebsen, 

Ipsen. 

compounds. 

{Dioj servant) English Abdy — French Abbadie, Habdey. 
{Bert, pert, bright) Old Germ. Ibert — English Ebert, Heb- 
bert, Hibbert — Mod. German Ebbrecht — French Abert, 
Habert, Appert, Happert, Ebert, Hebert, Ibert, Hibert. 
{Wald, power) Eng. Appold — French Abault. (Wid, vidy 
wood) Old Germ. Abuid — Eng. Hipwood — French Abavid. 
{Beado, war) Old Germ. Ibed, Ibet — Eng. Abbott, Ebbetts, 
Ibbett, Hibbitt — French Abbette, Abit, Habit. 

A fifth root signifying man is the Old High 
Germ, bar, which however it is very difficult to 
separate from Ang.-Sax. har, a bear, with which 
in its root, it is probably aUied. I place the fol- 
lowing here. 

simple forms. 

Old German Paro, 10th cent. English Barr, Barry, 
Barrow, Parr, Parry. Barre, Bary (Roll Battle Abbey J. 
French Barre, Bapry, Barreau, Barre, Parra. 

diminutives. 
English Barlow, Barley, Barrell, Parrell — French 
Barelle, Parly. Eng. Parkin — French Barachin. Eng. 
Barling. Eng. Barras, Paris,* Parsey, Parish — French 
Barriss, Parisse, Pariseau. 

compounds. 

(Frid, peace) Old German Baifrid, 8th cent. — English 

Parfrey. {Wold, power) Old Germ. Baroald, 7th cent. — 

French Barault. (Goth, thius, Old High German dio, 

servant) Old German Paradeo, Paradeus — English Paraday, 

* Kobt. Parys, one of the "good men of London " — Pell Records, temp. Ed. 3. 



Bar, Par. 

Man. 



62 MAN AS THE TYPE OF POWEE. 

Pardew, Paradise 1 — French Parade, Paradis ? (Man) 
Eng. Barreyman, Parman — Swiss Barman. (Wine, friend) 
French Baroin. (Bat, counsel) Eng. Barrett, Par rot- — 
French Barratte, Barret, Parrette. '^'^■••^M*^ c 

From the Goth, faths, man, Forstemann takes 
the foUowmg Old Germ, name, which is the only 
one that we find. And to the same source we 
may perhaps venture to refer the following 
modern names. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Fatto, 8th cent. Eng. Fatt, Fatty, Faddy, 
Fett. French Fath. 

COMPOUNDS. 

Eng. Fatman ? Fetman 1 
The names signifying woman are attended 
with more difficulty and doubt, owing to the 
manner in which men's names intermix, some- 
times from the same apparent root. Thus there 
are several which appear to be from Aug.- Sax. 
wif, Old High Germ, wip, Mod. Germ, weib, wife 
or woman. But among the ancient names there 
are some that are those of men,* and Forstemann 
thinks that the root of ivehan, to weave, inter- 
mixes. Or, I should rather suggest, Old Norse 
vijppay to move rapidly. Eng. " whip." Wippo 
was the name of a mythical Frankish king, 
{Grimm's Deutsch, Myth. 277.) 

S[MPLE FORMS. 

Old German Wippo, Wippa, Wibi. English Whipp, 
Wipp.' Whippy, Wibby. Mod. Germ. Wiebe. 



Woman ? 



* If the priiiCiple which I have before suggested be admitted, viz., that 
anciently names were oftua given without reforeiice to their meaning, it would bo 
quite conceivable that a name of which the literal meaning was woman might, of 
course in a masculine form, be borne by a man, and vice vcrsd. At the .same time 
I think it probable that there is an intermixture of roots in this group. 



MAN AS THE TYPE OF POWER. G3 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Vibill??/5, a general of the Hermunduri in Tacitus. — Old 
German AVipilo.— Old Norse ViiiU.— Wivell, Roll of Battle 
Abbey. — Eng. Wippell, Weible, Whibley. — Mod. Germ. 
WippEL, WiBEL — French Wibaille. Old Germ. Wiviken 
— Eng. WiPKiN. — Mod. Germ. Wibking. Eng. Webling. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Dag, day, or dio, servant) Eng. Whipday. {Wcddy 
power) Eng. Wyfolde. 

Then we have QuiN and Queen. It seems 
very doubtful whether these are from Goth. 
qwina, Ang.-Sax, cioSn, a woman, Eng. " queen." 
For an Old German Quino comes before us as a 
man's name, and Forstemann takes it to be an 
aspirated form of Wino, from ivine, friend. This 
we have also in many other names, as Quilliams 
for Williams, &c. 

It might seem fair, however, to give women's 
names the benefit of the converse. For we have 
a name Quomman, which on the same principle 
might be an aspirated form of woman. But more 
probably it is the Gothic form of Commin, from 
Goth, quama, quuma, Ang.-Sax. cumma, guest, 
stranger. 

Then Doll, Dolling might be from Old 
Norse doll, a woman (Eng. doll ?) This seems 
rather probably the meaning of the name of a 
female serf, " Huna et soror illius Dolo," in a 
charter of manumission. Cod. Diio. 981. But we 
have several compound names which are evidently 



-^/^i^jt. 






64 MAN AS THE TYPE OF POWER. 

from a different source, probably Ang.-Sax. dolhy 
a wound, and these two might be the same. 

In the former edition I thought that Pegg 
and PiGG might not improbably be from Ang.- 
Sax. piga, Dan. jpige, a virgin, particularly from 
finding Pega or Pegia as the name of an Anglo- 
Saxon woman, the sister of St. Guthlac, a.d. 714. 
But on further consideration I think they are 
more probably, by the interchange of h and p, the 
same as Begg and Bigg. 

So also I thought that Fann, Fanny, Fan- 
ning, might be from Friesic faen, fana, Ang.-Sax. 
fcemna, a maiden. And that Fenn, Fenning, 
might be fromy^mne, another Ang.-Sax. form of 
the same. But the Old High Germ, fauna, an 
ensign, seems, upon the whole, to be an etymon 
more in accordance with the general character of 
our names. 

There is another name. Diss, which I before 
thought might be from a female origin, but which 
is at any rate uncertain. The Old Norse dis 
signified a goddess, but originally, according to 
Grimm, simply a woman, and in proper names, 
the sense probably wavered between the two. 
Dis by itself occurs as a woman's name in the 
Landnamabok, and it was very common in com- 
pounds, one of which was Aldis. Hence I 
thought might be our names Diss and Aldiss. 
But there is an Old German Diss, Disso, a man's 
name, which Forstemann refers to Goth. deiSy 



MAN AS THE TYPE OF POWER. 65 

wise — hence may be our Diss. And Aldiss may- 
be Ald-iss, the dimmutive form referred to in 
Chap. 3. 

Lastly we have the names Verge, Virgin, 
and Virgo — apparently the Frencli vierge, Eng. 
virgin, Lat. virgo. But these are only a few 
names out of a group, the root of which I am 
rather inclined to take to be icearg, a wolf, 
tvUrgen, to worry. 

Upon the whole then it will be seen that 
names signifying woman are certamly not com- 
mon, and in most cases uncertain. 

A word as to family names apparently from 
the christian names of women. These have been 
supposed to indicate illegitimacy, and if any of 
them have been given in comparatively modern 
times, this may be the case. But with regard to 
such suruames as Anne, Betty, Moll, Pegg, 
Sall, Lucy, I have elsewhere given reasons ,for 
supposing them not to be women's names at all, 
but ancient men's names. That we have some 
names of female origin I do not doubt, and in the 
origin of surnames, I can see no reason why they 
might not in some cases, without any injurious 
imputation, be taken from the mother. We find 
that it was so in the case of christian names, as, 
for instance, in the Pol. Irm., where a woman is 
called Scupilia, and her son ScojDilius, an instance 
of the vowel change referred to by Weinhold, 
p. 49. 

I 



66 MAN AS THE TYPE OF POWER. 

There are one or two names, such as Man- 
hood and Manship (Ang.-Sax. manscipe, man- 
hood), which seem to contain an abstraction. 
We have also Mahood, which may be either 
maidenhood or boyhood (Ang.-Sax. mcegy Old 
Eng, mey, maiden, Goth, magus, puer). But the 
ending heid or hait (Mod. Germ, heit, Eng. hood), 
is found in many ancient names, particularly 
among the West Franks, and in the 8 th and 9th 
centuries. Thus we have Adalheid, = noble-hood, 
2. e., nobility. So also Williheid, which seems to 
be equivalent to resolution, and Billiheid, which, 
according to the meaning of the root suggested 
by Grimm, would be gentleness. 



J 



CHAPTER X. 



THE BRUTE AND ITS ATTRIBUTES. 

Names taken from animals form a very 
numerous and important list — many of tliem 
being of the highest Teutonic antiquity. Several 
of them are also closely connected with Northern 
mythology, for as certain animals were conse- 
crated to certain deities, so we find that these are 
the animals which were most in favor for the 
names of men. Thus the wolf was sacred to 
Odin, the bear to Thor, and the boar to Frey. 
And the names of these three animals, consecrated 
respectively to the three principal Northern 
deities, were among the most honourable and the 
most common names of men. Indeed Bjom, 1:^0^'] 
signifying a bear, was one of Thor's own names, 
and I am very much inclined to think that we 
have here some vestiges of an older worship, 
superseded by, and incorporated with the more 
recent Odinic faith. Throughout the whole of 
Northern Europe we have traces of a sort of 
superstitious respect paid to this animal, which, 
according to a Swedish proverb, has twelve men's 
understanding and six men's strength.* Hence 

* Horrebow, in his natural history of Iceland, gives an account of the bear 
in which the Icelandic estimate of his mental capacity seems by no means in keep- 
ing with the Swedish. If a man, according to his story, is attacked by one of 
these animals, he has nothing to do but to throw him something to amuse him till 
he can get out of the way. Nothing is better for this purpose than a glove, " for 
he will not stir till he has turned every finger of it inside out, and as they are not 
very dexterous with their paws, this takes up some time, and in the meanwhile the 
person makes off !" 



68 THE BRUTE AND ITS ATTRIBUTES. 

one of the heroes of Northern romance, fabled to 
have been the offspring of a woman and a bear, 
is described as surpassing other men in wisdom, 
as well as strength. In the former edition I sug- 
gested this as the possible origin of our name 
Barwise {i.e. " bear- wise"), but retracted it in 
the addenda, assigning the name to an Old Germ. 
Berwas, Aug.- Sax. hwces, keen, bold. But I over- 
looked the fact that there is also an Old German 
Berois,''' which may probably be from wis, wise. 
And the decided form of our name Barwise 
claims connection with this rather than with the 
other. So that, if the compound were formed 
with a meaning, the reputed wisdom of the bear 
might be the idea intended to be conveyed. 

The king of the Northern forests was much in 
favour on the Scandinavian peninsula, and also 
among the Saxons of the continent. But among 
the Germans generally, and also among the 
Anglo-Saxons, names from the wolf were much 
more common. 

There are two forms — the simple and older 
form her, and the extended form heriyi. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Bero, Pero, 6tli cent. English Bear, Beer, 

Ber, Per. 

j3g^r Pear, Peer, Pero, Pairo. Mod. Germ. Bahr, Beer, Ber. 
French Ber, Beer, Biere, Pere, Peyre, Perreau. 



• Tn 01(1 Frankish names, of which this is one, oa and oi stand for wa and 
wi, as indeed is the case also in modern French, 



THE BRUTE AND ITS ATTRIBUTES. G9 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old German Berila, 8tli cent. — Eng. Berrill, Burley, 

Pearl, Perley — French Ieral, Berille, Berl, Berly, 

Perol, Peurelle, Perilla. Old German Berico, Berrich, 

9th cent. — Englisli Berridce, Perrigo — Modern German 
Barecke — French Berich, 1'eriche, Perocheau. English 

Perkin — French Berquin, Perichon. English Purling — '• 

French Berillon, Berlin. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Ger, spear), Old German Bereger, Pereker, 8th cent. — 
Eng. Berger Modern German Berger — French Berger. 
(Gis, hostage) Old German Perakis, 9th cent. — Eng. Purkis, 
PuRCHEs, Purchase. {Grim, fierce) Old Germ. Peragrim, 
8th cent. — English Paragren, Paragreen, Peregrine ? 
{Hart, hard) Old German Berhard, 9th cent. — Eng. Bare- 
hard — French Eerard, Perard. {Here, warrior) Old Germ. 
Beriher, Bercher — Eng. Berrier, Furrier, Percher — Mod. 
German Biercher — French Berryer, Bercher, Perrier. 
{Helm, helmet) Old German Perrhelm, 8tli cent. — English 
Perriam, Perram — French Berheaume. (Land) Old 
Germ. Perelant, 9th cent. — English Purland. (Man) Old 
Germ. Berman— Eng. Burman, Pearman— Modern German 
Bermann. {Mar, famous) Old Germ. Bermar, 9th cent. — 
Eng. Barmore, Parramore, Paramour ? {Mard, reward T) 
Old Germ. Beremard — French Bermard. {Mund, protec- 
tion) Old German Berimund, 5th cent. — French Bermond 
Bermont. {Rat, counsel) Old German Perrat — English 
Berret, Perrott — French Berot, Perrot. {Dio, servant) 
Old German Biridio, Peradeo, 6th cent. — English Perdue — 
French 
Beroald, 

Ital. Beroaldus. ( Wine, friend) Old German Berewin, 8th 
cent., Beroin — Eng. Perown — French Perrouin. {Geltan, 
valere) English Purgold — French Perigault. {Ward, 
guardian) Old German Beroward, Pei-wart, 8th cent. — Eno'. 
Berward, Perwort. {Wis, wise) Old German Berois, 8th 
cent. — Eng. Barwise, Purvis. 



^' 'i-«^V i V r «^ 



Perody, Peyredieu. {Wald, power) Old German ^t\. . Wvj^^, 
I, Berolt, 7th cent. — French Berault, Perault — 



70 THE BRUTE AND ITS ATTRIBUTES. 

Perhaps to this root may belong the name of 
the well-known fanatic Barebone, with which 
may correspond a French Baraban {bana or 
bona, a slayer). Another English form is Bear- 
ben N. 

The following are to be assigned to the ex- 
tended root beri7i, with which corresponds the 
Old Norse bjorn. The Anglo-Saxon beorn, chief, 
hero, may mix up with this root. It will be seen 
in this and the former, how close a connection 
there is between the roots of bear and man. 

SIMPLE FOEMS. 

Old German Berno, Berino, Bern, Pern, Pirin, 8tli cent. 
Berin, Old Norse Bjorn, Birna. Ang.-Sax. Beorn. Eng. BiRNE, 
Bern, BuRN, BiRNEY, PuRNEY, Byron, Perrin. Modern German 

Beerin. French Berne, Berne y, Perny, Biron, Piron, 

Perrin. Ital. Berni. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

old German Birnico, 8tli cent. — Eng. Burnidge — Mod. 
German Bernicke. Englisli Burnell, Purnell — French 
Bernelle, Pernelle. Old German Berinza, Berniza, 10th 
cent. — Eng. Burness, Burnish 1 — Mod. Germ. Behrens. 

PATRONYMICS. 

Old German Berning, 9th cent. — Eng. Burning. — Mod. 
Germ. Berning. 

compounds. 

{Gar, spear) Old German Beringar, 8th cent. — English 
Beringer, Berringer — Mod. German Berringer — French 
Beringer, Beranger. {Hard) Old German Berinhard, 8th 
cent. — English Bernard — Mod. German Bernard — French 
Bernard — Span. Bernardez. {Here, warrior) Old German 
Berinher, Berner, Bernier, Pernher, 8th cent. — Eng. Birner, 



Bear. 



THE BRUTE AND ITS ATTRIBUTES. 71 

TfiBNER — Mod. Germ. Berver— Froncli Bernibr, Pirnier. 
(WcUcl, power) Old German Bonieold, Bcrnolt, 8tli cent. — 
E^g. Bernold —French Bernault. 

As the bear was sacred to Tlior, so was the 
wolf to Odin, and by his two wolves, Geri and 
Freki, he is represented as always accompanied. 
I scarcely know how to account for it that though 
of all German names this was one of the most 
common, it is not particularly so in English 
names, and in French names rather the reverse. 
As a prefix in our names it generally loses the f, 
as in WooLGER for Wulfgar. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Vulf, 5tli cent.— Wolf, 8th cent.^Ov'Aic^os 
Procopius. Ang.-Sax. Wulf. Old Norse Ulfr. English Wuif, uif. 
Wolf, Ulph, XJlp. Mod. Germ. Wolf. French Yolf, "^°"- 

OULIF. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Ang.-Sax. Wolfsi — English Wolsey {see p. 23). Old 
Germ. Wulfico, 8th cent. — Eng. Woolfolk. Old German 
Vulfemia, 9 th cent. — Eng. Wolfem, Vulliamy. 

compounds. 

(Bert, bright) Old German Wolfbert, 8th cent.— English 
WooLBERT. (Frid, peace) Old Germ. WolfFrid, 8th cent. — 
Ang.-Sax. Wulfred — Eng. Woolfreys. {Gar, spear) Old 
German Wolfgar, 8th cent. — Ang.-Sax. Wulfgar — English 
WooLGAR. {Gaud, goth ?) Old Germ. Wulfegaud, 8th cent. 
— Ang.-Sax. Wulfgeat — Eng. Woolcott. {Held, p. 66) 
Old Germ. Wolfheid, 8th cent.— Eng. Woolhead. {Hard) 
Old Germ. Wolf hard, 8th cent.— Ang.-Sax. Wulfhard— Eng. 
Woollard — Mod. Germ. Wulfert. {Here, warrior) Old 
German Vulfhar, bishop of Rheims, 7th cent. — Ang.-Sax. 



72 THE BRUTE AND ITS ATTRIBUTES. 

Wiilfhere— Old Norse Ulfar — Eng. Wolper — Mod. Germ. 
WoLFER. (Hath, had, war) Old German Wolfhad, bishop 
of Bourges, 9th cent. — Eng. Woollatt — French Woillot. 
{Helm) Old German Wolfhalm, 8th cent. — Ang.-Sax. Wulf- 
helm — Eng. Woollams — French Woillaume. {Hoh, high) 
Old Germ. Wolfhoh, 8th cent.— Ang.-Sax. Wulfheh— Eng. 
WooLLEY. {Mar, famous) Old German Wolfmar, 8th cent. 
— Ang.-Sax. Wulfmer — Eng. Woolmer. {JVoth, bold) Old 
Germ. Vulfnoth, 9th cent. — Ang.-Sax. Wulfnoth — English 
"WooLNOTH. (Eaban, ram, raven) Old Germ. Wolfhraban, 
Wolfram, 7th cent. — English Wolfram (perhaps of German 
origin). (Rice, powerful) Old German Wulfrich, 8th cent. — 
Ang.-Sax. Wulfric — Eng. Woolrych — French Wulveryck. 
(Stan, stone) Old Germ. Wolfstein — Ang.-Sax. Wulfstan — 

Eng. WOOLSTON. 

Though in Old German names this was the 
most common of all post-fixes, yet it is by no 
means frequent either in English or French. We 
have the following. 

(Bad, prosperity) Old German Audulf, 7th cent, — Ang.- 

Wuif, uif. Sax. Eadulf — Eng. Adolph — Mod. Germ, Adolph — French 

Wolf- Adolphe. (Beado, war) Old Germ. Badulf, 8th cent. — Old 

as a pos - X. j^^^^^^ Bodolph — English BiDDULPH, BuTOLPH ? (Bardi, 

giant ?) Old German Bartholf — English Bardolf. (Gand, 

wolf) Old German Gandulf, 7th cent. — French Gandolphe. 

(Fast, firm) Old German Fastulf, 8th cent. — Eng. Fastolp,* 

Fastaff. (Rand, shield) Old German Randulf, 8th cent. — 

English Randolph. (Rag, counsel 1) Old German Ragolf, 

Raholf, Raulf — English Ralph — Mod. German Ralphs. 

(Hroc, giant) Old Germ. Rocculf, Roholf, Roolf — Old Norse 

Hrolfr — Eng. Rolf — Mod. Germ. Rolf. (Stede, steadfast) 

Old German Stadolf, 8th cent. — Eng. Stidolf. Our name 



* I do not find this as a present English name, but there was a Sir John 
Fastolf, the supposed prototype of Shakespere'a FalstafT, who belied his etymology 
by running away from Joan of Arc. 



THE BRUTE AND ITS ATTRIBUTES. 73 

Balfe, Pott makes a contraction of Badulf. But I think 
that it is more probably the same as the Ang.-Sax. Beowulf, 
perhaps from heag, beah, bracelet ; hence, same as an Old 
Germ. Baugulf. 

Will/ or Ulfwas the honourable name of the 
wolf. It was the wolf as the servant of Odin — 
the attendant on the battle-field — the brave, 
patient hunter. But the wolf has another char- 
acter — that of the midnight robber — the ruthless 
devourer — the curse of the shepherd — the terror 
of the mother. In this character his name was 
wearg or varg, which also means assassin. The 
wolf himself seems to have had an aversion to this 
name, for in the old days when animals could 
speak, he is represented in Northern fable as 
saying — 

" Callest thou me Varg, I will be wroth with thee." 

But wdiat was not good enough for a wolf 
seems to have been good enough for a man, for 
Wearg was the name of a Solicitor-General in 
the last century. The names Verge, Virgo, and 
Virgin I should also be rather inclined to bring 
in here — referring them to wearg, a wolf, or the 
verb wurgian, to worry. However, there is un- 
certainty about this group ; Forstemann finds a 
root werk to which he gives the sense of opus. 

SiaiPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Wargus, Wergio, 9 th cent. English Wearg, ^^^ 
Werge, Verge, Werk, Workey,* Verco, Virgo. Mod. w'oif. 
Germ. Werck. French Verge, Verge. 

* In a charter of manumission, Cod. Dip. 981, we find Wurci as the name of 
a serf. It seems probable that this is a sobriquet, and that it means literally " one 
who works," i.e., with a will. Perhaps then the above name Wobkey ought 
rather to be associated with it. 



74 THE BRUTE AND ITS ATTRIBUTES. 

PHONETIC EXTENSION. 

Eng. Virgin. French Vergeon, Yergne. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Hari, her, warrior) Old Germ. Wevchari, Werkher, 8th 

cent. — Eng. Verger — Modern German Werker — French 

Verchere. (Man) Eng. Wirgman, Workman ? {Noth, 

bold) English Worknot — French Vergnaud, Vergnot. 

^^Jjryv*^-*-*^ (Wine, friend) French Virquin. 

(^S^3i^^^^ Another name for the wolf in Old Norse was 
^^'^^AJ gGi'i'^dr, to which Forstemann assigns the root 
^^j^T^^^L^* gcindy gant, gent, hant, hent, in Old German 
r yf'**' ""^^^ names. To this I add cliand, chant, as a form 
^^, common in French names, though chanter, to 

t^i^ ' ,-^ sing, probably mixes with it.*"' 



simple FORMS. 



Old German Gando, Ganto, Canto, Gento, son of the 

Gand, Gant. Vandsl Geiserich, 6th cent. Old Norse Gandr (surname.) 

Cant, j^jj Gande, Gandy, Gant, Cant, Canty, Cande, Candy, 

Wolf. ° ) i J 5 ; 7 

Chant, Gent. Mod. Germ. Gante, Kant, Gent. French 
Gand, Canda, Candy, Gente, Genty, Chanteau. 

diminutives. 

Old Germ. Gantala, Cantulo, 9th cent. — Eng. Gandell, 
Candall, Cantelo, Cantle, Gentle 1 Modern German 
Genedl, Kendel — French Gandell, Gentil 1 Candelle, 
Cantel, Chandel. English Candelin — French Gandillon, 
Cantillon, Gentillon. 

compounds. 

{Here, warrior) Old Germ. Ganthar, 8th cent. — English 
Gander, Gender, Ganter, Cantor, Chanter — Mod. Germ, 
Ganter, Kanter — Swiss Gander — French Gandier, Gan- 
ter, Candre, Cantier, Chantier. (Had, rat, counsel) Old 
German Gcndrad, 8th cent. — French Gendrot, Chantrot. 

* As in the names Chanteclaire and Chantoiseau. 



THE BRUTE AND ITS ATTRIBUTES. 75 

{Rice, powerful) Old German Gendirili, Cantrili — English 
Gentery, Gentry, Ciiantrey, Kendrick, Kendray — Mod. 
Germ. Genderich — French Gendry, Chanterac. (Ul/y 
wolf) Old German Gandulf, 7th cent.— French Gandolphe. 
(Wine, friend) French Gandoin. 

Another word signifying wolf is Old Norse 
sdmr. We find this as a man's name in the 
Landnamobok, and as a dog's name in the Nial- 
saga. The root sam in Old German names 
Forstemami refers to Old High Germ, samo, Eng. 
" same," in the sense of " equal." But I think 
that the above derivation is to be preferred. 

simple forms. 

Old Germ. Samo, 6th cent. Old Norse Samr. English g^^^ g^^^ 
Sam, Semy. Modern German Sahm, Semm. French Seme, woif. 
Semey. 

diminutives. 
English Samkin. French Semichon. 

The boar, which was sacred to Frey, the third 
of the principal deities, was also in very common 
use for the names of men. As the Anglo-Saxon 
beorn, the origmal meaning of which seems to 
have been " bear," was used in the sense of prince, 
hero — so the Old Norse jofurr, signifying boar, 
was employed in Northern poetry in the same 
sense. The root of the word seems to be the 
same as that of the group ab, eb, p. 60, viz., 
Sansc. abhas, powerful, and the lost Teutonic 
verb ahan, pcUere. From the Old High Germ. 
eber, Ang.-Sax. efor and ofo7\ Old Norse jofurr, 
are the following. 



^Q THE BRUTE AND ITS ATTRIBUTES. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Ebur, 6tli cent. Ibor, Lombard prince, 4th 
Eber, Ever, cent., not certain. Old Norse Jofiirr, Ivar. Englisb Eber, 
^^^''- Heber, Ever, Heaver^ Heifer, Over. Modern German 
Eber, Evers. French Hiver, Hevre, Ouvre. 

diminutives. 

Old German Euerlin, 8th cent. — Mod. German Oberlin 
— French Eberlin. English Eborall, Everall, Overall 
— French Eberli, Oberle, Ivorel. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Hard, foi-tis) Old Germ. Ebarhard, Everhard, Everard, 
8th cent. — English Everarb — Mod. German Eberhard — 
French Evrard, Ebrard, Ouvrard. (Man) Old German 
Ewnrman, 8th cent. — Eng. Heaverman — Modern German 
Ebermann. {Radj rat^ counsel) Old German Eburrad, 8th 
cent. — Eng. Evered, Everett, Overed, Overett — French 
EvRATT. (Rice, powerful) Old German Eburicus, king of the 
Suevi, 6th cent. — English Every, Ivory, Overy, Ouvry — 
French Everickx, Ivry, Obry. {Ger, spear) Old German 
Eburacar, 8th cent. — Eng. Overacre ? {Mar, famous) Old 
Germ. Evremar, 8th cent. — Eng. Overmore ? 

The Old Norse has galti, a boar pig, whence 
Gait, "gait," a word still in use in the North of 
Boar pig? England. Galti occurs both as a baptismal and 
as a surname in the Landnamabok, and hence 
may be our Galt. But the root gait in Old 
German names Forstemann refers to geltan, 
valere. 

In the former edition, I derived SuGG from 
Ang.-Sax. sug, a sow. But I now think that this 
root is both deeper and wider, and have intro- 
duced it elsewhere. Hogg also is not to be re- 
ferred to the animal, but to Anglo-Saxon hog, 



THE BRUTE AND ITS ATTRIBUTES. 77 

prudent, thoughtful. There was a Thurcyl sur- 
iiained Hoga {Cod. Dip. Ang-Sax. No. 743), 
which Mr. Kemble explains as " the wise or con- 
siderate." So also PiGG is to be connected with 
Pick, and by the interchange of h and p, with 
Bigg and Bick, from a root signifying to slash. 
The Old Norse gris^ a little pig, occurs both as a 
baptismal and as a surname in the Landnamabok. 
Hence might be our Grice, and the diminutive 
Grissell. But the Old High Germ, gris, grey, 
(or perhaps grisly) is more probably the general 
root of our names, and also of the French 
Grisard, Grisol, &c. 

The horse seems to have been held in especial 
veneration by the Ancient Germans. Tacitus in- 
forms us that they kept white horses, which they 
regarded as sacred, and by whose snor tings and 
neighings, when yoked to the sacred chariot, they 
prognosticated future events. Some trace of this 
worship or respect may perhaps be found in the 
use, referred to by Grimm, of white horses in 
solemn or state processions. Perhaps also in the 
frequency with which they appear as the signs 
of inns in Germany and S^vitzerland, and, though 
not to the same extent, in England. In London 
alone there are about 50 inns or public houses 
with the sign of the White Horse. The eating 
of horse flesh seems to have formed a part of 
heathen festivals, and hence was coupled by the 
Christian missionaries along with any other 
idolatrous ceremony, and interdicted as such. 



78 THE BRUTE AND ITS ATTRIBUTES. 

Nor does the attempted revival, among our some- 
what whimsical neighbours, seem to have met 
with any very signal success. We do not find 
that in the Northern system of mythology the 
horse was dedicated especially to any particular 
god, but twelve horses, belonging to different 
deities, and each distinguished by its particular 
name, are enumerated in the Eddas. 

The names of Hengist and Horsa, the leaders 
of the first Saxon invasion of England, are both 
derived from the horse. The former is from 
Ang.-Sax. hengst, Old High German hengist, Old 
Fries, hingst, Low Germ, hangst, a stallion. ^ The 
last word is still in use in some parts of West- 
phalia to denote a horse in general. Hengist 
seems to have been anciently by no means a 
common name. It occurs as the name of a Jutish 
chieftain (identical or not with the above), in the 
Anglo-Saxon poem of Beowulf The only other 
instance is that of a Hengest in the Monumenta 
Boica, A.D. 1042. But Hengst is a name stilPin 
use among the modern Frisians. And it is found 
in names of places in Germany, as Hengistfeldon 
and Hengistdorf. In the names of places in 
England it is generally corrupted into Hinks, as 
Hinks. in Hinksey, Berks., Ang.-Sax. Hengestesige. So 
that our Hincks may probably be the same 
name. We have also Hinxman and the local 

HiNGESTON. 

The word ho7\s is common to almost all the 



stallion. 



THE BRUTE AND ITS ATTRIBUTES. 79 

Teutonic dialects. An Old High Germ, form is 
ors, and an Old Fries, form is hei^s. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old German Oi-so, 10th cent. Sax. Horsa, 5tli cent. Horse, 
En dish Horsey, Hearse, Hersey. French Ors ay, Herse, ^erse. 

^_ * ' ' ' Equua. 

Herce. 

diminutives. 

Old German Orsicin, 10th cent. — English Horskins, 
Erskine 1 Eng. HoRSELL — French Orsel. 

COMPOUNDS. 

Old Germ. Ursiraan, 7th cent. — Eng. Horsman. (There 
is also an Old German Horseman, 9th cent., horse, nimble.) 

From the other form hros may be the follow- 
ing. But Grimm also suggests a word ?'0.9, red, 
which may intermix. And our name E-oss may 
of course also be local. 

SIMPLE FORilS. 

Boss. 

Eng. Ross. French Rossi. Horse. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Roscelin (Lib. Vit.J — Eng. Rosling — French Rosselin, 
RosLiN. French Rossel, Rosly. Eng. Roscoe. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Bert, famous) Old Germ. Rospert, 10th cent. — English 
RosBERT. (Hari, her, warrior) English Rosser, Rosier, 
RosERY — French Rosser, Roscher. (Man) Eng. Rosoman 
— French Rosemon. (Kel for Ketel ?) Old Norse Hrosskel 
— Eng. Roskell. 

From the Ang.-Saxon mcBre, mere. Old High Mare. 
Germ, mar ah, a horse, Eng. " mare," are probably 
Mare, Meers, Hearing, Mara, and perhaps 
Mary. There may be other names, but it is 



80 THE BRUTE AND ITS ATTRIBUTES. 

difficult to se})arate this root from maVy mer, 
illustrious. One or two compounds, such as 
Maryman or Merriman, which would correspond 
with Horsman, Hinxman, seem more naturally 
to belong to this. 

From the Old Higli Germ, maraliy march, a 
horse, Forstemann derives the root marc in Old 
Germ, names, observing that marka, a boundary, 
may also intermix. Mark may of course also be 
in some cases Scriptural. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Mark ^^^ German MapKia^, Gothic leader iu Procopius. 

March. Marco, 8tli cent. Anglo-Saxon March, Cod. Dip. No. 971. 

iiorso. Eijg Mark, Mahkey, Marcus, March. Modern German 

Mark, March. French Marcq, Marc, Marcus, MARcnfe. 

PIMINUTIVES. 

Old German Marclin, 9th cent. — French Marcillon. 
Eng. MARKLiLE.t French Marcol. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Here, warrior) Old Gorman Marcher — Eng. Marker, 
Marcher — Modern CJerman Marker — French Marchire, 
Marquery. (J far, illustrious) Old German Marcomer, 2nd 
cent. (Aurcl Vict, de Cccs.J — Marcamar, Frankish prince, 
4th cent. — Eng. IMarramore.* (Lei/, supei-stes) Old Germ. 
Marcleif, Marclef, Gth cent. — Eng. Marklove — Mod. Germ. 
Markloff. ( Ward, guardian) Old Germ. Marcuard, 8th 
cent. — Modern German INIarkwardt — French Marcuard. 
{Wi(j, wlc, Avar) Old German Mai'covicus, Cth cent. — Englisli 
Marknvick. 



t Can this bo tho Danisl\ diminutive /i7/(', as iu Tovc/i7/c, North. Eug. lUef 
Tho nanio is found iu tho Danish county of Lincolnshire. 

** Several Old Qorinan nniuos from this root appear both as Marah and Mark 
Thus Marahsind and Marcsind, kc. The Hi^h Germ, h, however, must bo taken 
to reproscut somcthiug of a guttural sound, 



THE BRUTE AND ITS ATTRIBUTES. 81 

I do not think that Stallion is from the 
anmial, but, along with tlie French Stalin, from 
staid, steel, which enters into some Old German 
names. 

Palfrey seems also doubtful. It may be 
from the Old Germ. Baldfred or Paldfred — -fred 
in Eng. generally making frey, as in Godfrey and 
Humfrey. But Palfri:man cannot be so ex- 
plained. 

Colt is, I doubt not, the High Germ, form of 
Gold. So also Coltman corresponds with 
Goldman and Goldman. Other compounds are 
Colter, Coltart, &c. 

These four animals then, the bear, the wolf, 
the boar, and the horse, all possess obvious 
attributes which would make them in favour for 
the names of men. The bear, with his power, his 
tenacity, his secretiveness, and his imputed wis- 
dom — the wolf, with his ferocity, his endurance 
and his discipline — the boar, with his vindictive 
sturdiness — have always been favourite types for 
the Teutonic race : the horse, with his noble and 
generous spirit, has had an attraction for all men 
in all time. 

But the cow — the innocent and ungainly cow 
— what is there in her useful and homely life that 
could inspire sentiments of reverence in a fierce 
and warlike people ? The honour which was 
paid to her was from a more ancient and a more 
deeply-seated source. From the time when Israel, 
tainted with Egyptian superstition, set up a 

K 



82 THE BRUTE AND ITS ATTRIBUTES. 

golden calf and said " These be thy gods, which 
brought thee out of the land of Egjrpt'^ — and 
from who can tell how many ages before that 
time, the cow, as the type of the teeming mother 
earth, has been an object of human idolatry. In 
the Northern system of mythology she is not, 
like the bear, the wolf, or the boar, sacred to any 
particular divinity, but appears — in what seems 
to be a fragment of a more ancient myth — as 
mysteriously connected with the first cause and 
origin of all things. Grimm has remarked 
(Deutsch. Myth. p. 631^ that the Sanscrit root 
g6 signifies both ox or cow, and also earth, coun- 
try, district. Hence, on the one hand the Old 
High German cliuo, Ang.-Sax. cil, EngHsh cow — 
and on the other Gr. 7a, 7>7, earth, German gau. 
He further remarks upon the connection which 
rinta, the earth, and Rindr, wife of Odin, may 
have with Germ, rind, ox. 

Both of the above two words, gow or cow, 
and rind, are found in our names, and we have 
the choice of the above two meanings. But, 
upon the whole, the meaning of land, country, 
seems more in accordance with the general charac- 
ter of Teutonic nomenclature. 

I do not take Bull to be from the animal, 
though, as elsewhere stated, I am not certain, 
while preferring a different derivation, that it is 
not from the same root. 

There is a root, ur, found in several Old 
Germ, names, which Forstemann refers to Aug.- 



THE BRUTE AND ITS ATTRIBUTES. 83 

Saxon, Old High German, and Old Norse, ^r, 
buffalo. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. XJrius, Uro, 4th cent. EDglish UiiE, Urie, ur. 
Hurry. Modern German XJhh. French Oury, Hour, Buffalo. 

HUREAU, HUREY, HuRE, HeURE. 

DDkHNUTIVES. 

Eng. HuRREL — French Hurel. French Hurez. 

PATRONYMICS. 

Old German Urinch, 10th cent. — English Youring. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Hard) Old Germ. Urard, 11th cent. — French Hurard. 
(Here, warrior) French Urier, Hurier. {Wold, power) Old 
German Urold, 9th cent. — French Hurault. ( Winey friend) 
Eng. Urwin. {Wig, war) Eng. Urwick. 

Calf was not an uncommon name among the 
Northmen ; there are several men called Kalfr 
in the Landnamabok and elsewhere. The Old 
Norse halfr, though primarily signifying the 
young of the cow, was applied in a more extended 
sense to the young of various animals. And 
there is a Northman in the Landnamabok with 
the name of Selakalfr (seal-calf) Forstemann 
has one Old Germ, name Calpho, which he takes 
to be a transposition of Claffo (name of a Lom- 
bard king). But I do not feel at all certam that 
this, along with a seemmgly Enghsh name 
Kalvo in the London directory, and a French 
name Calvo, are not to be referred to the Goth. 
halho, calf We have also Calf and the Germans 
have Kalb and Kalfs, which Pott, though I 



P>1^ 



84 THE BRUTE AND ITS ATTRIBUTES. 

think unnecessarily, supposes to be a contraction 
of some compound name ending in leib or leif. 

There are very few names derived from the 
dog. DoGGETT, which I before classed under 
this head, I must now withdraw, as I think it 
belongs to the root of Ang.-Sax. dugan, to be of 
use or value. Also Bick, and the more pro- 
nonce name Bitch found in Bowditch, which I 
take to be from hicheii, to slash. ^ ■ -.^■ 



9 



Hund, HuND and Hundy, corresponding with an 

D^g' Old Germ. Hundo, 8th cent., are probably from 
^^2)K<dA hund, a dog, Eng. "hound." Hunt, Mr. Lower 
<i*.Cp>v>vv4W. derives from " hunt," a chase or hunting ground, 
as a local name. And Mr. Arthur from " hunte,^' 
used by Chaucer for huntsman. It is possible 
that both these derivations, and particularly the 
latter, may obtain in some cases. But as the 
general rule I think that Hunt, corresponding 
with an Old German Hunto, Mod. Germ. Hundt, 
is only the High Germ, form of Hund. In a roll- 
call of German officers given by Mameranus, a.d. 
550, are the names Hundt, Huntus, and Hon- 
tus, the last of which is explained " Georgius 
canis seu Hontus." Hence Hunting, French 
Hon TANG, as a patronymic form, belongs more 
certainly to this last. The Hundings (Hundin- 
gas), are a people mentioned in the Scop or Bard's 
song, and are supposed to have been the people of 
Hundland, which the editors of the Copenhagen 
edition of the Edda place in Jutland. 



THE BRUTE AND ITS ATTRIBUTES. 85 

Though the fox was much mixed up with the fox. 
popular superstitions of the Middle Ages, it does ^'^^*- 
not seem to have been common in the names of 
men. Indeed no ancient names come before us 
and the word appears first in the Hundred Rolls 
as a surname, Le Fox. 

Deer might be from the animal, though per- 
haps rather in the wider sense of the German 
thier, signifying any wild animal. But it is im- 
possible, even in the ancient names, to separate it 
from deaVy carus, Germ, theuer, wliich I take to 
be the preferable sense. 

Rain might be in some cases from Old Norse 
hreinn, a rein-deer, the name of three Northmen 
in the Landnamabok. But as a name of German 
origin it is to be referred to Goth, ragin, counsel. 

Of other names I take Stagg, Buck, Hart, 
Goat, Bam, Ewe, to be derived otherwise than 
from the animals. 

Lamb was not an uncommon name amongr ^^^^' 

Lamp. 

the Northmen — little suited as it may seem for Agnus. 
those ferocious warriors. It occurs twice as a 
baptismal name, and thrice as a surname, in the 
Landnamabok. There was also an Erik Lamb, 
King of Denmark, A.D. 1139. The High Germ^ 
form of lamb is lamp, and there is an Old Germ. 
Lampo, 10th cent., but Forstemann thinks lamb, 
agnus, an improbable root, and suggests Old 
Norse lempa, moderari, or Ang.-Sax. limfan, Old 
High Germ, limpan, evenire, convenire. But in 
the face of the above Scandinavian names, I hardly 



Lamb. 

Agnus. 



86 THE BRUTE AND ITS ATTRIBUTES. 

think that his objection can be maintained. It 
seems probable, however, that there may be an 
intermixture of another root, Old Norse lemia, to 
beat, whence in the Cumberland dialect " lam." 
Again, there are some names, such as Lambert, 
in which lam is a corruption of land. But upon 
the whole I think that the following may come 
in here. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Lampo, lOth cent. Old Norse Lambi. Eng. 
Lamb,''^' Lambey, Lamp, Lampee. Modern German Lampe, 
Lamm. Dan. Lampe. Frencli Lambie, Lamy, Lampy. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old Germ. Lampulo, 9tli cent. — Eng. Lamboll — Modern 
Germ. Lamle — French Lamballe, Lambla. Eng. Lamelin 
— Frencli Lambelin, Lamblin. Englisli Lampkin — French 
Lambquin. ^-^=1 >' 

patronymics. 
Eng. Lampson. Eng. Lamping. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Frid, peace) Old German Lempfrit, 8th cent. — English 
Lamprey ? — French Lamfroy ?t 

The noblest animal with which the Te atonic 
nations were familiar was the bear ; — if they came 
in contact with the lion, it must probably have 
been some inferior animal of the species. Yet 
names from this origin, though not very common, 
are of considerable antiquity, being found as early 
as the 6th cent. There are two forms — the 



* Perhaps we may also bring in here Lumb, Lump, Lumpy, and Lumpkin 

(Bowditch.) 

t Or might be, as Pott has it, from Landfred. 



THE BRUTE AND ITS ATTRIBUTES. 87 

simple root leo, leiv, loio, (Old High German and 
Old Saxon loive, leo. Old Fries, lauw,) and the 
extended root lioUy lewon. These I take 
separately. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Eng. Leo, Lew, Lewey, Lowe, Lowy. Modern German ^ew, i,ow. 
Lkue, Laue. French Leo, Lewy, Loui:. Lion. 

COilPOUNDS. 

{Wald^ dominion) Old Germ. Leoald, 6th cent. — Modern 
German Lewald — French Lioult, Louauld. {Wolf) Old 
Germ. Lewolf, 8th cent. — Eng. Leowolf. 



Leon, 
Lewen. 



extended eoot leoTij leuon. 
Old Germ. Leon, Leuan, 9th cent. Eng. Lewen, Lion, 
LowEN. French Lion, Louin. Lion 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old Germ. Leonza, 9th cent. — Eng. Lyons ? Lowance — 
French ? Liontz. 

co:mpounds. 

(Ha/rd) Old German Leonard, 6th cent. — Eng. Leonard* 
Lennard — Modern German Leonhard, Lexhard — French 
Leonard — Ital. Leonard! . 

Leopard I take to be the Old Germ, name 
Liubhart, Leopart, Leopard {liuh, love, and hai% 
hard.^ And Panther, along with Panter, 
Pander, Banter, and perhaps Painter, I refer 
to the root hand^ hant, pcm^, (Ang.-Saxon bcBud, 
crown.) 

It is probable that our Link, Lynch ; the 
French Link ; and the Mod. German Linck ; are 
from Old High German UncJi, lynx. There is an 
Old German Linco, 8th cent., which GrafP and 
Forstemann refer to this origin. The Ang.-Sax. 



Link. 

LjTlX. 



88 



THE BRUTE AND ITS ATTRIBUTES. 



Welp, Welf . 
Whelp. 



word is lox, whence may be our LosH, while from 
the form luchs, found in Mod. Germ., may be our 
LusK and Lush, and the Mod. Germ. Leuchs. 

Among the names derived from beasts of prey 
must be included that of our gracious Sovereign 
— Guelph being a dialectic form of Welph, Eng. 
" whelp," signifying the young of beasts of prey. 

SIMPLE FOEMS. 

Old German Huelp, Hwelf, Welf, 9tli cent., Guelf, 11th 
cent. Welp, Domesday Torks. English Welp, Guelpa, 
Yalpy ? Mod. Germ. Welf. French Yelpeau, Gelpy ? 



diminutives. 
Old German Walpulo, 9 th cent. — Eng. Welpley. Eng. 
Wellflin. 

compounds. 

(Hard) Old German Welfhard, Welfart, Welfard, 7th 
cent. — English Walfokd, Welpord — French Yalfort, 
Walferdin (dimin.) 

ouphant. Upon the whole I take Oliphant to be, as 
Elephant? generally supposed, from the animal. Both the 
two forms, elifant and olifant, are found in High 
as well as in Low German. The former I have 
never met with in English names, but a writer in 
Notes and Queries adduces an ^neas Eliphant 
from a list of the society of writers to the signet 
in Edinburgh for 1711. The name in this form is 
found in Germany as early as the 8th cent. At 
least I take it that the Old German names 
Helfant, Helphant, Eliphand, Eliphant are from 



* a Boston surname, but whether of English origin or not Mr. Bowditch 
does not say. 



THE BRUTE AND ITS ATTRIBUTES. 89 

that origin. I once copied from a Wiesbaden 
visitors' list an " Elephanty, aus London," — a name 
which looks like French. 

I do not think that Camel is from the 
animal. There is a root gamed or carnal, found 
in several ancient names, and which is probably 
from Ang.-Sax. gamal, old. 

Ass, for which Mr. Lower has authority as an 
English name, and which corresponds with a 
French AssE, may perchance have to be elevated 
from a donkey to a demi-god. It may be the Old 
Norse as, Anglo-Saxon 6s, semideus, whence Old 
Germ, names Aso and Asi, Old Norse Asa. Or 
if it be the same as Hass, it will correspond with 
Old Germ, names Hasso and Hassi, of which the 
meaning is probably Hessian. 

Hare I take not to be from the animal, but 
either to be classed along with Harre, Harry, 
Harrow, from hari, warrior ; or with Air, Airy, 
from Goth, ara, eagle. And Hase I take not to 
be from the Germ, hase, hare, but along with an 
Old Germ. Haso, from hath, war. 

Babbit, along with the French Rabot, 
Rabotte, I take to be a corruption of an Old 
Germ. Badbot, or Batbod. As an ancient name 
this appears variously as Badbod, Babbod, Bat- 
pot, Bappot. There is a Babbod mentioned as a 
"duke of the Frisians" in Eoger of Wendover's 
Chronicle. 

Badger I take to be either a compound of 
had, war, and ger, spear ; or of Ang.-Sax. heag, 

L 



90 



THE BRUTE AND ITS ATTRIBUTES. 



Eng. " badge," and hari, warrior. Another name, 
Badgery, is more evidently the latter compound. 

I also doubt Brock, which corresponds with 
French Brocq and Broca, being from " brock," 
a badger. Even if from the same root, the deriva- 
tion seems too narrow. In Ang.-Sax., Old Norse, 
and Old Eng., the word signified a husbandry- 
horse, which sense obtains in the North of 
England at the present day. The origin seems 
to be Old Norse brocka, to go with a heavy and 
jolting gait. Brock was the name of a dwarf in 
Northern mythology, and he being a wonderful 
worker in metals, the above derivation may 
perhaps suggest a comparison with the lame 
Vulcan. The name then might have a mytholo- 
gical origin, but I think on the whole that it may 
be better accounted for. Forstemann has nothing 
to throw light upon it, but Stark suppHes the 
deficiency, and produces Old German names 
Bruocho and Bruogo, and Ang.-Sax. Broga, with 
compounds Brocardus and Brochard, all of which 
he refers to Anglo-Saxon hrdga, terror. I think, 
however, that there may be also a root broc, 
from Ang.-Saxon brociaUy to afflict, persecute, a 
sense quite in accordance with the character of 
ancient names. 

It seems rather probable, upon the whole, that 
Beaver is from the animal. No doubt there is 
a root bef, bif, biv (Old Norse, bif, movement), 
which enters into a number of names, and of 
which it might be a compound. But the forms 



THE BRUTE AISD ITS ATTRIBUTES. 91 

in which it appears seem to be too extensive and 
complete to be thus accounted for. There are 
three forms — the Low German hever, the High 
Germ, biher, and the Old High Germ, pipar, all 
represented in our names — there is also a mixed 
form pever. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Bever, Biber, 

Biber {Hund. Rolls), English Beaver, Biber, Piper, pjpar 
Peffor, Peevor. Modern German Bever, Bieber, Piper. Beaver. 
French Bevaire, Biber, Pipre, Piefer, Piver. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

English Peverall — Pevrell, EoU. Batt. Abb. — French 
Peuvrelle. 

I do not think it probable that Otter is from 
the animal. There are Old Germ, names Other, 
Oddar, Mod. Germ. Oder, which Forstemann re- 
fers to audy prosperity, and there is an Old Norse 
Ottar, which he classes along with these, but for 
which I prefer the derivation of Haldorsen, from 
Old Norse otta, to strike with fear. 

The cat, from the earliest times, seems to have 
been connected in the Teutonic mind with magic 
and witchcraft. The Icelandic Sagas relate that 
Thorolf Skegge, a celebrated magician, had 
twenty large black cats, which came to his assist- 
ance in time of need, and were each nearly a 
match for a man. 

It seems certain that the Northmen had names 
derived from the cat. Weinhold ( Altnordisches 
Lehen)y refers to the names of two brothers, Kott 
and Kisi, as bc-th having this meaning. Kott 



92 THE BRUTE AND ITS ATTRIBUTES. 

again appears as a surname in the Landnamabok. 
In the Eyrbiggia Saga there is an account of a 
witch called Katla, a name which seems probably 
from a similar origin, and which, but that we find 
it borne by several other women, we might be 
disposed to connect with her magical character. 
But as in Northern mythology the chariot of the 
goddess Freyia is represented as drawn by two 
cats, this might be the most probable reason for 
its adoption in proper names. 

We do not find any Old Germ, names which 
can witli certainty be referred to this origin. The 
word cat in some very ancient names, as Catu- 
mer and Catualda, though by some writers sup- 
posed to be from the cat, is referred by Grimm to 
hath, war. And with respect to our own names, 
and those of France ; though I think it probable 
that such may occur, yet in all cases there are 
other roots which present themselves, and render 
it more or less doubtful. 

Ratt and Mouse are both English names, 
and Ratte and Mousse appear also in the direc- 
tory of Paris ; I have placed both of them else- 
where. 

Lastly, we have Mole, which along with 
Moll, and the French Mole and Moll, I refer 
to Old Norse mola, to beat, English " maul." 
And now, having run the quadrupeds to earth, I 
must turn to the birds. 

Bird itself seems doubtful, and there are two 
other roots which I think more suitable than bird. 



THE BRUTE AND ITS ATTRIBUTES. 93 

avis. One is Old Norse hyrde, German hiirde, 
an extended root of which is Ang.-Sax. hyrthen, 
Eng. " burden." The idea of strength seems to 
have been associated with this root. In Old 
Norse, hurdir, (j^lur.J, signified strength, vires, 
and hiirdalaus signified weak. This might be a 
sense present in proper names. Another, and 
perhaps a still better derivation, is Old Norse 
hurdr, Anglo-Saxon hyrd, birth, which obtained 
anciently a sense precisely similar to that which 
it has at present in such a phrase as " a man of - 
birth."* And there appear to be other roots 
with similar meaning in proper names. In some 
few cases, however, bird is no doubt a corruption 
of hert (famous). And there is one name, Burde- 
KIN, which I am rather inclined to take to be 
from the bird. 

From the Goth, fugls, Ang.-Sax. fugel, Germ. 
vogel, fowl or bird, are the following. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old German Fugal, 9th cent. English Fuggel, Fuel, Fugei, 
FowELL, FowLE, VowELL, VowLES. Mod. Germ. Yogel. ^°^^- 
French Faucil ? Foulley 1 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old German Fukelin, Fugaling, 11th cent. — English 
Faullon — French Focillon. French Youlquin. 

Fairfoul, as Mr. Lower observes, seems para- 
doxical. But spell it Farefowl, and its mean- 



* Since writing the above, I find that Stark, referring to an Old Germ, name 
Burdo, not explained by Forstemann, proposes the latter of the two meanings which 
I have suggested. 



Ar. 



94 THE BRUTE AND ITS ATTRIBUTES. 

ing is explained at once, " bird of passage." Such 
names were common among the Northmen. A 
Summerfugl and a Winterfugl, " Summer-fowl" 
and " Winter-fowl," are among the names on the 
coins minted by Scandinavian coiners at York, 
( Worsaae, Danes and Norwegians.) Sommer- 
VOGEL is found at present in the directory of Paris, 
and if French, may be a legacy of the Northmen. 
A similar sort of name is our Summersell, the 
Sumersul in the Domesday of Yorkshire, which 
appears to be from Old Norse sula, explained by 
Haldorsen as a sort of pelican. In the genealogy 
of the kings of Northumbria occurs a Saefugel, 
which name we still have as Sefowl. 

The eagle, as the king of birds, is at the head 
of the list, and furnishes by far the greatest num- 
ber of names. But Eagle itself is uncertain — it 
may be the same as an Old German Agil, Egil, 
Ang.-Sax. Aegel, elsewhere noted. So also the 
French Aigle and Aiguilli^, the latter corres- 
ponding with an Old Germ. Aigila. 

There are two forms, the simple root ar, (Old 
High German aro, ar, Old Norse ari) — and the 
extended root arin (Ang.-Saxon earn. Old Norse 
am, em, Old High German am, erni). The 
former is apt to mix up with another word, hari, 
warrior. 

SIMPLE POEMS, ar, aro. 
Old German Ara, Aro, 7th cent. English Am, Airey, 



Eagle. Earee. Mod. Germ. Aar, Ahr. 



THE BRUTE AND ITS ATTRIBUTES, 95 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old German Arila, 8th cent. — English Ariell, Arle — 
French Arioli. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Fast, firm) Ariovistus,* leader of the Helvetii, 1st cent. 

B.C., Arefastus^ 11th cent, Arfast, Bishop of East Anglia — 

Eng. Harvest ? — French Arrivetz 1 (Hard) Old German 

Arard, 8th cent. — Eng. Earheart — Mod. German Erhardt 

— French Erard. {Had, war) Old German Arahad, 8th 

cent. — Eng. Earratt, Erratt. (IFarc?, guardian) .French 

Erouard, Erouart. {Wald, power) Old German Arawald, 

9th cent. — French Ayrault, Arrault. {Wig, war) Eng. 

Earwig ? 

simple forms, arn, arin. 

Old Germ. Arin, Arno, Am, 8th cent. — Old Norse ArnL ^rin^ ^^n 
English Arn, Arney, Arno, Harney, Earney, Herne. Eagle. 
French Aran, Arnou, Ernie, Herny. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Here, warrior) Old Germ. Amheri, 9th cent. — English 
Harnor. {Wald, power) Old German Arnoald, 7th cent. — 
Old Norse Arnalldr — Eng. Arnold — Mod. Germ. Arnhold, 
Arnold — French Arnault, Arnould, Arnold, Ernoult, 
Harnault. (Helm) Old German Arnhalm, 9th cent. — 
Eng. Arnum. (Man) Eng. Arnaman, Herniman. (Ger, 
spear) Old German Arnger, 9th cent. — French Arranger. 
(Hard) English Harnard. (Bert, famous) Old German 
Arnipert, Arembert, 7 th cent. — French Erambert. (Dio, 
servant) Old Germ. Ariudeo, 8th cent. — French Arrondeau. 
(Wulf) Old German Amulf, 5th cent. — Eng. Arnulphe — 
French Ernouf. 

The Mod. German adler is formed from ar, 
eagle (or perhaps large bird in general), by the 



* FOrstemann considers the G^rmanhood of Ariovistus uncertain. The 
German writers in general seem, however, to consider it Teutonic, but the older 
explanation of heerfurst, "army leader," is, I think, inadmissible. Diefenbach 
appears to give some sanction to the above placing of mine. Arfast, the bishop, as 
a chaplain to William the Conqueror, was, I apprehend, a Norman. 



96 



THE BRUTE AND ITS ATTRIBUTES. 



Hawk. 
Accipiter. 



prefix adel, noble. But as a name, Adler is more 
probably from the Old German Adalhar {haru 
warrior.) The Dutch form is arend, which we 
find as a name of the 14th century, and whence 
may be our Arrend. 

Hawke (Ang.-Sax. hafoc), I do not find as 
an ancient name. In the Pell Records it occurs 
as a surname, Bene Havekin, the falconer. Hence 
seems to be our Hawken. 

Goshawk is the Anglo-Saxon gos-hafoc^ a 
"goose-hawk," i.e., a hawk powerful enough to 
strike the wild goose. And Sparrowhawk is a 
name dating from Anglo-Saxon times. There 
was a Sperhafoc elected Bishop of Loadon, a.d. 
1050, but ejected before consecration. 

Next to the eagle, the raven, as being sacred 
to Odin, was of all birds the most common in the 
names of men. Particularly so among the North- 
men, whose war-standard he formed — there being 
seventeen persons called Bafn in the Landnama- 
bok. Among the Germans the name was not 
universally common, being scarce among the 
Goths and Saxons. In proper names, particularly 
as a termination, it often becomes hramn, ram or 
ran. The Ang.-Saxon has similar forms, hrcem, 
hrem, hremn, for hrcefen. The Old Frankish 
dialect, increasing the initial aspirate, makes 
hramn, hram, hran, into chramn, co^am, cran. 
Hence Chramnus, son of Clothar 1st, Chranmis, 
(genealogy Merovingian kings.) 



THE BRUTE AND ITS ATTRIBUTES. 97 



SIMPLE FORMS, 

Old Germ. Rabanus (Archbishop of Mayence, 9th cent.), ^^^^^' 

1am, E« 
Raven. 



Rapan, Ravan, Ramno, Ram, Chramnus, Chrannus. Old 



Norse Rafn. Eng. Raban, Rabone, Raven, Cram ? Ramm 1 
Mod. Germ. Raben. Dan. Rafn. French Raban, Rabon, 
Rabineau, Rapin, Rapineau, Ravanne, Ravon, Raveneau, 

Raffin, Cramm ? 

compounds. 

(Bert, famous) Old Germ. Hrambert, Rambert, 7th cent. 
French Rambert. (Hari, warrior) Eng. Ravexor — Modern 
German Rabener. {Rice, powerful) Old Germ. Ramnerich, 
Ramerich, 10th cent. — Eng. Ramridge. 

locajl name. 
Eng. Ravenshear. (Ravnsore, '' Raven's point," on the 
Humber ?) 

Crawe was the surname of an Anglo-Saxon crow. 
lady, Cod. Dip. No. 685. And I do not find any- 
thing to indicate a different origin for our 
Crowe. Unless indeed it be Crowson, which 
however is not certain, as it may be an extension 
of a root GTOSCy and not the patronymic of 
Crowe. 



The Old Norse krahr, Suio-Goth. Tcraka, a 
crow, occurs frequently in Scandinavian names, 
and seems to have been generally, though not 
invariably, a surname. Wemhold ( Altnordisches 
LebenJ refers to two brothers called respectively 
Hrafn and Krak (raven and crow) as instances of 
names of similar meaning given in a family. 
Craca also appears as a simple name in the 
Libe7' Vitce. Hence may be our Crake, Craik 
Craig, Craigie, and Crakell as a diminutive. 

M 



Corvus. 



Crake. 
Crow. 



98 THE BRUTE AND ITS ATTRIBUTES. 

There are some names, Corby, Corbin, Cor- 
BETT, which we probably have from the French, 
and which all appear in the Koll of Battle Abbey. 
For these the French corheau, corbin, raven, 
Scotch "corbie," crow, naturally suggests itself. 
But there is a Corbus, son of the Frankish king 
Theoderic, 7th cent., for which Forstemann pro- 
poses Ang.-Sax. ceorfan, to cut, carve, in a war- 
like sense. We have, however, scarcely sufficient 
data on which to form an opinion. 

It may be doubted whether E/OOKE is from 
the bird, as there is a group of ancient names 
with which it would fall in, though in any case 
it is probably from the same root. 

The swan seems a more natural type of 
woman than of man. Yet, though it was more 
common in female names, it was not exclusively 
so used. Swane appears on the coins minted by 
Scandinavian coiners at York. It occurs again 
in the Domesday of Yorkshire, and is still a name 
well known in that county. Mr. Worsaae re- 
marks that " names of birds appear on the whole 
to have been often assumed in the old Danish 
part of England." The earliest name on record 
from this origin is that of Swanahilda, wife of 
Charles Martel, 6th cent. Weinhold (Deutsche 
Frauen) observes, in reference to its use in the 
names of women, that along with the beauty of 
the swan, was contained a warlike seDse derived 
from the swan-plumage of the maids of Odin. 
Two other forms are swen and sivoUy the latter 
Anglo-Saxon. 



THE BRUTE AND ITS ATTRIBUTES. 99 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Soawa, 9tli cent. Suanus, Lib. Vit. English Swan, Soan. 
SwANN, SoANE ? Modern German Schwann. French Cygnus. 
SouinI Suin? 

diminutives. 

Old Germ. Suanucho, 8th cent. — Eng. Swannack — Mod. 
Germ. Schwaxecke — French Saunac. Old Germ. Suanila, 
7 th cent. — English Swannell, Swonnell. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Bert, famous) Old German Soanperht, Soamperht, 8th 
cent. — French Sombret. {Burg, protection) Old German 
Swaneburgh, 11th cent. — Eng. Swanberg. (Hard) Old 
German Suanehard, 9th cent. — French Soinard. (Hari, 
warrior) French Soinoury. ( Wig, war) English SwANWiCK. 
(Rat, counsel, or rit, ride) Eng. Swexwright. 

The nobility of the goose is not so obvious as 
that of the swan. Yet it was in ancient and 
honorable use as a man's name, if Genseric, the 
name of the great Vandal chief, is rightly referred 
by Grimm to gdnserich, a gander. But it was 
no doubt the wild goose which gave the name, 
and if we consider, we shall see that this bird has 
some qualities calculated to command the respect 
of these early roving tribes. A powerful bird, 
strong on the wing, taking long flights to distant 
lands, marshalled with the most beautiful discip- 
line of instinct, it formed no inapt emblem of 
those migratory plunderers who renewed their 
unwelcome visitations with each succeeding 
spring. 

But I doubt very much whether Goose itself 
is from the bird. It corresponds with a French 
GoussE, and I have elsewhere placed them both 



100 THE BRUTE AND ITS ATTRIBUTES. 

• 

to an Old German Gauso. So also Gosling, and 
the French Gosselin I include in the same group. 
Gander I have already referred to a different 
origin, p. 74. The only two names that seem 
with any certainty to be from this origin are 
WiLDGOOSE and Graygoose, Ang.-Sax. grceg-gos, 
a grey or wild goose. 

Swan was usually — if not invariably a bap- 
tismal name — Goose sometimes a baptismal, and 
sometimes a surname, but Duck always a sur- 
name. There was a Northman surnamed Gend 
in the Landnamabok, and an Anglo-Saxon lady 
surnamed Enede in Flor, Wig. Our name And 
might be from the Dan. and Swed. and, corres- 
ponding with the Old Norse ond, Ang.-Sax. enede, 
a duck. But we have also An doe, and this is 
very evidently the Old German Ando, 7th cent., 
from anda, zeal, spirit. So that And may be 
more probably the same. Duck agam is not by 
any means certain— the Modern German Ducke, 
Forstemann refers to Ang.-Sax. dugan, to be of 
use or value. So that Duck may go along with 
DuGA, DuGGiN, Tuck, and other names elsewhere 
noticed, while Duckling will correspond with an 
Old Germ. Dugelin from the same root. 

Drake again, along with Drage, and the 
French Drache, Dracq, is most probably from a 
root drac, drag, trag, found in many Old Germ, 
names, and which Forstemann refers to Goth. 
tragjan, to run. 



THE BRUTE AND ITS ATTRIBUTES. 101 

It is not at all probable that the French 
Canard signifies duck. It comes in its place as 
one of several compounds from a root gan or can, 
and it interchanges with another French name 
Ganard, which again corresponds with an Old 
Germ. Ganhart. 

Thus it will be seen that though there were 
ancient surnames from the duck, there is no name 
at present, in French or English, which can with 
any certainty be referred to that origin. 

From the Goth, and Anglo-Saxon liana, Old 
Norse liani. Mod. Germ, liahn, which signify the 
male of all birds, but particularly of the hen, may 
be Hann, Hanna, Hanny, Hannell, &c. But 
it is rather more probable that this is only 
another form of a.n, which is from a different root. 

The names derived from the peacock must 
probably have been bestowed on account of the 
magnificence, or perhaps the ostentation of the 
individual. There was an Icelandic chieftain of 
the tenth century, named Olaf P^ (Anglo-Saxon 
pawa. Old Norse pd, pea-fowl), the splendour of 
whose dwelling is commemorated in the Laxdsela- 
saga, and who probably owed his surname to this 
cause. Hence might be Pea, Pay, Poe, the 
Mod. Germ. Pfau and our Peacock and Pocock, 
aU of which I take to have been origmally given 
as surnames. 

Among the names which I think are to be 
otherwise explained are Coote, same as Coode 
and Good — Teale same as Deal (Anglo-Saxon 



Pea. 
Peacock. 



102 THE BRUTE AND ITS ATTRIBUTES. 

deal, illustrious) Quail, an aspirated form of 
Wale — Bunting, the patronymic of Bunt — 
Bustard, Buzzard, Mallard, and Partridge, 
which I take to be ancient compounds — and 
Grouse, referred to at p. 49. 

Ostrich I have elsewhere taken to be from 
the Old Germ, name Austoric. In an Ang.-Sax. 
charter Ostrich also occurs as a corruption of the 
female name Ostrith. 

Snipe I cannot think to be from the bird, 
though it is not improbable that it may be from 
the same origin, Dutch and Dan. sneh, beak. 
Compare an Ang.-Sax. Cnebba, " he that hath a 
beak," (Kemble, — Names, Surnames, and Nic- 
names of the Anglo-Saxons.) 

Names derived from small birds enter into a 
different category. They seem in most cases to 
have been sohriqiiets — perhaps often pet-names, 
given especially to women. So the Romans 
employed columha, pullus, and passer — " my 
dove,'' " my chick,'' " my sparrow." The same 
prevails very much at present among ourselves ; 
indeed birds, with their pretty ways, seem a 
natural emblem of woman. 

None more so than the dove, which appears some- 
times as a pet-name, as in the case of Tovelille 
(little dove), the name of Valdemar of Denmark's 
mistress, and Dy veke (dovie), that of the German 
mistress of Christian the Second. Sometimes 
apparently as a baptismal name, though Forste- 
mann proposes Old Norse d^ihba, to beat, in pre- 



THE BllUTE AND ITS ATTRIBUTES. 



103 



Dove, 



ference. However, I am inclined to place the 
following here, viz., to Goth, duha, Anglo-Saxon 
duva, Old High Germ, tuba, Dan. tove, dove. A 
rather common name among the early Danes in 
England seems to have been Tofi or Tobi. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Diibi, Tuba, Tupa, 9th cent. Old Dan. Tofi, 
Tobi. English Dove, Dovey, Dobie, Tube, Tubby, Tupp, ^ ^^^^^^^ 
TovEY, ToovEY, Toby. Modern German Taube. French 
Dubeau, Duveau, Dobbe, Doubey, Touvy, Touvee. 

diminutives. 
Eng. DoBEL — French Dobel. English Doblin — French 
DoBELiN. Old Germ. Tubinso, 8th cent. — Eng. Dubbins. 

We have also Turtle, corresponding with the 
name Tyrthell, of a bishop of Hereford, A.D. 688. 
This may be from Ang.-Sax. tiirtill, a turtle-dove, 
but it may be a question whether we should not 
look somewhat deeper. For we find the simple 
form Turta, a woman's name of the 8th cent. 
This seems to interchange with other women's 
names Truta and Trutta, and men's names Truto 
and Trut, 9th cent. May not then the Old High 
German triity beloved, truten, to caress, be the 
common origin of all these names, and also of that 
of the turtle-dove '? 

It seems probable that Thrush, Trush, and 
Throssell are from the bird (Ang.-Saxon thrisc, Thmsh. 
throsle.) There are, however, two Old German Turdus. 
names, Traostilo and Trostila, 9th cent., which 
Forstemann refers to Old High German, ti^dst, 
comfort. But the Old Norse throstr, Dan. trost^ 
thrush, appears in the name (Throstr) of three 



104 THE BRUTE AND ITS ATTRIBUTES. 

Northmen in the Landnamabok, which makes 
the former derivation more probable. 

A name which I take to be pretty certainly 
not from the bird is Linnet. We can trace this 
name from an Old German Linheit, through a 
Saxon Liniet, to our Linnet, French Linet> 
LiNOTTE. It is a compound from the root lin 
(probably Old Norse linr, mild), with heit, state, 
" hood;^ 

Fink and Finch, French Fink, seem to be 

Fink, probably from the bird (Ang.-Saxon Jinc, finch). 

Finch, rjij^^g ^^ £^^ ^g ^ sumamc in Anglo-Saxon times ; 

there was a Godric Fine {Cod. Dip. 923.) 

Some other names from small birds, as BuL- 
FiNCH, Goldfinch, Chaffinch, Nightingale, 
TiTMUSS, which cannot reasonably be otherwise 
explained, have probably also been surnames. I 
do not class Wren along with these, for I think 
that it is the same as E,enn, Rennie, Eenno, 
French Rene (probably rdn, rapine.) 

Sporr (sparrow), is found as a surname among 
spt^ow. the Northmen. And to the same origin I am 
disposed to refer our Sparrow, Spar, Sparling, 
and Sperling (Germ, sterling, sparrow.) 

There is some doubt about Swallow, though 
the type would not be an inapt one in ancient 
times, and though there is a Modern German 
Schwalbe to correspond. But we have also 
Swale, and we find an Old German Swala, 9th 
cent., along with different compounds. So that 
our Swallow miglit be the same name, varying 



THE BRUTE AND ITS ATTRIBUTES. 105 

the termination. A probable etymon seems to 
be Anglo-Saxon swelan, to burn (North. Eng. 
" sweel"), swol, heat, fire. 

It is not easy to see upon what principle the 
cuckoo and the owl should have given us names. 
Yet Gaukr (Old Norse gaukr, cuckoo), appears 
as a baptismal name m the Landnamabok of 
Iceland, and seems to be the origin of our Gowk ^""^^ 
and GooK. We have also Cuckoo and Gougou 
— the Germans have Kuckkuck, and the French 
have Cucu and CuQU. The Old Norse gauhr 
had a contemptuous sense similar to that which 
obtains in the North of England at the present 
day, where gowk signifies both cuckoo and also 
simpleton. Either this, or the peculiar habit by 
which this bird evades parental responsibihties, 
might account for its origin as a sobriquet, but 
not as a baptismal name, of which, however, I 
find no other instance than the above. 

The owl is found more frequently in baptismal 
names, unless some other origin can be suggested 
for the following group than the Old High Germ. 
ula, Ang.-Sax. ide, owl, 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old German OvXtas, Procop. 6tli cent. English Owle, uie 
OwLEY, HooLE, HowLE, HowLEY. Modern German Uhle. ^^i- 
French Houlie. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

French Ulliac. Old German Ulit — English Houlet, 
HuLETT — French Houlet, Hulot. 

COilPOUNDS. 

{Bert, famous) Old German Ulberta, 8th cent. — English 
Hulbert — Modern German Ulbricht — French Hulbert. 

N 



106 THE BRUTE AND ITS ATTRIBUTES. 

{Ha/rd^ fortis) Frencli Houlakd. {Hari, warrior) Old Germ. 
Ov\LapL<s, Procop. 6th cent. — Eng. Owler, Ulier — French 
HouLLiER. (Man) Old Germ. OvXtfjiovv, Procop. 6th cent. 
— Eng. Ulman — Mod. German Ullmann — French Oulman, 
XJlman. {3far, famous) Old German Ulmar, 8th cent. — 
Ulmerus (Domesday) — Eng. TJllmer. 

It will be seen from the foregoing pages that 
while the number of names derived from birds is 
very considerable, a large proportion of them have 
been originally sobriquets, while others are found- 
only as isolated baptismal names, and that the 
number of these which have been adopted into 
what I may call the regular Teutonic name- 
system is only three or four. 

Of the whole tribe of fishes I do not think 
that there is one which is to be found with cer- 
tainty in our names. Fish itself, and Fisk, are 
certainly not from fish, pisces, though they might 
be from Ang.-Sax. Jisca, fisherman. But I have 
elsewhere given a reason for proposing Welsh 
ffysg, impetuous, as obtaining at least in some 
cases. 

Of other names Bream is the Anglo-Saxon 
brSme, famous, Burt is the same as Bright, 
Smelt is the Ang.-Sax. smelt, mild, gentle, and 
Trout is Germ, traut, beloved. Tunny and 
Minnow are Tunn and Minn with the endings 
i and o {Chap. 2) — Haddock is a diminutive — 
Sturgeon is Sturge with a phonetic ending 
{Chap. 4) — Herring and Whiting are patrony- 
mics — Cod is another form of God ; Perch and 
Tench of Birch and Dench {Chap, 7). 



THE BRUTE AND ITS ATTRIBUTES. l07 

There may remain a few names, originally 
sohriqiietSy derived from, or connected with fish. 
I lately met with the curious name Rotten- 
FYSCHE, like the name Rottenheryng found by 
Mr. Lower in an ancient record of the town of 
Hull. There is a Northman in the Landnamabok 
with the not very elegant surname of Hwalmagi 
(whale-belly.) Mr. Lower produces a similar 
English name Whalebelly. 

With the exception of the serpent, I doubt 
whether reptiles or insects have contributed to 
our nomenclature. Perhaps, however, another 
exception may be Wasp, which would not be an 
unnatural etymon. Mr. Lower, moreover, ad- 
duces from a Sussex subsidy roll for 1296, a 
" Roger le Waps," (Ang.-Sax. weeps, another form 
of wcesp.) 

Owing, as we may presume, to its supposed 
wisdom or subtlety, the serpent was anciently a 
common type in the names of men. In the names 
of women still more so, at least among the 
Germans. Weinhold (Deutschen Frauen) classes 
the snake and the swan together as the two 
types most pecuHarly feminine. Respecting the 
former he waxes almost poetical — " Our ancestors 
had a different idea of this animal to that which 
we have ; they not only thought it beautiful, but 
from its insinuating and entwining habits, a type 
of the living woman. Moreover the mysterious 
power and magic craft that was attributed to it 
reminded them of the like mysterious subtlety 



108 THE BRUTE AND ITS ATTRIBUTES. 

and power of woman, and thus the name Linda 
had nothing of that hateful sound which our 
word snake conveys, but everything of insinua- 
tion and enchantment that can be put into a 
word/' I cannot but fear, however, that the 
original idea may have been a shade more 
prosaic. 

From the Ang.-Sax. wiirm, Old Eng. worrriy 
Old Norse ormr, serpent, I take the following. 
Ormr was a very common name among the 
Northmen, there being twenty-four men so called 
in the Landnamabok. It does not seem to be a 
common name at present in Denmark. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Worm ^^^ Oevm, Wurm, lltli cent. Old Norse Ormr. Eng. 

oLi.' WoRME, Orme. Mod. German Wurm. Mod. Dan. Orm. 
Serpent. French Warm^ 1 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Bold, audax) Eng. Wormbolt.* {Wcdd, ^onqv) Eng. 

WORMALD. 

The next ^oup. Snook, Snake, Snagg, 

Snook, Snag. ^ . , . mi • l,x U 

Snake? Snugg, IS uot quitc SO cortam. i hey might be 
from Ang.-Saxon sndce, Old Norse snokr, sndkr, 
Dan. snog, snake. But the Old Norse sndkr, 
sndkr, as well as another word, snoggr, also means 
active, nimble, in a derived, or secondary sense. 
There is also a verb snugga, increpare, which 
might be the origin of Snugg. There is a 
Snocca, whose name is signed to a charter of 



• Or this may go along with the Mod. Germ. Warmbold, which Pott makes 
the same as Warnebold, from the stem, warin, warn, elsewhere noticed. Indeed 
I am not qnite sure that the name Wormbolt itself is not of German origin. 



THE BRUTE AND ITS ATTRIBUTES. 109 

Cadwalha of Wessex, comparing with our 
Snook. 

From the Old Norse lingvi, lingormry serpent, 
I am incUned to take the following, though Graff 
and Forstemann refer to German gelingen, to 
prosper. Lingi was the name of a king in the 
Norse Volsungasaga. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Lingo, 1 1th cent. Old Norse Lingi. Eng. ^i^g 
Lingo, Ling. French Linge, Linge. Serpent. 

PHONETIC EXTENSION. 

Old Germ. Linguni. Eng. Lingen. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Hard^ fortis) Eng. Lingard. (Hait, state, condition) 
Old Germ. Lingeeid — French Linget. 

Of a similar meaning may be lind. Old High 
German lint, snake, basihsk, " lindworm." But 
there are other words which are also suitable, 
and while Weinhold proposes the above, Grimm 
refers also to lind, fountain, and Forstemann 
thinks of lind, gentle. The older writers again 
propose lind, the lime-tree, the wood of which 
was used for shields. It is probable that there 
may be an admixture of these different meanings, 
or of some of them. As a termination, in which 
it is only used in the names of women, lind, 
gentle, seems to me to be a very suitable mean- 
ing. In such more modern names as English 
LiNDEGREEN, which seems to be from the German, 
the sense is no doubt that of the limetree. But 
there is a name Lendormi in the directory of 



110 THE BRUTE AND ITS ATTRIBUTES. 

Paris, whicli seems clearly to be from the snake, 
and to mean lind-worm. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Lind. Old Germ. Linto, 8th cent. Eng. Lind, Lindo, Lent. 

Serpent, ^q^^ Germ. LiNDE, Lende. Swed. Lind. French Lente. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Hari, warrior) Eng. Linder — French Linder, Lender. 
(Man) English Lindeman — French ? Lindemann. (Orm, 
serpent) French 1 Lendormi. 

Of names apparently from insects, Moth and 
Mote may be taken to be from Old Saxon mdd. 
Mod. German muth, courage. Emmett is from 
Ang.-Sax. emeta, quies, an ill-fitting derivation 
for poor Robert Emmett. 

Lastly — we have Bugg, and an unpleasant 
name it seems. Yet there may be crumbs of 
etymological comfort for the Buggs — indeed I 
think a good case may be made out to show that 
it is a name of reverence rather than of contempt. 
It is at all events of respectable antiquity, for Mr. 
Kemble (Names, Surnames, and Nicnames of the 
Anglo-Saxons), mentions an Anglo-Saxon lady, 
Hrothwaru surnamed Bucge, which he thinks 
can be derived from nothing else than the name 
of the odious insect. The opinion of Mr. Kemble 
is not lightly to be gainsayed. Still I should 
like to know whether there is any other proof 
that there were bugs in Anglo-Saxon times, or 
whether there is any other trace of the word in 
ancient Teutonic dialects. For I have heard it 
maintained that the bug is one of the many im- 
portations — good and bad — that we have received 



THE BRUTE AND ITS ATTRIBUTES. Ill 

during the last few centuries. In Old Eng. the 
word meant a spectre — " Thou shalt not be afraid 
of any bugs by night," in an old version of the 
Scriptures, referred to an imaginary, and not a 
real horror. The lady in question, Hrothwaru, 
surnamed Bucge, is described as " Abbatissa et 
sanctimonialis" — she was an abbess and a holy 
person. Now in some ages of the church a per- 
verted self-mortification did make -w^zcleanliness 
next to godliness, and I could not undertake to 
say that it was never so m Anglo-Saxon times. 
Yet still it does not seem very likely that the 
feehng of reverence, amounting often to super- 
stition, which prevailed among that simple- 
minded people, would allow them to apply to a 
holy lady a term which could not be otherwise 
than one of contempt. Might not then Bucge be 
classed with several other ancient names, Buga, 
Buge, Buggo, referred to in another chapter, and 
probably, if it be taken to be a surname, having 
the meaning of bowed or bent, as with age or in- 
firmity 1 In that case nothing can be more 
natural than that the venerable abbess should be 
called by a name which would at once bring to 
mind the reverend years, — the cares of her high 
office — and the self-mortification which had com- 
bined to bow down her frame.''^ And even if it 



* This stands as I had it before. But I now doubt whether Bucge was a sur- 
name at all. It seems to have been another — and perhaps more probably — her 
original name. I find that Mr. Haig, in some brief, but very judicious remarks on 
Anglo-Saxon names appended to a treatise on the cross at Bewcastle, has taken thd 
Bame objection to Mr. Kemble's opinion. 



112 THE BRUTE AND ITS ATTRIBUTES. 

were perfectly clear that this lady derived her 
name from the bug and nothing else — other 
BuGGS, as I have elsewhere shown, may wear 
their name with a difference, and have no occasion 
to change it to Howard. 

Having now gone through the names of 
animals, beginning with the bear, and ending 
with the bug, we may conclude this part of 
the subject with a general observation. We 
find that the names of the nobler quad- 
rupeds, and of the nobler birds, have gene- 
rally been assumed as baptismal names. That 
the names of the inferior quadrupeds, and 
of the smaller birds have been generally conferred 
as surnames. That any names that may be de- 
rived from fishes — and whether there are any is 
very doubtful — were also probably surnames. 
That — with the exception of the serpent — names 
from reptiles and insects, of which I know only 
one at all probable, were also probably surnames. 
And, in the exception of the serpent we may 
perhaps find a trace of that widely-prevaihng 
worship or respect which was paid to that animal 
as the representative of evil throughout the 
world. 

NOTE TO CHAPTEIl X. 

To eher or ever, boar, we may put [wacar, watchful) Old German 
Eburacer, 8th cent. — Eureuuacre, Domesday — English Earwakek. 
The only Old German name which has been distinctly recognised as 
having this termination is that of Odovacar, and it is creditable to the 
discernment of Forstemann to have suspected the same form in 
Eburacer — his judgment, it will be seen, being confirmed by the 
Domesday name of Eureuuacre (Evrewacre. ) Both our own name 
and the Domesday are quoted from Lower, I must therefore amend 
the derivation of Overacre, and make it same as above. 



CHAPTER XI. 



THE GODS OF THE NORTH. 

The names or titles of their deities have, 
among various nations and from the earhest 
period, been assumed as the names of men. Thus 
we read that Daniel was called by Nebuchad- 
nezzar Belteshazzar, "according/' as the king 
says, " to the name of my god." In this respect 
the Teutonic nations were not an exception, 
though, as it seems to me, the practice was more 
common among the Scandinavians than among 
the Germans. But it is to be borne in mind that 
the Scandinavian mythology is the only one 
which has come down to us in its integrity, and 
that of the corresponding Germanic mythology 
we have only fragments. There was a general, 
but by no means an exact coincidence between 
the two systems, and we are therefore not so well 
able to judge how far the names of their deities, 
the whole of which are not preserved, were 
assumed by the Germans as the names of men. 

Before, however, entering upon the traces of 
the Northern pantheon, I must refer to two words 
signifying divinity, and both very common in 
Teutonic names, whose roots may go down deeper 
than the Odinic mythology, and perhaps even 
reveal to us a glimpse of an older and a purer faith. 

o 



114 THE GODS OF THE XOETH. 

One of these is the same as oiu' o^ti word 
God, Goth, guth. Old Norse gaud, Ang.-Sax. god, 
Friesic goad, guad, kc. Old High Gerraan goth. 
god, cot (the last the oldest form.) Various 
derivations have been suo-o-ested for its orio-in, as 
that of Pott, from a Sansc. word signifpng to 
hide, as found in gtidha, mystery, and that of 
Eichhoff, from Sansc. guddha, piu-e. The word 
occurs first — if we set aside the fabled Gothic 
kinof Gothila mentioned bv Jornandes — in the 
name, as I read it, of a Dacian referred to by 
Horace, — 

" Occidit Daci Cotisonis agmen." 

Mr. Talbot says " The name of this Dacian, 
Cotison, appears to mean Gottes sohn, or Dei 
filius." Such a name, however, would be quite 
out of keeping with Old German nomenclature ; 
and, moreover, I take the nominative of Cotisonis 
to be, not Cotison, but Cot i so. This brings it in 
at once as an Old German name, corresponding 
with a later Godizo — cot, as Diefenbach observes, 
beino- the oldest Hisrh German form — and connects 
it with the present names Godsoe, Godso, &c. 

The word is very apt in Teutonic names to 
mix up with the adjective, guot, god, bonus, which 
may be fr'om the same root, and also with Goth, 
the people's name, a word likewise perhaps allied 
in its root. But the most of the forms I think 
come in imder this head. As an ending, how- 
ever, I agree with Forstemann in preferring the 
people's name. 



THE GODS OF THE NORTH. 115 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Godo, Goddo, Goda, Gotti, Gudo, Guta, Cot, ood. 
Cotta, Cudo, Coutus, 6th. cent. Ang.-Sax. Goda. Cudda, ^®"^ 
Cuddi (Lib, Vit.) English God,* Goddy, Good, Goad, 
GooDEY, Goodday, Gott, Gotto, Gut, Codd, Cody, Coode> 
CooTE, CoTT, CuDD, CuDDY. Modern German Gode, Gude, 
Gutte, Kott, Kude. French Godde, Godeau, Gude, 
GouDEAu, Gout, Goute, Coudy, Couty, Couteau, Cotte, 
CoTTEY, Cotta, Cote, Coteau, Cudey, Cuit. 

diminutives. 
Old German Godaco, 4th cent. — Mod. Germ. Godecke — 
French Goudchau. Old Germ. Godila, Gudila, Coutilo, 7th 
cent., Gothilas or Gudilas {Jornandes, mythical king of the 
time of Philip of Macedon). — English Good all, Cottle, 
CuTTELL — Mod. German Godel, Gottel, Guttel — French 
GouDAL, Godel, Gutel, Cotel. Old Germ. Gotichin, 10th 
cent. — Eng. Godkin t — French Godquin, Gauduchon. Old 
German Godelenus, Godelin, 6th cent. -^English Codling 
— French Godillon. Old German Cotiso {Horace), Godizo, 
10th cent. — Eng. Godsoe, Goodess, Coutts — Mod. German 
GoTZE — French Coutz. Old German Chotenza — French 
CoTTANCE, CouTANCE, CouTANSEAU. Old German Godemia, 
9th cent. — Eng. Goddam, Cottam — French Coutem. 

patronymics. 
Old Germ. Coding, 8th cent. — Eng. Godding, Gooding, 
Cutting — Modern German Gotting, Kotting — French 
Gottung. 

compounds. 

[Bald, bold) Old German Godebald^ 8th cent. — Godebol- 
diis, Domesday — Eng. Godbold, Godbolt. (Bert, famous) 
Old Germ. Godabert, 7th cent. — French Gaudibert. (Fridy 
peace) Old Germ. Godafrid, 7th cent. — English Godfrey — 

* John God, the name of a writer who lived about the 17th century. 

t Pott, in accordance with his general system of contractions — which, how- 
ever, I cannot help thinking an erroneous one — makes our name Godkin, as well 
as Goad and Godden, an abbreviation of Godard or Godfrey. 



116 THE GODS OF THE NORTH. 

Mod. German Gottfried — French Godefroid, Godefrot, 
GoDFRiN (French dimin. 1) (Ger, spear) Old Germ. Cuotker 
— Eng. GooDACRE. (Gisil, hostage) Old German Godigisil, 
Godesilus, Bnrgundian King, 5 th cent. — English Godsell, 
GooDSALL. (Heid, state, condition) Old Germ. Gotaheid, 9th 
cent. — English Godhead (Manchr.) (Hard) Old German 
Gotahard, Godehard, 8th cent. — Eng. Goddard, Goodheart, 
GoTHARD — Mod. German Godehard, Gotthardt — French 
Goudard, Coutard, Coudert, Cottard. (Hari, warrior) 
Old German Godehar, Goter, 8th cent. — English Godier, 
Goodear, Goodyear, Goodair, Goater, Cotter — Modern 
German Gotter, Guter, Kutter — French Gouthierre, 
CouTiER, CouDER. (Gifu, gift) Ang.-Saxon Godgifu — later 
Godiva — English Goodeve — French Gaudiveau. (-^e/J 
superstes) Old Germ. Godolef, 6th cent. — Old Norse Gudleif 
— Eng. GooDLiFFE — Mod. German Gottleib. (Lac, play) 
Old German Godolec, 9th cent.— ■ Eng. Goodlake, (Land) 
Old Germ. Godolaijd, 8th cent. — Godland (Lib. Vit.) — Eng. 
Goodland. (Man) Old German Godeman, 8th cent. — 
Godeman, Domesday — Eng. Godman, Goodman, Gutman, 
CoTMAJsr — Modern German Guttman — French Goutmann, 
Gutman. (Mar, famous) Old Germ. Godomar, Cuthmar, 5 th 
cent. — English Cutmore. (Mund, protection) Old German 
Codemund, 9th cent. — Ang.-Saxon Godmund — Old Norse 
Gudmundr — Eng. GoDaiUND — French Goudemant. (New, 
young) Old German Godeniu, Cotini, 8th cent. — Old Norse 
Gudny — Eng. Goodnow — French Codini. (Ram, raven) 
Old Germ. Godramnus, 8th cent. — Eng. Goodram. (JRaty 
red, counsel) Old Germ. Gotrat, Cuotarat, 8th cent. — Eng. 
Goodered — French Gautrot, Coderet, Coutrot, Coteret. 
(Bit, ride) Old German Guderit, 6th cent. — Godritius, 
Domesday — English Goodwright, Outright. (Run, com- 
panion) Old German Goderuna, Guterun, 7th cent. — Old 
Norse Gudrun — French Gutron, Codron, Cothrune. (Rice, 
powerful) Godricus, Domesday — English Goodrich, Good- 
RiDOE, Godrick — French Godry, Coutray. (Scalk, servant) 
Old Germ. Godscalc, 7th cent. — Eng. Godskall, Godschall 



THE GODS or THE NORTH. 117 

(IFaj-c?, guardian) Old German Godoward, 8tli cent. — Eng. 
GoDWARD. (Wine, friend) Old German God u in, Codoin, 6th 
cent. — Ang.-Sax. God wine — Eng. Godwin, Goodwin — Mod. 
German Guttwein — French Goudoin, Coudoin. (Wealh, 
stranger) Ang.-Sax. Cudwalh — Eng. Goodwill. 

phonetic ending. 
Old German Godin, Godino, Gudin, Cotini, 7th cent.— 
Gotten (Lib. Vit.) — English Godden, Gooden, Cotton, 
CuDDON. French Godin, Godineau, Gudin, Guttin, 

COUTIN. 

phonetic intrusion of n, r, ly see p. 29, 
Old Germ. Godenulf, 8th cent. — English Goodenough. 
Old German Godelher, 8th cent. — French Godelier. Old 
Germ. GodaJmand, 6th cent. — Eng. Godliman 1 Old Germ. 
Goderman, 9th cent. — Eng. Gutterman* — Modem German 
Gutermann — French Gaudermen. 

It is striking to observe how the names of the 
Deity, in the three great languages of Europe, 
show forth, each for itself, some one or other of 
his attributes. The Romanic Dios, Dio, Dieu, 
from a root signifying brightness, tells of his 
glory — " He dwelleth in the light whereunto no 
man can approach." The Germanic God, Got, if 
we take the meaning of Eichhoff,t speaks of his 
purity — " He is of purer eyes than to behold 
vanity." If we take that of Pott, it refers to his 
impenetrability — " Canst thou by searching find 
out God V The Slavonic Bog, from a root ex- 



* Perhaps this, along with some other names found in SufiFolk Sumamei, 
may be a German name anglicized. 

t Diefenbach, however, seems to distrust both these derivations. Grimm 
observes (Z>eu<sc7i.. Myth.) UiAt " the root-meaning of this word is a subject upon 
which we require to be further enlightened." 



118 THE GODS OF THE NOETH. 

pressive of abundance, speaks of liis bounty — 
" He giveth us richly all things to enjoy." 

But there is another, and a remarkable word 
which was used by our Scandinavian forefathers, 
and which is also found, though in a sense seem- 
ingly already somewhat debased, among their 
German kinsmen, the Old Norse as, Ang.-Saxon 
OS, Goth, and High Germ. ans. The word does 
not seem to have any immediate co-relatives in 
the Northern speech — can we venture to connect 
it with the Sansc. as, to be, giving it the meaning 
of the self-existing, and comparing it with the 
great " I am" of Scripture '? In Old Norse as 
was a general title prefixed to the names of all 
the principal gods — thiis Thor is called Asa-Thor, 
Brag Asa-Brag, while Odin is called by pre- 
eminence The As. In the Anses of the Goths 
the sense seems to be a little lower, and more 
that of demi-god, while the Aug.- Sax. 6s is ren- 
dered by Bosworth, perhaps rather under its 
meaning, as hero. It is probable that in the 
first instance the prefix os was confined to the 
names of those who claimed to be descendants of 
Odin, though in after times it might come to 
be more generally assumed. All the founders of 
the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms claimed a descent 
from Odin, but it was only in the names of the 
Northumbrian branch that the word was common. 
Mr. Kemble observes " This word is nearly 
peculiar to the royal (god-born) race of Northum- 
berland, and occurs rarely in the south of 



THE GODS OF THE NORTH. 1 1 9 

England ; and when it does it is rather of Jutish 
or Angle than Saxon character." 

It will be seen that there is in our names a 
considerable mixture of the two forms as or os, 
and a7is ; it is probable that most of the latter 
have come to us through the French. The roots 
haz and Jiass are rather liable to intermix with 
some of these forms. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Anso, Aso, 9 th cent. Old Norse Asa. Eng. 
Anns, Hance, Asay, Assey ? Ass 1 French Anceau, 
Hans, Hannz, Asse 1 

diminutives. 
Old Germ. Ansich, Esic, 8th cent. — Eng. Enscoe — Mod. 
German Essich — French Essique. Old German Ansila, 
Ansilo, Ensilo, Asilo, 5 th cent. — Ang.-Sax. Esla — English 
Ansell, Anslow, Onslow, Ensell, Essell — Modern Germ. 
Ensle, Asel — French Ansel, Ancel, Assell. Eng. Aslin, 
EsLiNG — French Ancelin, Anselin, Enslen, Asselin, 

OSSELIN. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Bern, bear) Old German Osbem, Aspirn, 8th cent. — 
Ang.-Sax. Osbeorn — Old Norse Asbiorn — English Osborn, 
AsPERN. {Bert, bright) Old Germ. Anspert, Aaspert, Aspert, 
7th cent. — French Auspert, Asperti. (Berg, protection) 
Old German Asbirg, 9th cent. — Eng. Asbridge, Asberrey. 
(Gund, war) Old German Ansegunde, 7th cent. — Fr. AssE- 
gond. (Gaud, Goth) Old German Ansegaud, 9th cent. — 
Ang.-Sax. Osgot — English Osgood. (Hard) Old German 
Ansard, 8th cent. — English Hansard — French Ansart. 
(Hari, warrior) Old Germ. Ansher, 8th cent. — Ang.-Saxon 
Oshere — Eng. Anser, Enser, Enzer, Osyer — Mod. German 
Anser, Asser — French Aussi^re, Esser.. (Helm) Old 
Germ. Anshelm, 8th cent. — Eng. Anselme, Hansom — Mod. 
Germ. Anselm — French Anselme, Anceaume. (Lac, play) 



Ans, 03. 
Divus. 



WV"**/^ 



120 THE GODS OF THE NORTH. 

Old Grerman Ansalicus, 7th cent. — A ng. -Saxon Oslac — Old 
Norse Asleikr — Eng. Aslock, Hasluck. (Man) Old Germ. 
Asman, Osman, 9tli cent. — Asseman Hund. Rolls. — Eng. 
AsMAN, Osman — French Ansmann. (ifar, famous) Old 
Germ. Ansmar, Osmer, 8th cent. — Osmer, Domesday — Eng. 
OsMER. (Mund, protection) Old Germ. Ansemund, Osmund, 
6th cent. — Ang. -Saxon Osmund — English Osmond — French 
Ansmant, Ancement, Osmont. {Waldy power) Old German 
Ansovald, Ansald, Oswald, 7th cent. — Ang. -Sax. Oswald — 
Eng. Oswald — Modern German Oswald — Ital. Ansaldi. 
(Waru, inhabitant) Old German Ansveras, Assuerus ? 8th 
cent. — French AssuERUS ? (Wine, friend) Ang.-Sax. Oswine 
—Eng. OswiN. (Ulf, wolf) Old German Asulf, Osulf, 7th 
cent. — French OzouP. 

Of Odin or Woden, the father of the gods, 
there are but few subsequent traces in the names 
of men. In the genealogies of the founders of 
the Saxon kingdoms, for instance, all of whom 
claimed descent from Woden, the name is never 
reproduced as is so generally the case with that 
of a distinguished ancestor. Perhaps it might 
be deemed presumptuous to assume the name of 
the father of the gods. " It seems," says Miss 
Yonge, "to have been avoided as Zeus was in 
Greece, and, to a greater extent, Jupiter in 
Rome." We find, however, one Old Germ, name 
Wotan, 9th cent., which seems to be from this 
origin. Possibly also our name Weddon, which 
corresponds with the form the word has assumed 
in Wednesday, and in names of places, as Wed- 
nesbury, &c., may also come in here. The Scan- 
dinavian form Odin is rather more common. It 
is found among the names of Danish coiners in 



THE GODS OF THE NORTH. 121 

England, and it occurs twice in Domesday. The 
English name Oden is adduced by Mr. Lower, 
and I find three persons called Odin in the direc- 
tory of Paris. The name does not occur in the 
directory of Copenhagen, nor do I find the corres- 
ponding German form in that country. 

One of the principal titles of Odin in the 
Scandinavian mythology was Oski, from Old 
Norse 6sk, a wish, and which is supposed to 
signify " one who listens to the prayers or wishes 
of mankind." Grimm (DeutscJi. Myth,) refers, in 
connection with the above, to the manner in 
which the German minnesingers of the 13 th 
cent, personified the wunsch or wish. He gives 
a number of examples, on which he remarks : — 
" In the greater number of these instances we 
might put Deity instead of Wunsch. . . In 
the first example from Gregory, the Wunsch 
seems almost to be ranked as a being of the 
second order ; a servant or messenger of the 
higher deity." Pott remarks that we seem to 
have here " a trace of the German Cupid." From 
the above title of Odin seems to be Osk, a Scan- 
dinavian female name in the Landnamabok. 
Also the Mod. German name Wunsch and the 
English Wish or Whish, showing the respective 
High and Low German forms of the same word. 
The Edinburgh Review for April, 1855, suggests 
that the surname Wishart (Jiart, hard) may 
also have been formed from it. It may, however, 
perhaps rather be the same as the name Wisu- 

p 



122 THE GODS OF THE NORTH. 

cart, Wisigard, of the wife of the Frankish king 
Theodebert. But Wisher and Whisker, cor- 
responding with a German Wunscher, rather 
seem to belong to it. Possibly also Wishman 
and Whiskeyman (Bowditch.) The only Old 
Germ, name from this root seems to be a Wiscolo, 
11th cent. 

On two different occasions Odin appears in a 
sort of trilogy ; at the creation of the world in 
conjunction Avith Vili and Ve ; at the creation of 
mankind in conjunction with Hoenir and Lodur. 
These beings do not seem to have had an in- 
dependent existence, but to denote, as Mr. 
Thorpe observes, "several kinds of the divine 
agency." The name Yili is from Old Norse vili, 
Anglo-Saxon willa, English " will,'' and may per- 
haps have here the meaning of creative impulse. 
According to Grimm the Anglo-Saxon willa, Old 
High Germ, willo. Old Norse vili, denote not only 
inclination, " voluntas and votum," but also " im- 
petus and spiritus," the power that sets will in 
motion. From the personification of the will in 
this title of Odin, like that before referred to of the 
wish, may be the word will, so common in proper 
names. Miss Yonge, generally so trustworthy, 
has fallen into what I cannot but consider a grave 
error in following old Camden instead of the 
German philologists, and making bil and ^EZ other 
forms of will. 

SCMrLE FORMS. 

,,T'": Old Germ. Willo, Willa, Wilia, Guila, 5tli cent. Eng. 

Impetus.' Will, Willoe, Willey, Guille, Quill. Modern German 



THE GODS OF THE NORTH. 123 

WiLLE, QuiLE. Dan. Wille. French Ville, Villy, 

ViLl4 GuiLLE, GuiLLl4 QuiLLlil. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old Germ. Willico, Willie, Oth cent.— Uillech, Lib. Vit. 
— Eng. WiLLOCK, WiLKiE, WiLKE, QuiLKE — Mod. German 
WiLLicH, WiLKE — French Quillac. Old Germ. Willikin, 
11th cent. — Eng. Wilkin — French Yillachon, Guillochin. 
Old Germ. WilHzo, 10th cent. — Eng. Willis, Wills — Mod. 
German Williez, Wilz — French Guilles. Old German 
Williscus, 9 th cent. — Modern German Willisch — English 
Quillish. 

patronymics. 

Old German Willing, Willencus, 9th cent. English 
Willing, Willink. Mod. Germ. Willing, Quilling, 
phonetic ending. 

Old German Willin, 11th cent. English Will an, 
Guillan. French Villain, Guilaine, Guillon. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Bald, bold) Old German Willabald, 8th cent. — French 
ViLBAUT, Guilbaut. {Bem, bear) Old German Wilbernus, 
10th cent. — Eng. Wilbourn. [Bert, bright) Old German 
Willibert, Guilabert, 8th cent. — French Guilbert. (Brod, 
dart) Old Germ. Willebort, 11th cent. — Ang. -Saxon Willi- 
brord — French Wilbrod. {Burg, protection) Old German 
Williburg, 8th cent. — Vilburg, Lib. Vit. — Eng. Wilbur* — 
Modern German Willbero. {Gom, com, man) Old German 
Willicomo, 9th cent. — Uilcomse, Lib. Vit. — Eng. Wilcomb, 
Welcome — Mod. German Willkomm. {Fred, peace) Old 
Germ. Wilfrid, 8th cent. — Anglo-Saxon Wilfrid — English 
WiLFORD, Wilfred (Christian name.) {Ger, spear) Old 
German Williger, Williker, 8th cent. — French Yillegri, 
YiLCERE. {Gis, hostage) OJd Germ. Willigis, 5tli cent. — 
Ang.-Sax. Wilgis — Eng. Wilgoss. (Hard) Old German 



* Hence the local name Wilbraham, originally Wllburgham. Pott cer- 
tainly must have been napping when he derived it from "Will \William', and 
Abraham I 



124 THE GODS OF THE NORTH. 

"WiUihard, Willard, 8tli cent. — Eng. "Willakd — Modern 
German Willert — French Willard, Yillard, Guillakd, 
QuiLLARD. {Heid, state, condition) Old German Williheid, 
Williheit, 8th cent.— -Eng. Willett— Mod. Germ. Willet 
— French Yillette, Guilet, Quillet. [Hari, warrior) 
Old German Williheri, Willeri, Wilier, 6th cent. — English 
Willer — Mod. Germ. Willer — French Yillerie, Yiller, 

GUILHERY, GuiLER, QuiLLERI, QuiLLIER. (Hdm) Old 

Germ. Willihelm, Guilhelm, 8th cent. — Ang.-Sax. Wilhelm, 
(sixth froia Woden in the genealogy of the kings of the East 
Angles) — Eng. Williams, Quilliams, Guillaume — Modern 
German Wilhelm — Dan. Wilhjelm — French Yillaume, 
Yilliame, Willaume, Guillaume, Guilhem. To the last 
Forstemann places also Old German Willermus, Yillerm, 
Guillerma, 10th cent., to which correspond French Wil- 
lerme, Yillerm, Guilhermy ; but orm, serpent, seems to 
me a possible origin, though we do not find it elsewhere as a 
termination. (Man) Old German Williman, Wilman, 9th 
cent. — Eng. Quillman — Mod. Germ. Willmann — French 
Willemin, Yillemain, Guillemain. {Mar, famous) Old 
Germ. Willimar {Swiss priest), 7th cent. — Eng. Willmer — 
Mod. Germ. Wilmar — French Yillmar. (Mand, joy) Old 
Germ. Willmant, 8th cent. — French Guillemant. {Mot, 
courage) Old Germ. Willimot, 8th cent. — English Willmott 
— French Willemot, Yillemot, Guillemot. {Mund, pro- 
tection) Old German Y^illimund, Guilemund, 8th cent. — 
TJilmund, Lib. Vit. — Eng. Willament — French Yillemont, 
Guillemont. {Nand, daring) Old Germ. Willinant, 6th 
cent. — English Quillinan. {Rat, counsel) Old German 
Willirat, 8th cent. — French Yilleret, Quilleret. 

Among the many titles of Odin — no fewer 
than 49 of which are enumerated in the Eddas — 
one of the principal was Grimr, from Old Norse 
grima, mask or helmet. To this origin Grimm, 
and, following him, Leo, place the ancient names 
of the following group, and though it is highly 



Helmet. 



THE GODS OF THE NORTH. 125 

probable, as Forstemann suggests, that grimy 
ssevus, intermixes, yet it is impossible to separate 
them, for the quantity of the vowel is no 
sufficient guide. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old German Grimo, Grim, 7th cent. Old Noi'se Grimr. Grime- 
Eng. Grim, Gream, Grime, Cream, Gryme. Mod. German 
Grimm. Trench Grim, Grem^ Gremeau. 

diminutives. 

Old Germ. Grimila, 5 th cent. Eng. Grimley. Modem 
Germ. Grimmel. French Grimal. 

patronymics. 

Eng. Grimson, Crimson. 

compounds. 

{Bald, fortis, Old German Grimbald, 8th cent. — English 
Grimbold,* Grimble — French Grimblot. {Bert, famous) 
Old Germ. Grimbert, 7th cent. — French Grimbert. {Heit, 
state, " hood") Old German Grimheit, 8th cent. — English 
Grimmet. {Hari, warrior) Old German Grimhar, Crimher, 
8th cent. — English Grimmer, Creamer ? — Modern German 
Grimmer, Krimmer — French Grimar. {Mund, protection) 
Old German Grimund, 9th cent. — Eng. Grimmond — French 
Grimont. {Wald, power) Old Germ. Grimoald, 7th cent. — 
French Grimault — Italian GRiMALDit — Spanish Grimaldo. 
{Wine, friend) Old German Grimoin, 8th cent. — French 
Grimoin. {Ward, guardian) Old German Grim wart, 
Grimoard, 8th cent. — French Grimoard. 

The following names, though perhaps more 
immediately connected with superstitions of a 
later date, may in their remoter origin be traced 
to Nikar, a title of Odin, in which he appears as 
a water spirit or daemon. Throughout Germany 

* Of the 16th cent. I do not find it at present, 
t Hence the naturalized Eng. name Gbimaldi. 



126 THE GODS OF THE NORTH. 

and Scandinavia popular superstition has pre- 
served some trace of him in this form. Iceland 
and the Faroe islands have their Hnikur, Norway 
and Denmark their Nok, Sweden its Neck, and 
Germany its Nix and Nickel. All these are 
water daemons, appearing generally in the form 
of a horse, and usually obnoxious to mankind. 
England has its Old Nick, in which he appears 
directly in the form of the evil one. As the early 
Christian missionaries found it difficult to get 
rid of him altogether, they seem to have changed 
him into the devil. The following root Forste- 
mann takes to be from this origin. 

Nick, Neck. SIMPLE FORMS. 

WaterSpirit, Old German Niko, Necclio, lltli cent. English Nick, 
Neck, ISIex, Nix, Nixie. Modern German Nick. French 
Nick, Nicaise. (The last name seems to he the Old High 
Germ, nichus, whence hy contraction the Mod. Germ. nixe.J 

diminutive. 
English Nicklen. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Aud, prosperity) French Nicaud. (Hard J French Nicard. 

extended R00T=THE old NORSE HNIKUR. 

Old German Nickar, 8th cent. English Nicker(son). 
Dutch Neckar. French NicouR. 

I am not sure that the father of the gods has 
not contributed to the commonness of the name 
of Brown, for Bruni, from the Old Norse hriln, 
the brow, was one of the names of Odin, and a 
probable meaning seems to be that of having 
marked or prominent brows, which is considered 
to give power and dignity to a countenance. 



THE GODS OF THE NORTH. 127 

This is what Tennyson is generally understood 
to mean by — 

" The bar of Michael Angelo." 
There are several Northmen called Bruni in the 
Landnamabok, and one of them was surnamed 
" The White," shewing clearly that at any rate 
his name was not derived from dark complexion. 

The name of Thor, the second of the gods, 
from whom we have Thursday, seems also, like 
that of Odin, to have been uncommon as a man's 
name in its simple form. Finn Magnusen [Lex. 
Myth.) states that though he could reckon up 
about sixty compound names, he knew no instance 
of the simple form. 

We have, however, instances of its use in our 
own district ; there was a Thor, surnamed the 
Long, an Anglo-Saxon or Northman of some note 
about the time of the Conquest, and who was so 
surnamed to distinguish him from another Thor 
who had possessions in the same part of the 
country. 

The name Tor occurs several times in Domes- 
day ; this is the Scandinavian pronunciation, as 
in Torsdag for Thursday, but it is not clear to 
me that this name, as well as our own Torr and 
yc ToRRY, is not from another root, probably Old 
Norse doerr, spear. Thor does not occur in the 
directory of Copenhagen, though the patronymic 
Thorsen is common. 

Grimm thinks that Thor is only a contracted 
form of Anglo-Saxon thuner, Old Norse thonar, 



128 THE GODS OF THE NORTH. 

thunder. And, in fact, Thuner was another Ang.- 
Sax. form of his name, as found in Thunresdaeg 
for Thursday. There was an Anglo-Saxon named 
Thuner, a " Kmb of the devil,'' a.d. 654, {Rog. 
Wend.) And we have still the name Thunder, 
though uncommon. 

The High German form is Donar, as found in 
Donnerstag for Thursday. This occurs, though 
not frequently, as a proper name in Germany ; 
there was a noble family on the Rhme called 
Donner von Lorheim (Grimrris Deutsch. Myth.) 
Our names Donnor and Tonnor I apprehend to 
be the same. There are also some Old German 
names compounded with it. 

Names compounded with Thor were very 
common among the Northmen, and we have 
several corresponding. They seem also to have 
occurred, though rarely, among the Germans, and 
one or two are to be found in French. 

COMPOUNDS OF THOR. 

(^Bar, bear) Thurbarus, Goth, leader 3rd cent. — Eng. Thur- 
of Thor ^^^' (Bidi'n, bear*) Old Norse Tliorbiom — English Thor- 
BURN. (Gar, spear) Old Norse Thorgeir — Eng. Thurgar. 
(Gaut, Goth) Old Norse Thorgautr — Turgot (Domesday) — 
English Thorgate, Thoroughgate, Targett ? Thurgood, 
Thoroughgood — French Turgot. (Kettlef) Old Norse 

'* Probably from the sacred bear by which Thor was accompanied. Hence 
Thobburn is similar to Osburn, p. 119. 

t According to Grimm, from the famous kettle which Thor captured from 
the giant Hymir for the gods to brew their beer in. [Deutsch. Myth.) Ketill itself 
was a common Scandinavian name, and hence Eng. Kettle. The name Thub- 
KETTtiE then corresponds with another Eng. name Ashkettle, Old Norse Aske- 
till, Ang.-Sax. Oscytill. The French have Quetil and Anquetil, probably for 
Ansquetil. In Denmark I only find the patronymic Kbtelsen, Kjeldsen, 
Kjelsen. 



THE GODS OF THE NORTH. 129 

Thorketill — Eug. Thurkettle — Frencli Turquetil. {KeU^ 
a contraction of KetiU, according to Grimm) Old Norse Thor- 
kell — Eng. Thurkle. (Man) English Thorman. [Mddy 
courage) Old German Thurmod, 9th cent. — Old Norse 
Thormodr — English Thurmott. (Stone) Old Norse Th6r' 
steinn — Eng. Thurston. (Wcdd, power) Old Norse Thor- 
valldr — Eng. Thorold — French Tourault 1 ( Vid^ wood) 
Old Norse Thorvidr — Eng. Thoroughwood. 

The name of this god in all its three different 
forms appearing to be synonymous with thunder, 
it may not be amiss to enquire whether there are 
any other names which, as perhaps also signifying 
t^hunder, may contain other forms of his name. 
There seems indeed to me a considerable proba- 
bility that the name of this god, or rather of some 
god wielding the thunder, is of older date than 
the rest of the Odinic mythology. There is a 
root dun, which in the opinion of Forstemann, is 
at least as probably from Old Norse duna, 
thunder, as from Ang.-Sax. dunn, brown. Along 
with this may be included dm and don^ Old 
Norse dyn, Ang.-Sax. dyne, Belg. don, all having 
the same meaning of thmider. This, however, 
must be taken for nothing more than a conjec- 
ture, though an Old German name Dunitach 
(=Thunder-day, like Thunresdseg, Thursday 1) 
seems rather to give a colour to it. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old German Duno, Duna, Dono, Dina, Tunno, Tunna, ^ ^ 

' ' ' ' ' Dun, Don, 

Tinno, 7th cent. Anglo-Saxon Dun, Diinna. Eng. Dukn, Din. 
DiNN, DoNN, Donney, Donno, Tun, Tunno, Tunna y. Tunny, Thunder ? 
Ton, TiNNEY. Mod. Germ. Donn, Tonne. French Donne, 
Don AY, Donn4 Tonne, Tunna, TiNfe. 

Q 



130 THE GODS OF THE NORTH. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old Germ. Dunila, Donnolo, Tunila, Tinnulo, 7tli cent. 
— Eng. Bunnell, Donnell, Tunnell, Tunaley, Dinele't, 
TiNLEY — French Tonnelle, Tinel. Eng. Donelan, Tin- 
ling — French Donnellan. 

patronymics. 

Ang.-Sax. Dunning. Eng. Dunning, Dinning, Dining. 

Tinning. 

compounds. 

{Ger^ spear) Eng. Dunqer — Fren. Doncker. i^Stcmi, 

stone) Anglo-Saxon Dunstan — Eng. Dunstone, Tunstan. 

{Wine, friend) English Dunavin. 

According to Grimm, a name under which 
traces of Thor are still to be found in Germany 
is Hamer, and which is derived, no doubt, from 
the celebrated hammer or mallet which he 
wielded. Hence may probably be the following. 

simple forms. 
Old German Hamar, Hamari, 8th cent. Eng. Hammer, 
Hammer. Hemmer, Amor ? Amory % Mod. Germ. Hammer, Hemmer. 
French Hamoir, Amory ? ^-^^.jCu^ 

The name of Bragi or Brag, the god of 
poetry, seems unquestionably to have been borne 
by men. Finn Magnusen says " Nomen Bragi 
ssepe viris, et non raro poetis celebribus in Sep- 
tentrione contigit." There was among others a 
celebrated Icelandic bard named Bragi Skalld 
(Bragi the poet.) The English Bbagg, and the 
French Brag may be from this origin, but the 
Eng. Bragger seems uncertain. 

The name of Baldur, the Apollo of the 
Germans, seems to occur in one Old German 
name Baldor. Another, Baldro, 9th cent., (our 



THE GODS OF THE NORTH. 131 

BoLDERO '?) seems less certain. There was also 
an Old German name Baldher, from a different 
origin, to which, as being more common, our 
Balder, and the French Baltar, may more 
probably belong. 

The name of Tyr, son of Odin, in its Gothic 
form Tins, may perhaps be found in Teias, a Gothic 
leader of the Gth cent., and with which our Tyas 
and Tyus seem to correspond. But the Goth. 
thius, minister, an alHed word may put in a claim. 

It does not seem probable that Lok or Loki, 
who represented the evil principle in the Northern 
mythology, would be much in favour for bap- 
tismal names. I find it only as a surname in the 
Landnamabok, and it might have been given for 
mischievousness or malignity of disposition. The 
group of names which we have, viz., Eng. Locke, 
LocKiE, French Loque, Locque, Loch, &c., 
might, however, be from the same root. Old 
Norse lokJca, to deceive, seduce. A title of Loki 
was Loptr or Loftr, " the aerial ;" this was a 
common Scandinavian name, and hence possibly 
may be Eng. Loft. The corresponding deity 
among the Saxons was Saeter, from whom we 
have Saturday, and whose name seems to have 
the same meaning, Ang.-Saxon scetere, a seducer. 
I have found Satter as an English name, though 
very uncommon. 

Mr. Lower (Pat. Brit.) makes a suggestion re- 
specting the name of Flint, which I reproduce* 
without, however, being able to throw any 



132 THE GODS OF THE NORTH. 

further light upon it. " Our Ang.-Sax. ancestors 
had a subordinate deity whom they named Fhnt, 
and whose idol was an actual flint-stone of large 
size. The name of the god would readily become 
the appellation of a man, and that would in time 
become hereditary as a surname. Such it had 
become, without any prefix, at the date of the 
Hundred Rolls (1273), and even in Domesday 
we have in Suffolk an Alwin Flint. The town of 
Flint, in North Wales, may however have a claim 
to its origin." 

The following group Forstemann connects 
with the name of the goddess Frigga or Frikka, 
wife of 0dm. The Ang.-Sax. free. Mod. Germ- 
frecJi, bold, is also a probable root. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Fricco, Frich, 8tli cent. Ang.-Sax. Freok, 
Frigga or Cod. Dip. 971. English Fricke, Frickey, Freck, Freak* 
Frikka. |^od. German. Frick, Freche. French Fricq, Frech. 

Wife of Odin- 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Here, warrior) Old German Fricher, Sth cent. — English 
Fricker — Mod. Germ. Fricker — French Friker. (Wald, 
power) French Fricault, Frecault. 

There are some roots which seem to be con- 
nected with the names of certain deities, though 
there is scarcely sufiicient reason for supposing 
that they are derived from them. Thus the root 
had, hath, war, Grimm thinks is connected with 
the name of the god Hodr, a son of Odin. And 
the root sib, sif, friendship, with the goddess Sif, 
wife of Thor. Also the root nand, nan, with the 
goddess Nanna, wife of Baldur. And the root 



THE GODS OF THE NORTH. 133 

fraw, fri, expressive of freedom or authority, 
with the goddess Freya. But if the Odinio 
mythology be, as some think, of no very profound 
antiquity — if Odin were a real personage, the 
founder of a kingdom and of a dynasty, it is 
possible that the names may have been those of 
men before they were those of gods. 

The names of some of the Valkyrjur, maidens 
of Odin appointed to select the victims in battle, 
seem, as elsewhere noticed, to have been common 
in the names of women. One of these is Hrist, 
probably from Old Norse hrista, to shake (per- 
haps to brandish as a sword), whence seem to be 
Eng. and French RiST. In connection with this 
name a suggestion occurs to me. There is a root 
C7nst found in Frankish names from the 7th to 
the 9th cent., and which Fcirstemann takes to be 
from the name of our Lord. But some of the 
compounds, as those with hild, war, savour rather 
of a heathen sense, and it now occurs to me as 
possible that crist may be nothing more than the 
Frankish form of hrist, the aspirated h forming c 
as noticed at p. 46. To this then may belong 
English Christ, Christo, Christy, Chrystal ; 
Mod. Germ. Christ, Christel ; French Christ, 
Christy, Christel, or some of them. It may 
be objected to this theory that all the Frankish 
names in question occur in Christian times, but 
on the other hand it is from Christian records 
that most of the Frankish names known to us 
are derived. However, I only throw this out as 



134 THE GODS OF THE NOKTH. 

a suggestion, but the fact that as well as Christ 
we have also Rist and Grist seems rather to sug- 
gest a common origin for the three. 

There is a race of dwarfs or elves which fre- 
quently come before us in the Northern mythology, 
and the names of many of which are enumerated 
in the Eddas. The root alb, alf, elf is very com- 
mon in Teutonic names, among the Anglo-Saxons 
as well as others ; the older German writers re- 
ferred it to the mountains of the Alps, and the 
words connected therewith ; but Grimm and 
Massmann connect it with these mythological 
elves. Some of these beings seem to have been 
noted for their wisdom, and others for their 
mechanical skill, and this may perhaps be the 
idea present in some of these names, as for in- 
stance, Alfred {rid, counsel.) 

SIMPLE FORMS. 
Alb Alf 
Elf. Old Germ. Albo, Alpho, Albi, 8th cent. Eng. Alvey^ 

Alpha, Alp, Elbow, Elve, Elvy, Elphee. Mod. German 

Alf, Elbe. French Albo, Alby, Aube. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old German Albecho, 11th cent. — ^Ifech, Domesday — 
Eng. Elphick, Elvidge. Old German Albizo, Aluezo, 8 th 
cent. — Albsi, Lib. Vit. — Eng. Alvis, Elvis, Elves — French 
Aubez. Old Germ. Albila, 6th cent. — Mod. Germ. Albel 
— Fr. Aubel. 

phonetic extension.* 

Old German Alfan, Elbenus, Albini, Alpuni, 8th cent. 
Eng. Alban, Albany, Alpenny, Halfpenny? Modern 
Germ. Elben. French Albin, Aubin, Aubigny, Aubineau. 



The Latin root may intermix in these names. 



THE GODS OF THE NORTH. 135 

PATRONYMICS. 

Old Germ. Albioc, 8tli cent. French Albenque. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(G^er, spear) Old German Alfger, Halbker, Sth cent. — 
Ang.-Sax. Alfgar — Eng. Halfacre? (Raid, state, con- 
dition) Old German Albheid, Sth cent. — Eng. Halfhead ? 
(Hard J Old German Alfhard, Albheid, Sth cent. — English 
Alvert — French Aubard. (Rari, -warrior) Old German 
Alfheri, Albheri, Sth cent. — English Alvary, Albery, 
Elvery, , Aubery — French Aubier, Aubery. (Man J Old 
German Alpman — Eng. Halfman ? (Bed, counsel) Old 
Germ. Alberat, Sth cent. — Anglo-Saxon Alfred — English 
Alfred — French Albaret, Alfred, Aubriet. {Run, com- 
panion) Old German Albruna,t Tacitus, Albrun, 10th cent. 
— Fr. AuBRUN. {Wer, defence ?) Old German Albwer, Sth 
cent. — French Aubouer. {Wine, friend) Alboin, Lombard 
king, 6th cent. — Fr. Aubouin. 

As well as the dwarfs or elves there was a 
race of giants which figure in the Northern 
mythology as at continual enmit}^ with the gods 
— the foundation of the myth (if not a relic of a 
still more ancient one), being perhaps to be traced 
to the subjugation by Odin and his followers of 
the older and less civilized races with whom they 
came in contact. But I do not know that there 
are any names in which the sense can with suf- 
ficient reason be taken to mean more than large 
stature. 

Many of the names derived from the weather 
appear to have a mythological origin. Thus 
Frosti was the name of one of the dwarfs or elves 



t A woman mentioned by the historian as highly venerated by the Germans 
for her wise counsels. Among the various readings of the name, this is most in 
accordance with ancient noraenclatiure. 



136 THE GODS OF THE NORTH. 

before spoken of ; the meaning, according to Finn 
Magnusen, is "gelidus vel gelu ac frigora 
efficiens," Our nursery hero, Jack Frost, may 
possibly have his origin in the old northern 
mythology. Frosti occurs as a Scandinaviaix 
name in Saxo ; and we have Frost and the 
diminutive Frostick. Frost occurs frequently 
in the Hundred Rolls, temp. Edw. 1. Mr. Lower 
observes (Pat. Britt.) that " one Alwin Forst 
was a tenant in Co. Hants, before Domesday, and 
his name by a slight and common transposition 
would become Frost.'' This is true, but the con- 
verse might also apply, for forst is an Ang.-Sax. 
form oi frost. In another name, however, Frost- 
man, given by Mr. Bowditch, I should take the 
proper form to be Forstman. 

One of the Valkyrjur was called Mist, which 
must be from Anglo-Saxon mist, English " mist/' 
There is an Old German name Mistila, 9th cent., 
which Weinhold takes to be a diminutive of the 
above. We have Mist, and Mister, which may 
possibly be a compound. 

Of the same meaning and from a similar 
source to Mist might naturally be supposed to be 
Fog and Foggo. This, however, is less certain ; 
there is a root foe, for which Forstemann proposes 
Old Norse /oA;, flight, to which they might be put. 

The name of an old, probably a mythical king 
of Denmark was Snio (snow.) It enters into 
some Old German names, and hence may be our 
Snow. 



THE GODS OF THE NORTH. 137 

I thought before that Snowball might be a 
compound (paid, fortis), but on the whole I now 
think that Mr. Lower's derivation from a feudal 
tenure (Pat. Britt.) is to be preferred. 

It seems probable that something of a mytho- 
logical origin may be assumed for the English 
Eainbow, the German Regenbogen, and the 
French Rainbeaux and Eegimbeau — the two 
latter names appearing to bespeak for themselves 
a considerable antiquity. 

The system of personification which pervaded 
the Northern mythology, and which, extending its 
influence deep into the middle ages, has left its 
traces on the popular mind of Europe to the 
present day, extended to the earth, the sun, the 
moon, day and night, summer and winter. The 
sun in Northern mythology was reckoned among 
the goddesses, being feminine in all Teutonic 
languages except our own. The moon, on the 
other hand, was masculine, being the brother of 
the sun. In some parts of Germany the peasantry 
still give the sun and moon the title of Frau and 
Herr — Mrs. Sun and Mr. Moon. 

I thought before that the names signifying 
sun and moon might be derived from this per- 
sonification of Northern mythology, but I am 
now inclined to think that as the worship of the 
heavenly bodies is probably a relic of an earlier 
creed, so the names too may be of a date anterior 
to the Odinic system. From the Goth, sauil, 
Old Norse sol, the sun, may be the following. 

R 



Sun 



138 THE GODS OF THE NORTH. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old German Sol, Sola, 8tli cent. Also probably, as it 
Sole, seems to rae, though Fijrstemann places them elsewhere, 
SaoTjA, " Dux barbarorum," Zosim. 4th cent., Saul, 9th cent. 
Sol, Saul [Domesday). Sola, Lib. Vit. Eng. Sole, Soley, 
Soul, Saul. Mod. Germ. Sohl. French Sol, Sole, Saul, 
Soule, Soui^]^. 

compounds. 

[Burg J protection) Old German Solburg, 9th cent. — Eng. 
SoLBERRY. {Hari, warrior) French Soulery, Solier. 
[Hard) French Solard. [Rat^ counsel) French Soleret. 

Of the same meaning, according to Forste- 
mann, is the name Sunno, of a Frankish prince of 
the 4th cent., and with which may correspond 
Eng. Sun. 

The moon, in Old Norse mdni, figures in 
Northern mythology as the brother of the sun. 
Mani occurs as a Scandinavian name in the 
Landnamabok, but I do not find any trace of it 
as an ancient name among the Germans. Perhaps 
from this origin may be English MooN, Mooney, 
and Mawney. 

There is a root hiriy which Forstemann, finding 
names of a similar sort, thinks may be from Old 
High Germ, lujia. Mid, High Germ, lune, change 
of the moon. He holds the word to be related 
to the Latin, but not borrowed from it. Luno is 
mentioned in Ossian as a Scandinavian armourer, 
and the maker of Fingal's sword. But the 
name, at least in that form, could hardly be 
Scandinavian. None of the ancient names given 
by Forstemann correspond with the following. 



THE GODS OF THE NORTH. 139 

SIMPLE FORMS. Lun. 

EDg. LUNE, LOONEY. French LuNEAU. Moonchange. 

DIMINUTIVE. 

French Lunel. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Aud, prosperity) French Lunaud. (Hard) French (or 

Ital. 1) LUNARDI. 

Some other names, such as English Sunrise, 
Sunshine, German Monschein, Germ. Morgen- 
STERN (morning-star), Abendstern (evening- 
star), MoRGENROT (morning-red), Abendrot 
(evening-red), &c., may be from a similar origin. 
Abendrot was the name of a spirit of light 
(Grimm's Deutsch. Myth.) I do not know what 
to say of such names as Fairweather and Fine- 
weather^ except that the Germans have similar 

e.g., SCHONWETTER, BOSEWETTER, &C. 

The worship of the goddess Hertha (the per- 
sonified earth) was no doubt of remote antiquity 
among the Germans. She is reckoned among 
the goddesses in the system of Northern 
mythology, but this, I take it, is a rehc of a more 
ancient myth. A root jordy which seems to be 
from Old Norse jord, terra, comes before us in 
some ancient names, and we seem, as below, to 
have it both in this and the Saxon form eorthe. 



SIMPLE FORMS. 

Eng. Earth, Earthy, Jurd. Modern German Erd. 
French Jordy, Jourdy, Jourde. 

CX)MPOUNDS. 

(ffari, warrior) French Jordery, Jourdier. 



JorA 
Earth. 



140 THE GODS OF THE NORTH. 

EXTENDED EOOT. 

Old German Jordanes, Jordanus, 5th cent.* — Jordan' 
Jurdan, Lib Vit. Eng. Jordan, Jortin. Modern German 
Jordan. French Jourdan. 

The name of Rinda, one of the wives of 
Odin, is derived by Grimm from Old High 
Germ, rinta, Ang.-Saxon rind, Eng. " rind," and 
explained as signifying the crnst of the earth. 
From this source may be our names Rind, 
E/iNDLE, Kinder, though rand, shield, is liable 
to intermix. There is one Old German name 
Eindolt, which Forstemann brings in as above. 

The Old High German himil, heaven, occurs 
frequently in ancient names, where it is probably 
from a mythological origin. We have the corres- 
ponding Saxon word in our name Heaven, but 
it may be, as Mr. Lower thinks, only a cockney 
form of Evan. Himmel is a Mod. Germ, name 
and Him ELY is a French name. 

From a similar mythological personification 
may be our names Summer and Winter. These 
have been supposed to be derived from persons 
having been born at these seasons. But it seems 
to me that though a man might naturally enough 
be called Friday because he was born on a 
Friday ; or Christmas, Noel, or Yule, because he 
came into the world at that festive season ; yet 
to call him Summer because he was born in all 
summer, seems rather wide. The names at any 
rate are of great antiquity. In Neugart's Codex 

* Forstemann thinks that some of these names may be derived from the 
sacred river Jordan. 



THE GODS OF THE NORTH. 141 

Diplomaticus Alamannice there are two brothers 
called respectively Sumar and Wintar, a.d. 858. 
And Whiter was the name of one of the com- 
panions of the Anglo-Saxon Herew^ard. With 
the English Summer correspond Mod. Germ, and 
Danish Summer, Frencli Summer and Sommaire. 
The French has also Sommerard, which seems 
to be a compound. Winter is likewise a Modern 
German, Danish, and French name, but there is 
another word, elsewhere introduced, which is apt 
to mix up with it. 

The Eng. name Troll and the French Troly 
may be from Old Norse trolly a demon. There 
was a Danish family named TroUe, of great im- 
portance in the 15th or 16th cent., who bore in 
their coat of arms a headless troll or demon. The 
name and the arms were assumed in commemora- 
tion of an exploit of their ancestor in decapitating 
a troll-wife, which, sooth to say, he seems to have 
done in anything but a chivalrous manner, while 
she was presenting him with a drinking horn 
(Thorpe's North. Myth.) Trollo was also an Old 
German, and Trolle is a Mod. Germ. name. Our 
name Trail is supposed (Folks of Shields) to be 
a corruption of Troll, though etymologically it 
would go better to another root. 

The following root Forstemann derives from 
Goth, alhs. Old High Germ, alah/'' Anglo-Saxon 



* The h was no doubt in this and similar cases strongly aspirated, like the 
Mod. Germ. ch. 



142 THE GODS OF THE NORTH. 

ealh, temple. An intermixture with halig, holy, 
is easy-— indeed the two roots seem to be cognate. 

SIMPLE FORMS, 

All 1711 Old German Alacli, Elachus, 8tli cent. AUic, Alich 

Alk, Elk. ' ^ ' 

Temple. (Domesday). Eng. Allick, Allix, Elk. French Alix, 

Elcke. 

compounds. 

(Hard) Old German Elkihard, 8tli cent. — Anglo-Saxon 

Alcheard, Cod. Dip. 520. — English Allcard — French 

AucHARD. {Here, warrior) Old German Alcher, 8th cent. 

— English Alker — French Alquier. {Ward, guardian) 

Eng. AUKWARD It 

According to the tradition of Northern 
mythology the first man and woman were created 
out of two pieces of wood left by the waves upon 
the beach. The man was called Askr, which 
means " ash/^ and we may presume has reference 
to the wood out of which he was formed. Many 
men in after times were called after the Teutonic 
Adam, as, for instance, ^sc, son of Hengist. We 
have Ask, Ash, and various compounds, but I 
am inclined to think that the warlike sense de- 
rived from the spear (which was made of ash- 
wood), is stronger than the mythological. 

The first woman was called Embla, the meaning 
of which is not very clear. According to Grimm, 
it is derived from Old Norse ami, amhl, assiduous 
labour, a derivation which, however, seems open 
to considerable doubt. The name of the Teutonic 
Eve is still found in the Christian names of 
women, as Amelia, Emily, and Emmeline, though 

t Though this seems a natural compound, yet we find no ancient name to 
correspond, and it may be only a corruption of Allcaiid. 



THE GODS OF THE NORTH. 143 

perhaps the Latin Emilia may intermix. The 
word, however, was by no means confined to the 
names of women, being found in the name Amal, 
of one of the Anses, or deified ancestors of the 
Goths. It was most common among the West 
Goths ; scarce among the Saxons. 

SIMPLE FORMS. Amal, Emel. 

Old German Amala, Amelias, Emila, Almo, names ol 
men, 5th cent. Amalia, Ambla, Emilo, names of women, 
8tli cent. Eng. Hammill, Emly, Emblow. Mod. German 
Emele, Emmel. French Amail, Emmel. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old German Amalin, Amblinns, men's names, 9th cent. 
Amelina, woman's name, 11th cent. — Amelina (woman ?) 
Lib, Vit. English Emlyn, Emblin, Emblem l French 
Amelin, Emelin. 

patronymics. 

Old German Amalung, 5th cent. English Hamling, 
Hambling. Mod. Germ. Amelung. French Ameling. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Gar, spear) Old German Amalgar, Emelgar, 7th cent. — 
English Almiger, Ellmaker. {Ha7'd, fortis) Old German 
Amalhart, Amblard, 9th cent. — French Amblard. (Hari, 
warrior) Old German Amalhari, Amalher, 5th cent. — Eng. 
Ambler, Emeler. (Man) Eng. Ambleman, Ampleman — 
Mod. German Ha^ielmann. {Rice, powerful) Old German 
Amalaricus, "West Gothic king, 6th cent., Almerich, 10th 
cent. — French Elmerick. 

Lastly — I do not thmk that any of the names 
which seem to be derived from the classical 
deities are so in reality. There are indeed Mars, 
Bacchus, Yenus, Cupid, and Pan ; also French 
Mars, Janus, Minerve, and German Pallas, 
but not " ut sunt divorum." Bacchus is the 



144 THE GODS OF THE NORTH. 

„o -RAri^TTOTTSE which seems local, like the 
same as ijACKHOUbt-, wu^. Vt-xtttq 

Modem German Backhaus and Backhof. Venus 
ralso local, as shown by Mr. Lower-" Stephen 
de Yenuse, Miles, temp. Edw. 1st." Ctjpid I 
put along with CUBITT and Cupit. Maks cor- 
responds with an Old German Marso, 7th cent 
which Forstemann refers to the German tribe ol 
the Marsi. And the French name Minekve I 
take to be local, from a place called Mmerbe in 
North Italy, though I apprehend that the pia<3e 
is named after the goddess. 



CHAPTER XII. 



THE HEROES OF THE NORTH. 

In the dim morning of the history of our race, 
when we first find the German tribes wrestling 
in their rude strength against the power of 
imperial Rome — there stands out — drawn by the 
hand of an immortal historian — one taller by a 
head and shoulders than the rest. Foilmo: in 
their own science Rome's trained legions — baffling 
by his singleness of purpose her crafty policy — 
resisting by his honesty her fatal blandishments 
— we find in him, the hero, the patriot Arminius, 
the first embodiment of that principle of unity 
which Germany has yet fully to learn. With 
what generous appreciation the great historian 
describes his country's foe — with what elegant 
irony he points his description. '''"" The deliverer 
of Germany without doubt he was, and one who 
assailed the Roman state, not like other kings 
and leaders, in its infancy, but in the pride of 
imperial elevation ; in single encounters some- 
times victorious, sometimes defeated, but not 
worsted in the general issue of the war ; he hved 
thirty-seven years ; twelve he was in possession 
of power ; and amongst barbarous nations his 
memory is still celebrated in their songs ; his 



Tacitus, "Annals." Oxford translation. 

s 



146 THE HEROES OF THE NORTH. 

name is unknown in the annals of the Greeks, 
who only admire their own achievements ; nor 
is he very much celebrated among us Komans, 
whose habit is to magnify men and feats of old, 
but to regard with indifference the examples of 
modern prowess." 

And yet how few are there at the present day 
who know even the name of this first great man 
of our race ; another Arminius, the founder of 
one of the isms, is probably of much more exten- 
sive reputation. 

The name of Arminius, Armin, Ermin, or 
Irmin, is not, as some writers have supposed, the 
same as Herman ; this opinion, as Forstemann 
observes, is to be considered as now completely 
set aside. It is a simple, not a compound word ; 
its root is arm, erm, irm — the ending in being 
only phonetic ; its meaning, as Grimm observes, 
is altogether obscure. Many names compounded 
from it occur in the genealogies of the kings of 
Kent and Mercia, as Eormenric, Eormenred, 
Eormengild, &c. There are traces of Irmin as 
the name of a deity in the ancient German 
mythology. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old German Arminius, leader of the Cheruski, 1st cent., 

Armm. 

Irmin. Ermin, Irmino. English Armine, Armeny, Ermine, Har- 
mony. Mod. German Ermen. French Armeny. Italian 
Ermini. 

compounds. 

(Ger, spear) Old German Irminger, 8th cent. — English 
Arminger, Iremonger ? (Gaud, Goth) Old German Ermin- 



THE HEROES OF THE NORTH. 147 

gaud, 8th cent. — French Armingaud. (Dio, servant) Old 
Germ. Irmindiu, Ermenteo, 7th cent. — French Armandeau, 
Armenti^. (Deot, people) Old German Irmindeot, 8th cent. 
— French Armandet. 

" The older and the simple form of Irmin/' 
says Forstemann, " runs in the form Irm, Erme, 
Irim." To this I place the following. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Ermo, Irma, 8th cent. Eng. Harme. Mod. Enn, irm. 
Germ. Herm. French Hermj^, Hermy. 

DIMIXTJTIYES. 

Old German Irmiza, 10th cent. — English Arms. — Modem 
German Ermisch — French Armez, Hermes. Old German 
Hermulo, 9th cent. — Mod. Germ. Ermel — French Hermel. 
Old Germ. Ermelenus, 7th cent. — French Hermeline. 

compounds. 
(Gar, spear) Old German Ermgar, 5th cent. — English 
Armiger. (Gis, hostage) Old German Ermgis, 8th cent. — 
French Hermagis. (Geltan, valere) Old Germ. Ermegild — 
Eng. Armgold. {Had, war) Old Germ. Ermhad, 9 th cent. 
— Eng. Armat — French Armet. {Hari, warrior) Old Germ. 
Ermhar, 8th cent. — Hermerus, Domesday — Eng. Armour, 
Armory, HAR^rsR — French Hermier. [Bad, council) Old 
Germ. Ermerad, 8th cent. — Eng. Ormerod. 

But for the most part the heroes of the North 
are legendary rather than historical. At the 
same time it must not be overlooked that legends 
and traditions are the most ancient vehicle of 
history, and that as a general rule we may accept 
the existence of the hero, whatever amount of 
faith we may be disposed to place in the story of 
his achievements. 

The most ancient heroic poem in the Teutonic 
language at present discovered is probably the 



t 



148 THE HEROES OF THE NORTH. 

Ang.-Saxon lay which recounts the achievements 
of Beowulf the Scylding. The Scyldings (in 
Ang.-Sax. Scyldingas, in Old Norse Skioldungar) 
were an illustrious race, the descendants of Scyld 
or Skiold, a name which respectively in Anglo- 
Saxon and Old Norse signifies " shield." The 
Danish traditions make their Skiold the son of 
Odin and first king of Denmark, but the Anglo- 
Saxon genealogies make their Scyld an ancestor 
of Woden. Beowulf, as the son of Scyld, was the 
Scylding by pre-eminence, though all his people 
are called Scyldings. Our names Shield, Skeld- 
iNG, Scolding, Skoulding, I have taken to be 
from this origin. As to the name Beowulf, if we 
could suppose the right form to be Beahwulf, it 
would be from Ang.-Sax. heag, heah, ring, crown, 
bracelet, and would correspond with an Old 
Germ. Baugulf. Or it might be, as Bos worth 
has it, a contraction of Beadowulf Mr. Kemble, 
however, and following him. Miss Yonge, derive 
it from heo, harvest. 

According to the Ang.-Saxon genealogy the 
father of Scyld was called Sceaf, which signifies 
sheaf: and whence perhaps the English name 
Sheaf. 

The legend, as related in the Anglo-Saxon 
chronicles is that, as an infant and asleep, he was 
brought by the waves in a small boat, with a sheaf 
of corn at his head, to an island of Germany called 
Scani or Skandza. The inhabitants, struck by 
the apparently miraculous nature of the circum- 



THE HEROES OF THE NORTH. 149 

stances, adopted him, gave liim the name of Scef, 
and eventually making him their king, he reigned 
in the town which " was then called Slaswic, but 
now Haithebi" — the locality marking the legend 
as probably an Angle one. Very poetically in 
the poem of Beowulf (though the legend is by 
mistake transferred to his son Scyld), he is repre- 
sented, at the close of his long and prosperous 
reign, as placed by his own last command in a 
ship, surrounded by the arms and ornaments of a 
king, and again committed to the waves which 
had laid him as an infant on the shore. The 
story is so poetical, both in sentiment and expres- 
sion, that I may be excused in quoting a part of 
it from the translation of Mr. Thorpe, again re- 
marking that Scef, and not Scyld, should have 
been the hero. 

" Scyld then clepai*ted 
at his fated time, 
the much strenous, to go 
into the Lord's keeping. 
They him then bore away 
To the sea-shore, 
his dear companions, 
as he had himself enjoined. 

-X' * •Jfr * 

There at the hithe stood 
the ring-prowed ship 
icy and eager to depart, 
the prince's vehicle. 
They laid then 
the beloved chief, 
the dispenser of rings, 



150 THE HEROES OF THE NORTH. 

in the ship's bosom, 

the great one by the mast : 

there were treasures many 

from far ways 

ornaments brought 

I have not heard of a comelier 

keel adorned 

With war- weapons 

and martial weeds. 
* * * * 

Men cannot 
say for sooth, 
councillors in hall 
heroes under heaven, 
who that lading received." 

Does not this warrior's funeral, in the oldest 
heroic poem of our language, remind us somewhat 
in its tone of Tennyson s ode on the funeral of 
Wellington "{ 

Among the heroic romances of Germany the 
most notable is the Nihelung en-lied, or lay of the 
Nibelungs. The name Nibelung is a patronymic 
or a diminutive of the name Nibel, which the 
German writers refer to Old High German nihuh 
Modern German nebel, a mist. Mono, in his 
Heldensage, has with great labour collected 
examples of this name from all parts of Germany, 
as well as the countries into which the Germans 
have imported it. From the following list of 
Lombard names, it will be seen that he makes 
the name Napoleon identical. 

Neapoleo de Ursinis, 1306 — Napolio Spinula, naval 
captain of the Gibellincs at Genoa, 1336 — JSTevolonus, a con- 



THE HEROES OF THE NORTH. 151 

fessor at Faeuza, 1280 — Neapolion, head of the Gibellines at 
Rome under Fred. 2nd — Napolione Visconte di Campiglia, 
1199, (fee. 

He further remarks, thovigli in language some- 
what wanting in clearness, " The name seems to 
have come to tlie Lombards through two causes. 
When we find the Napoleons in alliance with the 
Gibellines (more evidences thereof would be desir- 
able), the question arises whether or not this is 
accidental. Napoleon is the older name"^^ and 
more nearly expresses the correct form. I cannot 
account for its transmission to Italy except 
through the Frankish conquest of Lombardy.t 
But as yet I have not been able to meet with any 
ancient examples." 

I do not find the form Nibelung, except in the 
name Nefflen quoted by Mr. Bowditch, and 
which looks like an English name, though there 
are several examples of the simple form Nibel as 
below. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Nivalus, Nevelo, No vol, 6th cent. English^^^^' ^^^*^ 

Mis t 

NiBLOE, NivoLEY, Neville, Novell, Noble 1 Mod. Germ. 
Nebel, Nibel. French Nibelle, Nivelleau, Novel. 

The German hero-book refers to a king 
Orendel or Erentel, whom it describes as the 
greatest of all heroes, and whose wife was the 
most beautiful among women. In the story of 
his shipwreck and subsequent adventures Grimm 
traces a close resemblance to the story of Ulysses. 



A 



* Older than Neapoleon I suppose is all that he means, 
t Why not by the Lombarda themselves ? 



152 THE HEROES OF THE NORTH. 

The origin of the name appears to be Ang.-Sax. 

eareiidel, a beam of light, a star. An Ang.-Sax. 

hymn to the Virgin Mary in the Cod. Ex., seems 

to apostrophize her under this title. 

" Eala Earendel, engla beorhtast." 
O star, brightest of angels ! 

The names Aurendil, Orendil, Orentil, occur 
star. ' frequently in the 8th and subsequent centuries ; 
among others was a count of Bavaria. In the 
old metrical romance of Sir Bevis of Hamptonn, 
his " good steed" is called by the name of Arundel, 
which has been presumed, though I think with- 
out sufficient reason, to be a corruption of 
hirondelle, a swallow. Arondel is not uncom- 
mon as a French name ; there are five persons so 
called in the directory of Paris. In Holinshed^s 
copy of the Roll of Battle Abbey is an Arundel, 
but it is not in all the others. The English name 
Arundel may be in all, or in some cases, from 
the place. 

Of Weland, the wonderful smith, the Vulcan 
of Northern mythology, many traces are to be 
found in this country. There is a place in Berks, 
called Wayland's Smithy, which retains its name 
from Ang.-Sax. times. And our nam.es Weland 
and Wayland are, I take it, derived from him. 
The etymology of the name I have elsewhere 
referred to. 

The father of Weland is called in Ang.-Saxon 
Wada, in Old Norse Vadi, in Old High German 
Wato. He was the son of the celebrated king 



THE HEROES OF THE NORTH. 153 

Vilkinr or Wilkin, by a mer-wife, and was a hero 
of gigantic size. Some traces of him are to be 
found in our early English poets ; Chaucer cele- 
brates Wade's boat called Guingelot. In the 
Scop or Bard's Tale we are told that " Wada 
ruled over the Helsings," a Scandinavian tribe of 
whose name memorials are to be found in Hel- 
singor (now Elsinore), Helsingfors, in Finland, 
and perhaps in one place in England, Helsington 
in Cumberland. As to the meaning of his name, 
Grimm says " I think that it is derived from his 
having, like another Christopher, with his son 
upon his shoulders, loaded over the nine-ell-deep 
Groenasund, between Seeland, Falster, and Moen." 
Our names Wade, Wadd, Watt, &c., elsewhere 
introduced, I have hence derived. 

The brother of Weland was called in Anglo- 
Saxon Aegel, in Old Norse Egil. As Weland 
was celebrated as a smith, so was his brother as 
an archer, and precisely the same legend is related 
of him as of the Swiss Tell. Having been com- 
manded by the king Nidung to shoot an apple 
off the head of his son, and having taken two 
arrows from his quiver, the king demanded his 
reason for so doing, and received the same bold 
reply that was given to the tyrant Gessler. The 
same myth re-appears elsewhere with sHght 
variations and different heroes ; whether the 
legend of Aegel is the foundation of all the others, 
or whether it is to be traced back to a still more 
ancient source, we cannot say. The following 

T 



154 THE HEROES OF THE NORTH. 

group of names are to be referred to this origin, 
but the meaning of the word is obscure. The 
form ail for agil seems, as Forstemann observes, 
to be more particularly Saxon. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Agil, Ail. Old German Agila (king of the West Goths, 6th cent.), 

Aigil, Egil, Alio, Aile. Eng. Eagle, Egley, Ayle, Ale, 
Ayley, Oiley. Mod. Germ. Egel, Eyl. Fren. Aiguille, 
Egle, Egly, Ayel, a illy. 

diminutives. 
Old Germ. Agilin, Aglin, Ailin, 7th cent. — Eng. Aglin, 
Eagling, Ayling — French Egalon. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Bert, bright) Old German A gilbert, 7 th cent. — Anglo- 
Saxon Aegelbeorht — French Aj albert. {Ger, spear) Old 
Germ. Egilger, Ailger, 8th cent — Eng. Ailger. (Hard) 
Old German Agilard, Ailard, 7th cent. — English Aylard — 
French Aillard. {Hari, warrior) Old Germ Agelhar, 8th 
cent. — Eng. Aguilar.* (Man) Old Germ. Aigliman, 6th 
cent. — Eng. Ailman, Aleman. {Mar, famous) Old German 
Agilmar, Ailemar, 8th cent. — Eng. Aylmer. {Rat, counsel) 
Old German Agilrat, Eih^at, 8th cent. — French Ailleret. 
( Ward, guardian) Old German Agilward, Ailward, 8th cent. 
— Eng. Aylward. {Wine, friend) Old German Agil win, 
Eilewin, 8th cent. — Ang.-Sax. Aegelwine — Eng. Aylwin. 

The son of Weland was called in Ang.-SaxoH' 
Wudga, in Old Norse Vidga, in Old High Germ. 
Wittich, and in an unpublished Low Germ, poem 
referred to by Grimm, Wedege. The name, 
according to Grimm, signifies silvicola, being a 
diminutive from the root luudu, wltu, vidr, wood. 
Corresponding English names are Wedge, Vetch, 
Wittich, Whittock. 

* This name is, I believe, immediately derived from Spain. 



THE HEROES OF THE NORTH. 155 

Other heroes of the Nibehmgen Leld were 
Guiiter or G anther, Hagan, Hildebrand, and 
Hawart. The German Gunter corresponds with 
the Old Norse Gunner of the Volsungasaga ; the 
etymon is gumi, gund, war, and hence our names 
Gunter, Gunther, Gunner, &c., introduced iii 
another place. Hagan, according to Lachmann 
(Kritik der sage von den Nihelungen), is " more 
than heroic." The name comes in a group else- 
where noticed ; according to Grimm its meaning 
is spinosuSj thorny. Hawart is described as a 
king of Denmark, and I think that our corres- 
ponding names (Ha ward, Howard, &c.) are 
more particularly of Scandinavian origin. Never- 
theless, according to Mone, there are many in- 
stances of the name Haward or Hawart in 
Southern Germany during the 12th and two 
following centuries. 

It is to be remarked that in the poetic legends 
of various countries we frequently find something 
uncommon or supernatural attaching to the birth 
or to the rearing of the hero. Sometimes he is 
the offspring of a mortal and a divinity ; some- 
times of a mortal and one of the nobler animals, 
as the bear or the wolf ; more frequently he is 
only reared or suckled by one or other of these 
animals. Grimm has remarked (Deiitsch. Myth.) 
that something of the heroic character frequently 
attaches to one not born in the natural manner, but 
cut untimely from his mother s womb. Such, among 
many other instances, was the Scottish Macduff. 



7 






156 THE HEROES OF THE NORTH. 

Macbeth — I bear a cliarmed life, whicli must not yield 
^ To one of woman born — 

Macduff — Despair thy charm ; 

And let the angel whom thou still hast served 
Tell thee — Macduff was from his mother's womb 



^\^ Untimely ripped — 



V 



«' 



Macbeth — ^Accursed be the tongue that tells me so. 
I'll not fight with thee. 



The title of ungehorne, " unborn," is given to 
some of the heroes of German romance, and the 
corresponding one of ohorni occurs in the Scan- 
dinavian Eddas. From this latter I before took 
to be our name Oborn ; it might, however, be 

^ properly Hoborn, from the root hoh, hoc, celsus. 
It is also to be noted that the wearing of the 
J* hair long, or curled, or fastened up in a peculiar 

I manner, was held among the ancient Germans as 

a badge of the hero. To this I have alluded in 
,- . ^^ another chapter. 

It is to be remarked that among the Anglo- 

^ V/ Saxons and other Teutonic races there was a sort 

J 5 of nobility arising from connection with a distin- 

■ "^ guished ancestor. The whole of the descendants 

of such a man frequently took his name, with the 

addition of ^V^^, giving the meaning of " descendant 

of," not as their own individual name, but as a 

family or clan name. Thus as well as being a 

simple patronymic, in the manner referred to at 

I p. 31, ing is often applied as the badge of a family 

or tribe. Thus from the name of Uffa, king of 

^ East Anglia, his posterity were called Uffings 

^ (Uffingas.) ■ In the life of St. Guthlac mention is 

made of a Mercian nobleman who is said to have 



THE HEROES OF THE NORTH. 157 

been " of the oldest race, and the noblest that 
was named Iclingas." In the genealogy of the 
Mercian kings there is an Icil, who most probably 
was the founder of the Iclings. The names 
Hick, Hickling, &c., elsewhere introduced, I 
have referred to this origin. 

The Billings were a powerful and celebrated 
family in North Germany during the 10th and 
11th centuries, and there is some trace of them 
a hundred years further back (Grimm's Deutsch, 
Myth.) We seem to have a still earlier trace of 
them in the Scop or Bard's song, where we are 
told that " Billing ruled the Werns" (the Verini), 
a people on the Elbe. There was also a noble 
family named Bille in Denmark. The Billings 
seem, from the names of places, as well as from 
the names of families, to have made considerable 
settlements in England. The etymology is else- 
where referred to. 

The Harlings (Herelingas) are another people 
mentioned in the Scop or Bard's song. Their 
locality was on the banks of the Bhine. There 
is a castle of Alsatia called Brisach, from which 
all the adjacent country is called Brisach-gowe, 
which is reported to have been anciently the 
fortress of those who were called Harlungi 
( W. Ghnmm's Held. Sag.) We have the names 
Harling, Harle, referred to in next chapter. 

Sometimes ing has the still wider sense of 
nationality. Thus from Skiold the son of Odin, 
and first king of Denmark according to Danish 



158 THE HEROES OF THE NORTH. 

tradition, the Danes were called Skioldungar 
(Skioldings). 

The Hokings are a people mentioned in the 
Scop or Bard's song — " Hnsef ruled the Hokings/ 
These seem to have been a Frisian people, and to 
have derived their name from a Hoce mentioned 
in the poem of Beowulf Mr. Kemble observes 
( ArcJiceological Journal) that Hoce is " a really 
mytliical personage, probably the heros eponymus 
of the Frisian tribe, the founder of the Hokings, 
and a progenitor of the imperial race of Charle- 
magne." The etymology and the names we have 
corresponding are referred to in another place. 

It would seem that a surname acquired by 
some distinguished man was often conferred on 
others as a baptismal name, probably on no other 
ground than that of hero worship. Thus Magnus, 
-- king of Norway, acquired the name of Barfot 

(bare-foot), on account of having adopted the kilt 
'^ when in Scotland. And Barfot ever since has 
^ been a common name in the Scandinavian coun- 
^^ tries. Barefoot is also an English name. 
Probably also on the same principle it is that we 
.. have the name of Ironside. There was a cele- 
V brated Norwegian pirate named Olver, who, set- 
ting his face against the then fashionable amuse- 
ment of tossing children on spears, was christened 
by his companions, to show their sense of his odd 
scruples, Barnakarl or Barnakal, " babies' old 
man." Hence possibly may be our name 
Barnacle. 



/ 



^ 



>^ 



THE HEROES OF THE NOHTH. 159 

Tliere is yet another name which I have re- 
served as a worthy conclusion to this chapter. 
Very famous in early English romance was the 
Danish hero Havelok, of whom some traces are 
still to be found in the local traditions of Lincoln- 
shire. There is a street in Grimsby called Have- 
lock Street ; and there was, according to the 
" History of Lincolnshire," a stone, said to have 
been brought by the Danes out of their own 
country, and known as " Haveloc's stone," which 
used to form a land-mark between Grimsby and 
the parish of Wellow. That the Danes would 
take the trouble of bringing a stone out of their 
own country is not very probable — but it is 
possible. The stone in question may have been 
a bauta or memorial stone ; and some Northman, 
from a motive of superstition or pious friendship, 
might wish to consecrate the shores of his new 
home with the memorial of a revered ancestor. 

Havelok was not a common Danish, as it is 
not a common English name. Its proper Scan- 
dinavian form I should assume to be Hafleik, 
from haf, the sea, and leik, sport. War being the 
game of heroes, the termination leik or lac is 
frequently coupled mth a prefix of that meaning. 
But there was another pastime in which the 
Northmen pre-eminently rejoiced. To them the 
sea was " a dehght," and there were bold Vikings 
who could make the boast that they had " never 
slept under the shelter of a roof, or drained the 
horn at a cottage fire." Thus then the name 



160 THE HEROES OF THE NORTH. 

Havelok, " sea-sport," would be a name than 
which we could find no more appropriate for one 
of the wild sea rovers. 

And among the many brave men raised up in 
our time of great need, let us acknowledge with 
thankfulness and pride the dauntless valour of the 
old Danish hero, tempered by a christian spirit, 
in our own gallant Havelock. 



CHAPTER XIII. 



THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 

In an age when war was — if not the " whole 
duty," at least the mam busmess of man — names 
taken from the pasthiie in which he delighted, 
and the weapons in which he trusted, were as 
natural as they were common. And, directly or 
indirectly — from words signifying war, battle, 
death, slaughter, victory — from words signifying 
strength, valour, and fierceness — from words 
signifying arms and warlike implements — or from 
words signifying to wound, to slay, to strike, to 
crush — there are probably as many names from 
this source as from all other sources put together. 

Of such ungentle origin were the names of 
women as well as men. Indeed two of the prin- 
cipal words signifying war, liild, and giind or 
gunn, are more especially common in the names 
of women, and sometimes, as in the Norse Gun- 
hilda, and the Old German Hildigunda, these two 
words are joined together. They are still retained 
in some female christian names, as in the Danish 
Hille and Gunnila ; in our Matilde, French 
Mathilde ; and in the French and Ital. Clothilde. 
The reason for the particular use of these two 
words in the names of women is to be found in 
Northern mythology, where Hild and Gunn are 

u 



162 THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 

tlie names of two of the Valkyrjur, maidens 
appointed by Odin to select the victims in battle, 
and also to wait upon the heroes in Valhalla. 

Our name Hill has been generally supposed 
to be local, from residence on or near a hill. But 
I think it will be clear, from the place which it 
takes in the following group, that it is, at least in 
some cases, from hild, battle, which, even in 
ancient names, appears often as hill. The Frankish 
form child was common in the names of the 
Merovingian period, and we have a few in which 
it occurs, bat it is rather singularly wanting in 
the names of France. 

SIMPLE FOEMS. 

Old German Hildo, Hilt, Hillo, Cliildi, Chillo, 7tli cent, 
-^'ar. Eng. Hilt, Hill, Hilly, Child, Chill, Chilly. Modern 
German Hild, Hilt, Hill. / voCj?tt. 

PATHONYMICS. 

Old Germ. Hilding, 8th cent. — English Hildixg. Eng. 
Hillson. 

COilPOUNDS. 

[Ber, per, bear) Old German Hiltiper — English Hilber — 
French Hilber. {Bert, bright) Old German Hildebert, 6th 
cent. — Mod. Germ. Hilbert — French Hilpert. (Brand 
sword) Old Germ. Hildebrand, 7th cent. — Eng. Hildebra:st> 
— Mod. Germ. Hildebraxd — French Hildebrand. (Ger, 
spear) Old German Hildigar, 6th cent. — English Hilgers — 
Modem German Hilger — French Hilger. (Hard J Old 
Germ. Heldiard, 8th cent. — English Hild yard, Hilliard. 
(Here, warrior) Old Germ. Hildier, 8th cent. — Eng. Hilder, 
Hillyer, Hillary, Childers — Modern German Hiller — 
French Hiller, Hilaire. (Ham, ran, raven) Old German 
Childerannus — English Children.* (Man J Old German 

* Tlie female name Childeruna {run, companion) might also put in a claim. 



THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 163 

Hildeman, 6tli cent. — Cliildman, Hund. Rolls — Eng. Hill- 
man, iLLiLVN, Chillman — Mod. German Hiltmaxn, Hlll- 
MAXN — French Cuilmax. (Mar, illustrious) Old German 
Hildimar, 6tli cent. — Eng. Hilmer, Hellmore — Mod. Germ. 
HiLLMER, Helmar. (Mod, courage) Old German Hildimod, 
8th cent. — Eng. Chillmaid ? (Bad, counsel) Old German 
Hildirad, 8th cent. — Eng. Hildreth — French Hillairet. 
(Mice, powerful) Old German Hilderic, Goth, king, 4th cent. 

— Eng. Hilrldge. 

local name. 
(Drup, trup, corruption of tlwrp, a village) English 
HiLLDRUP — Mod, Germ. IIiltrup. 

As a termination hild was extremely common, 
particularly among the Franks. But as in 
modern names it would change into hill, it be- 
comes confounded with the diminutive ending el 
or il. 

From the An g. -Sax. guih. Old High German 

guild, gunt, Old Norse gunn, are the following : — 

simple forms. 
Old German Gundo, Gonto, Cund, 9th cent. English q-^^a 

GUNDEY, GUNN, CoNDY, CUNDY, COLTrt), COL'NTY, CoUNT ? Gunn„ 

Modem German Kunde, Kunte, Kunth. French Gonde, ^'^r. 
GoN, Cont^ Contl 

DBIINUTIVIS. 

Old Germ. Gundicho, 8th cent. — Eng. Guxdick — Mod. 
Germ. Kuntke. Old Germ. Gundila, Cundilo, 7th cent. — 
English GuNNELL, Cundell — Mod. Germ. Gl^ndel — French 
GoNDAL, GoNDOLO, GoNELLE. Old German Gunzo, Gonzo, 
Cunzo, Conzo, 7th cent. — EngKsh Guns, Countze — Modern 
German GuNZ, Kunz — French Gonsse, Kunz^. Old Germ. 
Gunzila, 8th cent. — Eng. Consell, Counsell — Mod. Germ. 
GuNZEL, KiJNSEL — French Kuntzl]^ Conseil — Span. Gon- 
zales. Old Germ. Guntiscus, 7th cent. — Eng. Gondish. 

patronymics. 
Eng. Gunning, Gunson. 



164 THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 

COMPOUNDS. 

[Bald, fortis) Old German Gundobald, Burgundian king, 
5th cent., Gumbald, 9th cent. — English Gumboil — French 
GoMBAULT. (Hard) Old German Gundhard, 8th cent. — 
French Gondhard, Gontard. [Here, warrior) Old German 
Gunther, Gonthar, Cuntaher, Cundher, 8th cent. — Old Norse 
Gunnar — Ang.-Sax. Gu there — English Gunther, Gunter, 
Gunner, Counter, Conder — Mod. Germ. GiJNTHER, Konter 
— ^French Gonthier, Gontier, Conter, Contour. {Lac, 
play) Anglo-Saxon Guthlac — Eng. Goodlake, Goodluck.* 
{Nand, nant, daring) Old German Gundinand, 5th cent. — 
French Continant. (Bam, ran, raven) Old German Gund- 
ram, Condramnus, 6th cent. — Eng. Condron. (Eat, counsel) 
Old German Gundrat, 8th cent. — French Gondret. (Bice, 
powerful) Gundericus, Gothic chief, 3rd cent., Vandal king, 
6th cent., Gunderih, 8th cent. — English Gundry, Guthrie, 
Gunnery, Condry. (Wine, friend) Old Germ. Gondoin, 7th 
cent. — French Gondouin. (Steinn, stone) Old Norse Gun- 
steinn — English Gunston. (Salv, anointed f) Old German 
Gundisalvus, Gonsalvus, 9th cent. — Span. Gonsalvo. 

A third word signifying war is Ang.-Sax. and 
Old High German wig, Old Norse vig, which, 
losing the guttural, becomes in many cases wi, 
both as a termination, and also in the middle of 
a word. In other cases it assumes a prefix of g 
or c, as referred to at p. 46. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old German Wigo, Wico, Wihho, 9th cent. Wig, 

genealogy of Cerdic, king of the West Saxons. Wiga, 

War. Domesday Yorks. English Wigg, Wiche, Wick, Wickey, 

YiCK, Quick, Wye, Quy. Modern German Wick, Wich, 

Weiii. French Wigt, Yig4 Yicq, Yiey, Guiche, Guieu, 

queck, quyo. 

diminutives. 

Old German Wigilo, 8th cent. — Eng. Wigle, Quiggle, 

* Might also be from another root, p. 110. 



THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 165 

Quickly, Wiiichelo — Modern German Wegel, Wiegel, 
WiGGELE — French Vigla, Vicel. Old Germ. Wikelin — 
Mod. Germ, Wegelein — French Violin. 

PATRONYMICS. 

Old German Wiking, 8th cent. — Eng. Wickfno. Eng. 

WlGSON, WiCKSON. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Bcdd, bold) Old Germ. Wigibald, Wibald, Guibald, 8th 
cent. — French Guibald, Guibaud. {Bert, bright) Old Germ. 
Wigbert, Wibert, Guibert — English Yibert — Mod. Gernx. 
GuiBERT — French Yibert, Guibert. {Burg, protection) 
Old Germ. Wigbnrg. 11th cent. — Wiburch, Lib. Vit. — Eno-. 
Wyberg, Wybrow. (Hard) Old Germ. Wighard, Wicard 

"Wiart, Vichard, Guiard, 7th cent. — Uigheard, Lib. Vit. 

Eng. Wyard — Mod. Germ. Wiggert, Wickardt — French 

WiCART, WlART, YlCART, YlCHARD, YlARD, GuiCHARD, 

Guiard. {Here, heri, warrior) Old Germ. Wigheri, Wiger, 

"Wiccar, Wiher, 8th cent. — Uigheri, Lib. Vit. — Old Norse 

Yikar — English Wicker, Witcher, Yigor, Yicary, "Wire 

GwYER, QuiER — Mod. German Weiger, Weiher — French 

YiGiER, >?igerie, Yicaire. {Had, war, or ead, prosperity) 

Old Germ. Wicod, Wihad, Guichat, 8th cent. — Ang. -Saxon 

Wigod — Eng. Wiggett, Wichett, Wyatt — French Wicot 

YiETTE, GuiCHOT, GuiET. {Helm, helmet) Old German 

Wighelm, 8th cent. — Uighelm, lAb. Vit. — English Whigam. 

{Ram, raven) Old German Wichraban, Wigram, 8th cent. 

— English WiGRAM. (Man) Old German Wigman, 8th 

cent. — Eng. Wigman, Wickman, Wyman — Modern German w^JUv "^ 

Wichman, Wiemann. {Mar, famous) Old Germ. Wigmar, 

Wimar, 7th cent. — Uicmer, Wimar, Lib. Vit. — English 

Wigmore, Wymer — Mod. Germ. Wiemer — French Yimar. 

{Rat, counsel) Old German Wigarat, 8th cent. — French 

Yicherat, Quickerat, Quierot. {Rice, powerful) Old 

Germ. Wigirich, 7th cent. — Eng. Yickridge — Mod. Germ. 

Wegerich. {Wald, power) Old Germ. Wigold, 11th cent. 

Modern Germ. Weygold — French Yiault. 



166 THE WABRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 

A fourth word signifying war is Goth, hadu, 
Ang.-Sax. heado. I apprehend that the French 
names Badou, Battu, Pattu, &c., contain simply 
the Gothic word. There are no such ancient 
forms in Forstemann^s Hst, but it will be seen 
that they do occur in the Liber Vitce. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old German Bado, Batto, Patto, Bedo, Beddo, Betto, 
Bad, Bed. Beto, Betho, Peto, Petto, 6th cent. Saxon Bieda, a.d. 501, 
^*''- Peada, Betti {Bede's Ecc. Hist.) — Bada, Badu, Bettu, Lib. 
Vit. — English Bad, Batt, Batty, Bath, Batho, Paddy, 
Patte, Pattie, Bede, Bed, Beddoe, Beath, Beatty, Betty, 
Peede, Peat, Peatie, Pett, Peto, Petty. Mod. German 
Bade, Bath, Beede, Bethe, Bette, Pathe, Pathe. French 
Bady, Badou, Batte, Battu, Patte, Pate, Patay, Paty, 
Pattu, Pathe, Pathi, Bede, Bedeau, Bedu, Bette, Betou, 

BlED. 

diminutives. 
Old Germ. Badiicho, Patucho, Bettika., 8th cent. — Ang.- 
Sax. Beadeca — Baduca, Lib. Vit. — Eng. Badock, Biddick, 
Paddick, Pethick, Pidduck, Pittock — Moderrw German 
Badicke, Bettack, Bethke, Pattke, Pethke — French 
Patoche, Pettex. Old Germ. Bettikin, 10th cent. — Eng. 
Badkin, Batkin, Betkin. Old German Baduila, Patilo, 
Bedilo, Betilo, Pettilo, Pettili, 6th cent. — Eng. Baddeley, 
Batley, Battle, Beadle, Beetle, Bettell, Bethell, 
Beatley, Betteley, Padley, Paddle, Pattle, Patullo 
Pedley, Petley — Mod. German Padel, Patel, Pedel — 
French Badel, Batel, Bataille, Bedel, Betille, Betail, 
Pataille, Petel. 

patronymics. 
Eng. Batting, Bedding — French Bedenc. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Hari, warrior) Old Germ. Bathari, 6th cent. — English 
Badder, Bather, Beater, Pedder, Pether, Petter — Mod. 
German Bader, Bader, Better — French Bader, Badier, 



I 



THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 167 

Bedier, Bethery, Pader, Pathier, Pettier. (Ha/rd) 
Beadheard, Lib. Vit. — English Beddard — French Batard, 
Bedard, Patard, Petard. (Jfar, famous) Eng. Padmore, 
Patmore — French Bedmar, (Man) Badumon, Betmon, 
Lib. Vit. — English Badman, Beadman, Padman, Pattman. 
Dutch Betuman. {Rice, rich, powerful) Old Germ. Baturich, 
Paturich, Paturih, Betterich, 6th cent. — English Bethray. 
Betteridge, Bithrey, Patridge, Patry, Petrick, Petrie 
— French Bath key, Petry, Patry. {Wine, friend) Old 
Germ. Bettwin, 7th cent. — French Bedouin. {Wold, power) 
French Batault, Bidault, Pidault. ( Ulf, wolf) Old Germ. 
Badulf, 8th cent. — English Biddulph. (Hild, war) Old 
Germ. Baduhilt, wife of Chlodwig II., 7th cent. — French 
" Bathilde, Mme., Superieure de la maison des dames de 
St. ClotUde'' — Christian or surname % 

A fifth root signifying war is Goth, liaili. Old 
High Germ, had, Ang.-Sax. heatho, Old Frankish 
chad. There is also a form cat, as found in the 
Catumer and Catualda of Tacitus, which Grimm 
holds to be the most ancient form of this root. 
And in the Celtic cad or cath, war, we trace a 
corresponding form of the Aryan tongue — the 
Old Celtic name Cathmor being, as Gluck ob- 
serves, the precise equivalent of the Old German 
Catumer, and the more recent Hadamar, and the 
Old Celt. Caturix of the Old German Hadurich. 
Grimm connects the name of the god Hoedhr in 
Northern mythology with the above root signify- 
ing war, as a Scandinavian form. 

simple forms. 
Old Germ. Hatto,* Haddo, Hatho, Chado, Hed, Heddi, s*^' ^^*' 
Hetti Names of Anglo-Saxons, Had or Hath, Dux, in a ^^^^ 

* The legend of the hard-hearted bishop of this name who was devoured by 
rats is well known. 



168 THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 

charter of Athelstan ; Hedda, Hsedda, or Chad, Bishop of 
Wessex, a.d. 676. — Hada, Lib. Vit — Eng. Hatt, Hadow, 
Haedy, Heath, Head, Heddy, Hodd 1 Hett, Chad, Catt, 
Cattey, Catto, Cato. — Mod. German Hatt, Hedde, Katt. 
French Hatt^ Hedou, Cat, Catau, Catty, Catu. 

diminutives. 
Old German Chadichus, 7th cent. — English Haddock,* 
Hettich, Chaddock, Shaddock ? — Mod. Germ. Hadicke. 
Old German Heddilo, Hetilo, Hathli, Catla — Eog. Hadlow, 
Hadley, Hatley, Hedley, Hetley, Hoadly, Cattle, 
Cattley — Mod. German Hadel — French Hadol, Catal, 
Catala. Old Germ. Hadalin, Chadalenus, 7th cent. — Eng. 
Cattlin — French Hedelin, Catillon, Chatelin 1 

patronymics. 

Old German Hettinc, 1 0th cent. — Eng. Heading — Mod. 
Germ. Hadank — French Hadingue. 

compounds. 

(Bald, bold) Old German Hadubald, 8th cent. — English 
Shadbolt — French Chabault ? (Beado, war) Old German 
Chadbedo, Chabedo, 7th cent. — Eng. Chabot — Fr. Chabot. 
(Bern, bear) Old German Hadabern, 9 th cent. — Eng. Chad- 
BORN. (Gis, hostage) Old Germ. Hadegis, 9th cent. — Eng. 
Hadkiss. (Man) Eng. Chadman. (Mer, famous) Catumer, 
Prince of the Catti, 1st cent., Hadamar, 8th cent. — English 
CAT0M0RE,t Catmur, Hattemore — French Hadamar. (Not, 
bold) Eng. Hadnutt — French Chadinet. (Rat, counsel) 
Old German Hadarat, 8th cent. — English Hadrot — French 
Hadrot. (Rice, powerful) Old Germ. Hadaricus, 8th cent. 
— English Hatrick, Headrick, Shadrake (apparently not 
Jewish) — Mod. Germ. Hedrich — French Chadirac. (Wig, 
wi, war) Old Germ. Hathuwic, Hathuwi, Hathwi, Haduwi- 



* The curious name Headache quoted by Mr. Lower is no doubt a slight 
corruption of Headick. 

t May be derived directly from Catmere in Berks, bnt the name of the place I 
is simply that of a man. It was originally Catmere's gemaere. " Catmere 's boundary ' 
the inconvenient length of which has caused all to be dropped but the name of the| 
man. 



THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 169 

Eng. Hathaway, Hathway, Hadaway, Chadwick, Chata- 
WAY. (Wald, poAver) Old German Catualda, Tacitus — Ital. 
Cataldi. {Wiiie, frieud) Old Germ. Hadawin, Chaduiii, 7tli 
cent. — Eng. Hadwen, Chadwin — Fr. Hedouin. {Walah^ 
stranger) Sceadwala, father of Beowulf, Flor. Wor., Cad- 
wallia, king of Wessex — Eng. Cadwell, Chatwell. 

The root haz For stem ann takes to be another 
form of had or hath, while Graff proposes haz, 
hatred, m the sense, perhaps, of hostility. So 
that in any case the names will come under this 
head. There is also a root az, but the separation, 
even in the ancient names, seems to me so doubt- 
ful that I have included them together. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old German Hazo, Azo, Azzo, 8tli cent. English Haze. Haz. 
Mod. Germ. Hetz. French Aze. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old German Hezilo, Azzilo, 8th cent. — English Hasell, 
Hezel — Mod. German Hetzel — French Azille. French 

Azema. 

phonetic ending. 

Eng. Hayzen. French Azan. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Bert, famous) French Azibert. (Hard) Eng. Hazard 
— French Hazard, Azard. (Man) Old Germ. Hazaman 
Azaman, 10th cent. — English Haysman — French Azimon 
{Mar, famous) French Azi^mar. 

There is a root san, for which Forstemann 
supposes a Goth, sanja, m the sense of beauty, 
traces of such a word appearing to be found in 
seltsdni, precious, and unsdni, deformed. Instead, 
however, of this hypothetical word, I would sug- 
gest the Old Fries, san, strife, sania, to combat, 
as containing a meaning suitable for the purpose. 

V 



170 THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

San. Old Germ. Sano, Seno, 6th cent. Mod. German Sann, 

Combat. Senne. French Sen^. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old German Senocus, 8th cent. — French Senocq, Senac, 
Seneca ? Old Germ. Sanilo, Senila, 9th cent. — Eng. Senlo 
— French Senelle. French Senillon. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Gund, war) Old Germ. Senegundis, 9th cent. — French 
Sanegon, Sennegon. (Hard) Old Germ. Senard, 8th cent. 
— Mod. Germ. Sennert — French Senard. {Hari, warrior) 
Eng. Saner — Mod. Germ. Senner — French Sannier. 

Another root for which Forstemann's deriva- 
tion seems to be still more unsatisfactory is 
criecli, crieh, as found in the names Criecholf, 
Crieholf, Crea, which he appears to refer to the 
name of the Greeks, but for which the Mid. High 
Germ, hrigen, Old Fries, kriga, krija. New Fries. 
kryen, to make war, seems to me very appro- 
priate. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Krieg. Old German Crea, 9th cent. English Creech,* Creak, 

War. Creah, Cree, Greek, Gregg ? Grigg ? Modern German 
Kriegk. French Cria, Grigi 1 

diminutive 
English Crickmay — Seep. 25. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Hari, warrior) English Creaker, Cryer, Creer, Grier, 
Greer — Mod. German Krieger — French Krier, Grehier, 
Griere. {Wald, power) French Grigault. 

From the Goth, sakjo, Old High Germ, sack, 

Anglo-Saxon sac, sec, war, we may take the 

following. 

* There is a word creagh, creich, crick, &c., occurring in names of places, and 
probably from a Celtic origin, which might intermix in those names. 



THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 171 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old German Sacco, Sahho, 8th cent. Eng. Sack, Sago, sac. 
Say. Mod. Germ. Sacke, Sach. French Saqui, Say. War. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old Germ. Sacquila, 8th cent. Eng. Satchell. 

PHONETIC ENDING. 

Old Germ. Sachano. French Sacquin. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Harij warrior) Eng. Sacker, Sager, Sayer — Modern 
Germ. Sager — French Sacre, Sacareau, Sayer. (Man) 
Eng. Sackman. {Wald, power) Eng. Sackelld.* 

From the Old High Germ, sir it. Mod. Germ. 
streit, war, are probably the following. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Eng. Stride, Street. Mod. Germ. Streit. -^^^ 

DIMINUTIVE. phonetic ENDING. 

Eng. Strettell. Eng. Streeten. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Hari, warrior) Old Germ Stritheri, 9th cent. — English 
Streeter — Mod. Germ. Streiter. 

From the Ang.-Sax. camp, comp, Mod. Germ. 
hampf, war ; Ang.-Saxon caempa,, cempa, com- 
batant, whence the North. Eng. kemp, champion, 
are the following. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old German Campo, Cempho, 8th cent. English Camp, camp. 
Champ, Kemp. Modern German Campe, Kemp. French war. 
Campy, Champy, Champeau. 

diminutives. 

Eng. Camplin, Campling, Kemplen — French Champlon. 
Eng. Campkin. 

An eleventh root is hag, hack, "pack, Old 
High Germ, hagan, to contend. 



A Boston surname, but perhaps only a corruption of Salejxo. 



172 THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 

SliMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Bago, Bacco, Pago, Sth cent. Englisb. Bagg, 

Bag, Back, Back, Pack. Baga^ Bacca, Lib. Vit. — Mod. Germ. Backe, 

Pack. Bage, Packe. French Bague, Bag, Bacque, Bacqua, 

To contend, -r-, 

Bach. 

diminutives. 
English Baguley, Bagley, Bailey — French Paquel, 
Pacilly, Pagelle, Bailly. Eng. Baglin — French Baglan. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Aud, prosperity) Old German Bacauda, Sth cent. — Eng. 
Baggett, Packett — French Baccaud, Pacaud, Bacquet. 
(Hard) Eng. Packard — French Bagard, Paccard. {Harit 
warrior) Eng. Backer, Packer — French Bagier, Bagary, 
|4^' Pacquier. (Man) English Packman. (Mund, protection) 

French Bachiment, Pacquement. (Wald, power) French 
Pacault. (Ward) French Bacquart. 

From tlie Ang.-Sax. sige, Old Norse sigr. Old 
High Germ, sign, victory, are the following. 



Sig, Sic. 
Victory. 



SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Sigo, Sico, Seggi, Secki, 4th cent. Ang.-Sax. 
Sig, Sigga. Old Norse Sigi. Eng. Seago, Seage, Sike, Sea. 
Mod. Germ. Sieg, Sigg, Sieke, Sick. French Sege, See. 

diminutives. 
Old Germ. Sigilo, Sigili, 9th cent. — Eng. Sigley, Sickle 
— Mod. Germ. Sigel, Sigle, Sickel — French Siegel, Sigl^ 
SiCHEL. Old German Sigilina, Siclina, 8th cent. — English 
SiCKLEN, Sickling — Mod. Germ. Siglen. Old Germ. Sigizo, 
10th cent. — Eng. Siggs 1 Sykes ? Old Germ. Sigunzo, 9th 
cent. — Eng. Sickens. 

compounds. 
(Bold) Old German Sigibald, Sicbold, Sibold, 8th cent. 
— Ang.-Sax. Sigebald, king of Essex — Eng. Sibbald — Mod. 
Germ. Siebold — Fr. Sicbel, Sebault. (Aud, prosperity) 
Old German Sigaud — French Segaut. (Bert, bright) Old 
German Sigibert, Sibert, Gth cent. — Ang .-Saxon Sigebert — 



THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 173 

Eug. SiBERT — Mod. Genu. Siebkrt — Fi-eucli Sibert. {Bod, 
messeugcr) Old German Sigibodo, Siboto, 9th cent. — Modern 
Germ. Sebode — French Sibot. {Fred, peace) Old German 
Sigifred, Sieffred — Ang.-Sax. Sigefred, Bishop of Chicester — 
Eng. Seyfried, Seffert — Mod. G^rm. Siegfried, Seyfrid 
— French Seyffert. (Hard) Old Germ. Sigihard, Sigard, 
Sicard, 9th cent. — Mod. Germ. Siegiiardt, Sichert — French 
Segard, Sicard. {Here, warrior, or^ar, spear) Old German 
Sigger, Sicker, Sier, 8th cent. — Siggser, genealogy of the 
Northumbrian kings, Sigar, bishop of Wells — Old Norse 
Siggeir, king of Gothland in the Yolsungasaga — Eng. Segar, 
Siggers, Secker, Sedger, Sier, Seare — Mod. Germ. Sieger, 
SiCHER, Seyer — French Seeger, Segur, Seguier. (Man) 
Old Germ. Sigiman, 8th cent. — Eng. Sickman — Mod. Germ. 
SiEGMANN. {Not, bold) Old Germ. Sigenot — French Signet. 
{Rat, counsel) Old German Sigirad, 8th cent. — French 
Si^GURET, Secrot. {Mar, famous) Old German Sigimar, 
brother of Arminius, 1st cent., Sicumar — Eng. Sycamore, 
Seamer, Seymour — ]\fod. Germ. Seymer — French Siemers. 
{Mund, protection) Old Germ. Sigimund, Burgundian prince, 
5th cent. — Old Norse Sigmundr — Eng. Sigmund, Simmoxds 
— Mod. Germ. Siegmund, Simuxd — French Simond. {Wig^ 
war) Old Germ. Sigiwic, 9th cent. — Eng. Sedgwick. {Wine 
friend) Old Germ. Sigiwin, Seguin — Seguin, Roll. Batt. Abb. 
— Eng. Seguin— French Seguin. 

PHONETIC intrusion OF I and r, see p. 30. 

Old German Sicumar — Eug. Sicklemore. Old German 
Siginiu — Eng. Sigournay. 

We have a name Sigrjst, and there is a cor- 
responding French Siegrist. Eist was the name 
of one of the Valkyrjur, maidens of Odin, among 
whose duties it was to dispense victory. In this 
sense the compound seems a natural one, and I 
do not know of any other way in which the name 
can be explained. 



174 THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 

Another root with the meaning of victory 
may be gagan, gain. This root, which is found 
in several Old German names, Forstemann refers 
to gagan, contra, which in the sense of opposi- 
tion, hostility, would not be unsuitable. But I 
think that a still better meaning is found in 
English " gain," French gagner, and the Old 
Norse gagn, which had the direct sense of victory. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Gagan, Gain, Old Germ. Cagano, 8th cent. English Gagan, Gahan> 
Victoiy. Gain, Gainey, Jane, Cahan, Cain, Caney. Mod. German 
Cahn. French Gagin, Gagne, Gagne, Gagny, Gagneau, 
Gain, Gagin, Cahen, Cain. 

diminutives. 

Old Germ. Kaginzo. Eng. Gains, Janes, Cains. 

compounds. 

(Aud, prosperity) French Gaignaud. (Hard) Old Germ 

Gaganhard, Caganhard, 8th cent. — French Gagnard, Cag- 

NARD, Gainard. (HaH, warrior) Old Germ. Geginheri, 9 th 

cent. — Eng. Gainer, January 1 — French Gagner, Gagniere^ 

Gagnery — Ital. Gagneri. 

Then there is another class of names from 
verbs signifying to wound, to slash, to strike, to 
kill, to devastate, to spoil, or else from nouns 
signifying death, havoc, slaughter. 

From the Ang. -Saxon ha7iay a slayer, are pro- 
bably the names in the following group. In the 
Scop or Bard's song, an ancient Saxon poem pro- 
fessing to be an account given by a wandering 
minstrel of the different countries he had visited 
we are told that " Becca ruled the Bannings." 
We know nothing further of this people, but 
their name seems to indicate that they were a 
warlike tribe. 



THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 175 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old German Paimo, lltli cent. English Bann, Banny, pan, Ban. 
Pann. French Banie, Panay. ^^y^'^- 

DIMINUTIVES. 

English Pannell — French Bannielle, Panel. English 
Bannick. French Panisse — Ital. Panizzl ? 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Rere, warrior) Eng. Banner, Pannier — French Bannier, 
Pannier. (Ger, spear) Old Germ. Panager, 9th cent. — Eng. 
Banger (if not local) — Modern German Banger. (Hard) 
English Banyard — French Panhard, Pan art. {Ward, 
guardian) Mod. Germ. Bannwart — French Banouard. 

Another form of Ang.-Saxon hana, a slayer 
was hona. The root hon occurs especially in Old 
Frankish names, and the Latin bonus may per- 
haps intermix in the simple forms. I have sug- 
gested, p. ^^, that Bonaparte may be an Old 
Frankish name in an Italianized form. It will be 
seen from the following list that the name has 
representatives, both in French and English. 

simple forms. 
Old German Bonus, Bono, Pono. Eng. Bonny, Boney, ^^^^ p^^ 
Pony. Mod. German Bonn, Bonne, Bohn. French Bon, siayer. 
Bonne, Bonni, Bonny, Bonnay, Bonneau, Bonno, Pon. 

diminutives. 
Old Germ. Bonila, 8th cent. — English Bonnell — French 
Bonnell, Bonnelye, Ponnelle. Old Germ. Bonigo, 10th 
cent. — Eng. Bonnick — Mod. German Bonnecke. English 
BoNKEN — French Bonichon. Old German Bonizo, 10th 
cent. — Anglo-Saxon Bonsig, Cod. Dip. 810 — Eng. Bonsey — 
French Bonasseaux, Bonze, Bonys. 

PATRONY'MICS. 

Eng. BoNNiNG — French Bonningue, Boning. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Audj prosperity) French Bonnaud, Bonny aud. {Bert^ 
famous) Old Germ. Bonibert, 7th cent., Bonipert, 8th cent. 



176 THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 

— Eng. BoNBRiGHT — French Bonpard, Bompart — Italian 
BoNiPERTi, Bonaparte ? {Fus, funs, prompt, eager) Old 
Germ. Bonafusus, Bonafiisse,* llth cent. — French Bonna- 
Fous, BoNNEFONs, BoNiFACE 1 BoNFiLS 1 {Gar, spear) Eng. 
BoNiGER, Bomgar(son). [Here, warrior) Old Germ. Bonarius 
— Eng. BoNAR, Bonner — Modern Germ. Boehner — French 
BoNNAiRE, Bonier, Bonnery, Boniieur 1 (Man) English 
Bonnyman — French Bonnemain. {Mund, protection) French 
Bonnement. (Hard) Old Germ. Bonard, 8th cent. — Mod. 
German Bohnhardt — Fr. Bonnard, Bonardi, Bonnardet 
{French dimin.) {Sind, way) Old German Bonesind, 9th 
cent. — French Bonnissent. . {Wold, power) Old German 
Bonoald, Bonald, 9th cent. — French Bonald (Archbishop of 
Lyons) — Ital. Bonoldi. 

From the Anglo-Saxon hen, a wound, in the 

sense, with the ancient termination, of a wound- 

inflicter, may be the following. I am inclined to 

think, however, that this, and the preceding 

groups ban, hon, are in reality only different forms 

of the same word. 

simple forms. 
Old Germ. Benno, Benni, Ben, Penna, 8th cent. — Bynni, 

Ben, Bin. 7 ? 5 j j 1 

Wound. ^^^- y^^' — ^^g- Benn, Benney, Binney, Penn, Penny, Pinn, 
Pinny, Pino — Mod. German Behn, Bihn, Penn. French 
Bena, Bina, Biney, Bineau, Peny, Pin, Pineau, Pinau. 

It appears also that Benno, Penno, was sometimes used 
anciently as a contraction o^ Bernhard, Benedictus, and 

Pernger. 

diminutives. 
Old Germ. Benico, Bennic, 9th cent. — Benoc, genealogy 
of Ida, king of Bernicia — Eng. Bennicke, Bennoch, Pen- 
nick, PiNNOCK — Mod. Germ. Benicke, Binnecke, Pennicke 
— French Benecke, Benech, Binoch. Old Germ Bei/t'Aos, 
Frocopius, 6th cent., Benilo, llth cent. — English Bennell, 



* There is also an Old Germ. Bonafuisset, 10th cent. Is not this the French 
diminutive added, as in the Old French name Charlemainet ? 



THE. WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 177 

Pennell — French Penel, Pinel. English Benkin — Mod. 
Germ. Beneken — French Pennequin. Old German Benzo, 
Penzo — Eng. Benns, Bense, Binns — French Bence, Benz, 
BiNz, Penc^ Pinseau. Old German Benimius, Benimia,* 
8th cent. — Fries. Bonnema — French Bonamy, BoNOMif. 

PATilONYMICS. 

Old Germ. Benning, 9th cent. — English Benning — Mod. 
Germ. Benning. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Ger^ spear) Old Germ. Benegar, 8th cent. — Eng. Benger 
— French Binnecher. {Gaud, got, Goth) Old Germ. Bene- 
gaud, 8th cent. — Eng. Pexnycad — Fr. Penigot, Penicaud. 
(Hard) Old German Benehard, Benard, 9th cent. — Modern 
German Bennert — French Benard, Binard, Pinhard 
{Here, warrior) Old German Beneher, 9 th cent. — English 
Benner, Bynner, Penner — Fr. Benier, Binier, Peniere. 
{Aud, prosperity) French Penaud, Pinaud. {Bert, bright) 
French Penabert. (Man) Eng. Penman — Mod. German 
Bennemann. {Mar, famous) Eng. Benmore, Pennymore. 
{Nant, daring) English Pennant — French Binant, Penant. .^ %-ric. 

{ Wald, power) Mod. Germ. Bennold — French Pinault. k ^a.l\ 

From the Mid. High Germ, hichen. Old High 
Germ, pichan, to slash, Forstemann derives a root 
big, hie, pig, pic, to which I place the following. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old German Bicco, Bigo, Picco, Pigo, Picho, 8 th cent. 
Eng. BiCK, Bitch, Bigg, Pick, Pigg. Mod. Germ. Bieck, f.^' f^l' 
Bigge, Pick, Pich. French Bigi^, Bigey, Pick, Picque, to slash. 
PiCHi, PicHOu, Pigeau. 

diminutives. 
Eng. Bickle, Bickley, Bigelow, Pickell — Mod. Germ, 
PiCKEL — French Bical, Bigle, Pical. 



* Benimius and Benimia occur as Old Prankish names both of men aud 
women. 



w 



178 THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Avd, prosperity) Frencli Picaud, Pichaud, Bigot 1 

PiGEAT ? PlCQUET ? — Eng. PiCKETT ? PiGGOTT 1 (Hard) 

^■. Eng. PiCKARD — Mod. Germ. Pickhardt — French Bicuard, 

rf> BiGEARD, Pickard, Pichard, Pigeard. {Here, warrior) 

Englisli Bicker, Biggar, Picker, Pitcher — French Bigre, 
BiTCHER, Picher, Pichery, Picory, Pigeory. (Man) Eng. 
BiGMAN, PiCKMAN. {Ram, ran, raven) English Pigram — 
French Bicheron, Pigeron. {Wald, power) Old German 
Bigwald, Picoald, 7th cent. — French Picault, Pigault. 

I am inclined to think that the following 
group are formed by a phonetic n from the pre- 
ceding, and that they correspond with the Old 
Eng. 'pink, to pierce, to stab. 

simple forms. 
Pink English Bingey, Pingo, Pink, Pinkey, Pinch — French 

To pierce. BiNG, BiNGE. 

phonetic ending. 
Pinceon, Lib. Vit., Eng. Pincheon. French Pingeon, 

PiNCHON. 

compounds. 
{Hard, fortis) Eng. Pinkert — French Pingard. 

From the Goth, malvjan, Old Norse mola, 
contundere, Eng. " maul," we may take the fol- 
lowing. 

simple forms. 

Old German Malo, 8th cent. Moll, " also called Ethel- 
^^^^" wold," kincr of Northumbria. Maule, Maulay, Eoll Batt. A hb. 

MoU. 5 & , J , 

To beat. Eng. Mall, Malley, Maule, Moll, Mole, Molley. Mod. 
German Mahl, Malle, Mohl. French MAiiLE, Mall6, 
Malo, Moll, Moll^ Mole, Molay, Maull. 

diminutives. 
English Mallock — French Mallac, Maleco, Molique 
Eng. Malkin — French Malaquin. 

patronymics. 
Eng. Mallino, Mollino. French Malingue. 






THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 179 

C051P0UNDS. 

(Bert, famous) Old German Malpert, lOtli cent. — French 
Malapert. (Bot, envoy) Old Germ. Malboto, 8th cent. — 
French Malbot. (Hard, fortis) Old German Mallard, 7th 
cent. — ISIaularde, Boll Batt. Abb. — Eng. Mallard, Mollard 
— French Mallard, Mollard, Mouillard. (Bad, council) 
Old Germ. Malrada, 8th cent. — French Malaret, Malrait. 
(Bice, powerful) Malorix, Frisian Prince, 1st cent., Malarich, 
prince of the Suevi in Spain, 6th cent. — English Mallory — 
French Malory. (Thius, servant) Old German Malutheus, 
in a Gothic record at Naples, 6th cent. — English Malthus, 
Malthouse. (Ulf, wolf) Old German Malulf, 6th cent. — 
Eng. Maliff. 

It appears to me that mel and mil are dif- 
ferent forms from the same root, and corresponding 
directly with Old Norse melia, English " mill," 
which is still used in the sense of pugilistic 
encounters. Forstemann calls this a yet unex- 
plained root, " ein noch unerklarter stamm," and 
refers to " mild," also to a Slavonic root. But it 
appears to me that there is no occasion to go 
further than the above. 

simple forms. 
Old Germ. Milo, Mello, 10th cent. MIAwv, a Sigamber 
in Strabo, 1st cent., Grimm makes the same as the above. ^^®^' ^'^^^• 
English MiLO, Miley, Millie, Mello, Mellow. French ° ^* ' 
MiLLE, Mill, Miley, Milly, Millaux, Melle, Melaye. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old Germ. Milike— Eng. Millige, Milk — Mod. Germ. 
Mielecke, Milcke, Milch — French Melick, Melique. 
Old German Milizzo, 8th cent. — English Millis, Mellis, 
Mellish — Fr. Milisch. Eng. Millikin. Fries. Mellema 
— French Malamy, Milhomme ? 

patronymics. 
Eng. MiLLiNGE — French Millange. 



180 THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Dio, servant) Old German Mildeo, Qtli cent. — English 
Mellodew, Melody, Mellowday, Malady. (Hard) Old 
Germ. Milehard, 7tli cent. — English Melliard, Millard — 
Mod. Germ. Mielert — French Millard, Milord. (Hari^ 
warrior) Eng. Meller, Miller ? — Mod. Germ. Miller ? — 
French Melier, Miller, Millery. (Sind, expedition) Old 
German Milesinda, Milissent — English Millicent — French 
Milsent. 

It is rather probable that the word mold, 

malt, mold, which seems to be a derivative of the 

previous root mal, has also the meaning of hostile 

collision. The prefix meald occurs in several 

Anglo-Saxon names, as Mealdhelm, &c., and 

EttmuUer supposes an Aug.- Saxon m^eald, in the 

sense of confrictio. The most natural meaning 

to give to this seems to be that of mingling in 

battle fray. The form malz, which appears in 

some French names, may be another form of the 

same. 

simple forms. 

Ang.-Sax. Malte, charter of Edward, a.d. 1060. Maald, 
Maid. Maid, Lib. Vit. Eng. Malt, Mould, Moult. Mod. Germ. 
^^^' Maldt. Dan. Malthe. French Maulde, Malteaux ? 

diminutives. 
Eng. MouLDiCK. Dan. Moltke. French Malzac. 

phonetic ending? 
Old Germ. Maldra,* king of the Suevi, 5th cent. Eng. 
Moulder. French Malt aire, Malzar. 

PATRONYMICS. 

Eng. Moulding. French Malsang 1 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Bert, famous) Old Germ. Maldeberta, 7th cent. — French 
Maubeut ? (Gar, spear) Old German Maldegar — French 

* Called in another chronicle Masdra. 



THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 181 

Mauger ? (Man) Eng. Maltman — French Maudemain. 
{Vid, with, wood) Ang.-Sax. Maklvit — Maldwith, Domesday 
— Eng. Malt WOOD — French Mauduit. 

From the Old Norse hasa, to strive, contend, 
Fiirstemann derives the root has in Old German 
names. And from the Old Norse hisa, to strive 
fiercely, a word no doubt cognate, he also derives 
a root his. It seems to me, however, that the two 
words are too closely connected to be separated. 
Thus we find that the Thuringian king Basinus 
was also called Bisinus. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old German Base, Basso, 7th cent., Biso, Piso, 9th cent. 
Bass, a " Mass- Priest," Ang.-Sax. Chron. Bassason, a gg 
Northman, Ann. I si. Bisi, bishop of the East Angles, 7th Bis.' 
cent. Bysey, Roll Batt. Abb. English Bass, Bessy, Biss, strife. 
Pass, Passey. Mod. German Bass, Bese, Pass. French 
Basse, Bassei^, Basso, Besse, Bessay, Biseau, Bissay, 
Passe, Passy. 

diminutives. 

Old German Bassac, 9th cent. — Eng. Baseke, Bask 
BiscoE — Mod. Germ. Baske, Basch. Old German Basulo 
6th cent. — Eng. Bassil, Bessel, Besley, Bissell — Modern 
German Basel, Pesel — French Beslay. 

PHONETIC ending. 

Basinus or Bisinus, Thuringian king, 5th cent. Basina 
wife of the Prankish king Childerich, and daughter of the 
above. Pisin, 9 th cent. Basin, Dom sday. Eng. Basin 
Bisney. French Baissin, Besson, Bessoneau, Bessona 

BiSSEN, PiSSIN. 

compounds. 
{Gaud, Goth) Eng. Bisgood, Peascod ? — Fr. Bassaget. 
(Hard, fortis) French Bessard, Bisard, Passard, Pissard. 
{Mar, famous) Eng. Bessemer, Bissmire, Passmer. (Man) 
Eng. Passman — Mod. Germ. Bassmann. 



182 THE WARRIOR AND niS ARMS. 

I am not sure that Bishop is not in some 
cases from this root. No doubt it might be de- 
rived from the office, for even in ancient times 
such names seem to have been given baptismally, 
and there is an Old German Piscof, 8th cent., 
which Graff so derives. But there is a Biscop in 
the genealogy of the kings of the Lindisfari, who 
of course mast have been a heathen. Possibly 
it may be from the above root his, with Anglo- 
Saxon c6f, strenuous, which apparently occurs 
sometimes as a termination in Saxon names. 

There are several words signifying to beat, 
some of which are still in use in the English 
language, or in provincial dialects. One of these 
is hang or hank. Old Norse hanga, Danish hanke, 
Eng. " bang," Exmoor dialect " bank," to beat. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

_ , Eng. Bang, Bank, Bench, Penk. Mod. Germ. Banck, 

Bang, Bank. & j ' ' ? 

To beat. Bang. French Bangy, Banc. 

diminutives. 

French Benqel. French Panckouke. 

compounds. 

{Gaud, Goth) Old German Bancgot, 9 th cent. — English 

Penkett. {Aud, prosperity) French Panchaud. {Hard) 

English Banghart,* Bankart — Modern German Benckert. 

(Here, warrior) Eng. Bancker, Bankier — French Penquier. 

Another word signifying to beat. Old Norse 
heysta. North. Eng. " baste,'' may perhaps be the 
root of the following. This group is constructed 
on a purely hypothetical principle, as I have as 
yet found no ancient names to correspond. 

* A Philadelphia name, possibly of German origin. 



THE WARRIOR AND UlS ARMS. 183 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Eug. Baste, Bastow, Best, Paste, Pest. Mod. Germ. Baste. 
Beste. French Basta, Bastie, Best, Past^ Pasty, ^° ^^^' 
Pasteau, Pesty. 

diminutives. 

Eng. Bastick. French Bestel, Pestel. 

patronymic. 

Eng. Basting. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Hard, fortis) Eng. Bastard — French Bastard. (Here, 
warrior) Eng. Baster, Bastray, Pester — French Baster, 
Bastier, Pastier, Pastr^ Pestre. (Wcdd, power) French 
Bestault. 

A third root signifying to beat is Old Norse 
klappa. Old High Germ. klaphd)L 

simple forms. 
Old Germ. Claffo, Lombard king, 6th cent., Clapho, Clep, aap, ciaflf, 
Cleb, Cleph. Clappa, son of Ida, king of Bernicia. Osgod ^o beat. 
Clapa, Danish nobleman at the court of Canute. English 
Glapp, Clayey. Modern Germ. Klapp. French Claveau, 
Clave, Clayey. 

diminutives. 

Eng. Claplin. French Clabbeeck. French Clavel. 

patronymics. 

Eng. Clapson. French Clapisson. 

compounds. 

(Aud, prosperity) French Clabaut. (Hari, warrior) 

Eng. Clapper — Modern German Klaber — French Clapier, 

Clavier, Claverie, Kleber. (Ron, raven) Fr. Clapeyron. 

(Eat, red, counsel) French Clavrot, Claparede. 

From the Old High Germ, hliuwaii, to strike, 
to kill, Forstemann thinks may be a Goth, name 
Blivilas of the 5 th cent. There are a few names 
mostly French, which may perhaps be referred to 
this origin. 



Dolk. 
Vulnus. 



184 THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Biaive. French Blaive, Bleve. 

Verberare. 

PHONETIC ENDING. 

Eng. Blevin, Plevin. French Blavin, Blevanus. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Hard, fortis) French Plivard. {Hari, warrior) French 
Blavier, Plouvier. 

The following root seems to be referable to 
Old Norse dolgr, foe, Ang.-Sax. dolg, vulnus, 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Tulga (West Gothic king, 7th cent.), Tulcho. 
Eng. TuLK. Mod. Germ. Dulk. 

PHONETIC ENDING. 

Old Germ. Tolcon, 10th cent. Eng. Tolkien, Tolken. 
Mod. Germ. Dulcken. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Fin, people's name ?) Old Norse Dolgfinnr — English 
Dolphin. (Hari, warrior) Eng. Tolcher. 

Then there are several roots signifying to 
break, subdue, crush, and in which the meaning 
probably often mixes with that of the former 
class. From the Goth, hrican, Ang.-Sax. bracan, 
hrecan, Old High German hrechan, hrelifian, 
hrihhan, prehhariy to break, crush, Eng. " bray,^' 
Cumb. " brake," to beat violently, I take to be 
the following. There are but few ancient names, 
and Forstemann does not give any explanation. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Brachio, Thuringian king, 6th cent., Briccius, 
Brici 5th cent. English Brack, Brake, Breach, Brick, Brigg, 
To beat Bridge, Bray, Prigg, Pray. Mod. German Brack, Bry. 

French Bracq, Breck, Brique, Brahy, Bray, Bri^au, Bri^e, 

Pray, PrI^au. 



Brack, 



THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 185 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Eng. Breakell, Brickell, Prickle. Brixi, Domesday 
JS'otts. — English Brixey, Brix, Briggs 1 Bridges 1 — French 
Brack ? Prax ? French Braquelonne, Pri^lin. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Aud, prosperity) French Brigaud, Brayoud, Brioude. 
(And, life, spirit) Eng. Briand, Briant — French Bregand, 
Briant. (Hard) French Braciiard, Brechard, Br^geard, 
Bricard, Brichard, Bri^rd, Briard. {Herey warrior) Eng. 
Bracher, Bricker, Breaker, Breecher, Bridger, Brayer, 
Brier, Preacher — French Bracher, Brayer, Bregere, 
Bricaire, Breyer, Preyer, (Man) English Brakeman, 
Brayman, Brickman, Brigman, Bridgemax — Mod. German 
BRACiorANN, Brtjckmann — French Braquemin, Brechemin. 
( Wine, friend) French Bregevin. ( Wald, power) Old Germ. 
Briceold, 9th cent. — French Brault, Preault. 

phonetic ending. 
Eng. Bragan, Bridgen, Brain, Prain. French Bricon, 
Brainne. 

phonetic intrusion of n. 
Eng. Brainard. French Pregniard. 

Another root signifying to break may be hrit, 
Ang.-Sax. hritian, whence Eng. " brittle.'^ But 
the Ang.-Sax. hrytta, ruler, prince, may come in 
for all or part. Forstemann also proposes Ang.- 
Sax. Bryt, a Briton, and hind, as the root of bridle. 

simple forms. 
Old German Briddo, Britto, 9th cent. Brette, Roll Bait. 

"Rrit 

Ahh. Eng. Brett, Pritt, Pretty, Pride, Priddy. French ^^ break? 
Bret, Breteau, Pret^, Bride, Brideau. 

diminutives. 
Eng. Brettell, Brittell — French Bretel. Fr. Bretocq. 

compounds. 
{Here, warrior) Old Germ. Brittharius, Thuringian, 6th 
cent. — Englisli Britter, Preter— French Bretar, Pretre ? 
(Hard) French Pr^tard. (Man) Eng. Prettyman ? 

X 



186 THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 

Another root of similar meaning I take to be 
found in Anglo-Saxon hrysan, Old Eng. hrise^ 
French hriser, Old French bruiser, English 
" bruise/' The following names show the Teutonic 
origin in French as well as English. 

SIMPLE POEMS. 

Brese.Bruse. Old German Briso, Priso, 8tli cent. Old Norse Bresi. 
Eng. English Brise, Brissey, Breeze, Bressey, Brewes, Bruce, 

"bruise." ° 

Prissey, Pruse. Modern German Brese, Breis, Preiss. 

French Brise, Brisay, Breysse, Bresse, Bresseau, Bresst, 

Brucy, Brousse. 

diminutives. 

English Brisley, Prisley — French Bressel, Brezol, 

Pruzelle. Old German Brisca, 11th cent. — Eng. Brisco, 

Brisk, Breysic, Prissick — French Brisac. Eng. Breslin, 

Preslin — French Bresillon, Bruzelin. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Aud, prosperity) English Bruzaud — French Brissaud. 
{And, life, spirit) English Bruzand — French Bressand. 
(Hard) English Breazard — French Brissard, Brizard. 
(Man) Eng. Brisman, Priseman. {Here, warrior) French 
Bresser, Bruezier. 

Then we have several roots signifying to plun- 
der, to devastate, to overthrow. From the root 
rob (Goth, rauban. Old High German raupan, 
Old Sax. roven), are a number of names, many of 
which have been supposed to be contractions of 
Bobert. The word has not a pleasant sound to 
English ears, but it must not be understood in 
the petty larceny modern sense, but in the respect- 
able ancient sense of burning down a village, 
slaughtering the men, and carrying off the goods 
and chattels, women and children. 



THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 187 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Ruabo, Rubbo, Rubo, 8tli cent. Eng. Robb, Kob, Rub. 

Robbie, Roff, Roffie, Roaf, Roof, Rough, Rubb, Ruby, ^° t^^i^^^q^- 

Ruff, Ruffy, Rope, Roope. Mod. Germ. Rube. French 

Robbe, Robi, Roubo, Rubio, Rub6, Ruby, Rupp, Rouffe, 

Rouveau. 

diminutives. 

Old Germ. Rupilo — English Roblow, Robley, Roupell, 
Ruffle — French Rubelle, Rouvel. English Rubidge — 
French Robiquet (double dimin.) Old German Ruopilinj 
10th cent. — English Robolin — French Roblin, Ro villain. 
French Robquin, Robichon. 

compounds. 

{Here, warrior) Eng. Roper, Rooper, Rubery — French 
Robier, Rubier, Rouvier. {Rice, powerful) Fr. Ruprich. 

Then there is another root ra6, rap, raf^ 
which I take to be most probably another form 
of the last, Old High Germ, rabany Ang.-Saxon 
reafan. Old Norse hrapa. 

simple forms. 

Old German Rabo, 9th cent., Raffo, 11th cent. English 
Raby, Rapp, Ravey. French Raby, Raba, Rabeau, ^^' ■^*^- 
Rabou, Raffy, Rapp, Rape, Raveau, Ravou. o-pym er. 

diminutives. 

Ehglish Raffell — Modern German Raffel — French 

Raphel, Rapilly, Ravel. English Rapkin. French 

Rabillon, Rafflin. 

compounds. 

{Aud, prosperity) French Raveaud. (Hard) French 

Raffard, Raffort, Ravard. {Here, warrior) Eng. Raper 

— French Rabier, Ravier. {Got, Goth) French Rabigot. 

( Wold, power) Old Germ. Raffolt, 8th cent. — Eng. Raffold 

— French Ravault. {Wine, friend) French Rabouin. {Ulf, 

wolf) Old Germ. Rafulf, 9 th cent. — French Rabeuf. 

Another form of the same root signifying to 
rob is I think, rehy rev, rip, riv, Ang.-Sax. re/an. 



188 THE WAREIOR ANP HIS ARMS. 

rypan, Eng. "rifle," (diminutive). Forstemann 
proposes Ang.-Sax. ri'pe, English "ripe" in the 
sense of mature, a less probable root, as it seems 
to me. Some of the Old German names begin- 
ning with an aspirated h, it is possible that crib, 
crip, may be Frankish forms from this root, as 
at p. 46. 

SIMPLE FORMS, 

Eib, Eif. Old Germ. Hripo, Hriffo, 9tli cent. Eng. Kibb, Riff, 
To plunder. Cribb 1 Mod. Germ. Reibe, Reiff. French Revu, Ribou, 
RiF, RivAY, Riv4 HivAu, Crepy ? Crepe, Crepeau ? 

diminutives. 

Eng. RiBBECK, Repuke, Ripkey. Eng. Reffel, Revill, 

Reavell, Ripley — Rivell, Roll Batt. Ahhey — Mod. German 

RiippELL, RiFFEL — French Rible, Ribail, Rebel, Revel, 

Reveil, Crepelle ? French Rebillon, Revelin, Rivelin. 

compounds. 

(Audi prosperity) French Riffaud, Ripaut, Rivaud. 
(Hard) French Rebard, Ripard, Rivard, Reverd. {Here, 
warrior) Old Germ. Ripher, Riper, 8th cent. — Eng. Riper, 
ReverE; Riviere, River, Griper ? — Ripere, Rivers, Roll 
Batt. Abb. — Mod. Germ. Reiber — French Ribier, Ribiere, 
Riviere, Gribier? — Spanish Ribera. (Wald, power) Old 
German Ribald, Rippold, 8th cent. — French Ribault, 
Rebold, Riffault, Ripault — Ital. Rivolta ? 

phonetic ending. 

Old Germ. Rifuni, 8th cent. English Rippin, Crippen ? 
French Ribun, Riboni, Rivain. 

Another root of similar meaning may be ran, 
ren, from Old Norse rcena, spoliare, rdn, rapine. 
But this is difficult to separate in many cases 
from ragiriy counsel, which is frequently con- 
tracted into rain, as at p. 48. Forstemann also 
refers to Ran, the wife of Oegir in Northern 
mythology. 



THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 189 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Rano, 9tli cent. En^r. Rann, Rannie, Renn, 

^r ^ ^ ' ,, * ' ' ' Ran, Ren. 

Wren, Rennie, Renno. Modern German Raiin. French Rapine. 
Range, Renny, Renj^ 

diminutives. 
Old Germ. Ranila, Tth cent. Eng. Rennell. French 
Renel. 

patronymics. 

Eng. Rennison. French Renesson, Rennecon. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Gar, spear) Old German Rangar — Eng. Raniker, Ranger 1 
Another root of the same meaning is dil, til, 
which Forstemann refers to Old High German 
tilen, Ang.-Sax. dilgian, diruere, destruere. To 
the few ancient names of his hst I add several 
others from our own early records. 

simple FORMS. 

Old Germ. DiUi, Tilli, Thilo, 8th cent. TiUi, Lib. Yit. ^^' '^"• 
Dm, Tilly, Tille, Hund. Rolls. EngHsh Dill, Dilley, ^° ^''^'°^' 
DiLLOW, Till, Tilley. Modern German Dill, Till, Tilo. 
French Dilly, Dille, Tilly, Till^. 

diminutives. 

Ang.-Sax. Tilluc {found in TUluces ledh, Cod. Dip. 436.) 
Eng. Dillick, Dilke, Tillick, Tilke. French Dilhac. 

PATRONY^IICS. 

Eng. Tilling. Mod. Germ. Dilling. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Ger, spear) Ang.-Sax. Tilgar (found in TUgdres die, Cod. 
Dip. 714) — Dilker, Hund. Rolls. — Eng. Dilger, Dillicar. 
(Hard) Eng. Tilleard — Mod. German Dillert — French 
Tilliard. (Here, warrior) Ang.-Sax. Tilhere, bishop oi 
Worcester — English Diller, Tiller, Tillier — French DiL- 
lery\ Tillier. (Ef) English Tillott — French Dillet, 

"* Many ancient endings, as aud or ead, prosperity, had, yrax, hait, "hood," 
converge in modem names into et. 



190 THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 

TiLLOT. (Man) Ang.-Sax. Tilmann (found in Tilmannes 
den, Cod. Dip. 379) — Tilmon, Lib. Vit. — Tileman, Hund. 
Rolls. — Eng. DiLLMAN, Tillman, Tilgman, Tileman — Mod. 
German Dillemann, Tillman n — French Tilman. (Mar, 
famous) Old German Tilemir, 8th cent. — Eng. Dillimore. 
{Noth, bold) English Dilnutt. {Wine, friend) Tiluini, Lib. 
Vit. — Eng. DiLLWYN. (Mund, protection) Anglo-Saxon 
Tilmund {found in Tilmundes ho, Cod. Dip. 663) — French 
Tilmant. 

PHONETIC ending. 

Eng. Dillon. French Dillon, Tillon. 

Another root of similar meaning is probably 
turn, which is found as early as the 6th cent., 
and which Forstemann supposes to be from Old 
High German turnan, Eng. " turn/' in the sense 
of overthrowing, or in the later sense of tilting. 
He has five ancient names from this root, but 
none corresponding with ours, 

SIMPLE poems. 
Turn. 

To overthrow. English TuRNEY, TouRNAY? French TOURNE, TOXJRNAY? 

Durney. 

diminutives. 

Eng. TuRNELL, Turnley — French Tournal, Dournel. 
French Toue^aillon. French Tournachon. 

compounds. 

{Here, warrior) Turnerus, Capellanus, in a grant to the 
monastery of Croyland, a.d. 1051 — Eng. Turner — French 
TouRNEUR, Tournaire, Tournery. 

Another root with this meaning may be 
strude, strut, Ang.-Saxon strudan, to devastate, 
destroy, along with which, as a High Germ, form, 
we may class struz. 

strude, SIMPLE FORMS. 

Stmt. Old German Strodo, Strut, Stmz, 8th cent. English 

To destroy. g^j^^DE, Strutt. Mod. Germ. Strauss. 



THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 191 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Here, warrior) English Struthers. (Wigy war) Eng. 
Strudwick. 

Another root of similar meaning may be Ang.- 
Sax. scathan, isceathan. Old Norse skedia. Old 
High German scadan. Mod. German schaden, to 
injure, plunder, destroy. There is also another 
root proposed by Forstemann, and which might 
intermix — Goth, skadus. Old High Germ, scato, 
shade, in the older sense of shelter or protection. 
And a third might be Old Norse skati, rex, vir 
munificus, from skattr, tribute, whence Skati, a 
name in the Landnamabok. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old German Scato, 9th cent. English Skate, Shade, r^^ (destroy. 

Sheath, Skeet. Mod. German Schat, Schade. French 

Scat, Scatti. 

compounds. 

(Here, warrior) Eng. Sheather, Shether. (Lac, play) 

Eng. ScADLOCK. (Leof, dear) Eng. Skatliff. (Wecdh, 

stranger) Sceadwala,* father of Beowulf (Flor. Wor.J Eng. 

Shadwell. 

phonetic ending. 

Old Germ. Scattani (Genit.J, 9th cent. Eng. Scaddan. 
Some other words of hateful sound to 
Christian ears are no doubt derived in a warlike 
sense. Such is the root bal, hale, pale — Goth. 
halv. Old High German palo, Ang.-Saxon bealo, 
bale, woe, calamity, in the sense of one who 
inflicts calamity upon others. This root is apt 
to mix up with another of very different meaning, 
hil, lenitas, placiditas, as explained by Grimm. 

* Or this name might be put to the root, had, chad, war, as at p. 169. 



192 THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 

SIMPLE FOEMS. 

Old German Ballo, Pallo, 8th cent. Paley or Paling, 

Bai, Bale, Danish Jarl in the time of Ethelred. Eng. Ball, Balley, 

Pale. Bail, Bailey,* Pail, Paley, Bell, Belly, Bellow, Bellew, 

Calamity. ^^^^^ Pelly, Pellew. Mod. Germ. Ball, Pahl, Behl. 

French Balle, Balay, Bally, Ballu, Bail, Bailla, Bailly, 

Baillieu, Paille, Pailley, Pallu, Bellee, Belleau, 

Belli, Bellu, Pelle, Pelle, Pellu. 

diminutives. 
Eng. Ballock — French Balloche. English Balaam, 
Bellamy — Fries. Ballema — French Bellamy, Belhomme 1 

PATRONYMICS. 

Eng. Balling, Paling. French Pallanque, Pellenc. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Fred, peace) Old German Palfrid — English Palfrey. 
(Hard) English Ballard, Paillard — French Ballard, 
Bailliard, Paillard, Pailliart. (Here, warrior) Eng 
Baller, Balyer, Paler — Fr. Bailliere, Balery, Pailleur, 
Paillerie. (Mer, famous) Old Germ. Ballomar, 2nd cent., 
Belimar, 8th cent. — Eng. Balmer, Bellmore, Palmer ? — 
French Bellemare, Palmier ? (Eet, counsel) English 
Palairet — French Balleret. 

Then there are some roots which signify fear, 

loathing, horror, in the sense, with the ancient 

termination, of " one who is a terror to others.'' 

Thus a warrior in Saxo describes himself — 

Bessus ego sum, 
Fortis in armis, 
Trux inimicis, 
Gentibus horror. 

Hence I take to be the root og. Old Norse 
6ga, abominari, whence Oegr, a name in the 
Landnamabok. This seems to be the root of our 

* Or some of these might be put to the root bag, as at p. 172. 



Horror. 



THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 193 

words " ugly" and " ogre." Forstemann, however, 
places og to the root hug, thought, reason, which 
may indeed intermix — the difference between og 
and hog not being much to build upon. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Ogo, 9th cent. Old Norse Oegr. Eng. Ogg. Og. 
French Og, OgjI 

COMPOUNDa 

{Bern, bear) Eng. Ogborn. {Herej warrior) Eng. Ogier, 
French Ogier, Oger, 

A root cognate with the above seems to be 
Goth, agisy^ Old High Germ, akiso, ekiso, horror, 
which is found in several Old German names, 
none however corresponding with the following. 

SIMPLE FORMS. ^^.^ ^^^^ 

English Aggis, Aggas, Akass. French Agis, Agasse, Ekis. 

AgUESSE, AjASSE, EgASSE, EgAZE, Horror. 

DIMINUTIVK 

Swiss Agassiz 1 

A third root with the same meaning may be 
broke, brook, which Stark refers to Old High 
Germ, bruogo, pruoko, Ang.-Saxon bruga, terror. 
There might also be a root brock, from Ang.-Sax. 
brockian, to afflict, oppress, but a separation 
would be difficult. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Bruocho, Bruogo, 11th cent. Anglo-Saxon 
Broga. Eng. Brock, Broke, Brook, Brew. Mod. Germ. ^^°^^' 

BrUCH, BrOCKE. French BrOC, BrEUCQ. Terror 

patronymics. 
Eng. Brooking. Eng. Brookson. 



May not this be the origin of Eng. "aghast," formerly spelt agaxed f 

Y 



ott. 

Terror ? 



194 THE WAKRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Here, warrior) English Broker, Brooker, Brewer 1 — • 
Modern German Brocker — French Brugiere, Bruhiere. 
(Man) Eng. Brockmann, Brookman — Mod. Germ. Bruck- 
MANN, Brockmann, Broockmann. (Hard) Old German 
Brocard, 11th cent. — Eng. Brocard — Mod. Germ. Bruch- 
hardt — Fr. Brocard. 

There is another root which may come in 
here, ott, from Old Norse dtta, terrere. Hence 
Haldorsen derives the Scandinavian name Ottar, 
in the sense of metuendus, " one to be feared,'^ 
and hence, I take it, the Eng. name Otter. But 
whether Ott, Ottey, Otway, are also to be 
placed to the same root, may be doubtful. 

Another word of similar meaning is Old High 
Germ, leid. Old Sax. led, Ang.-Sax. IdtJiy hateful, 
loathly, in the sense, Hke the preceding words, of 
one who is a terror to others. But it seems to 
me probable that there is an intermixture of 
another root, not noticed by Forstemann, Ang.- 
Saxon ledaUy to lead, Idteow, latheow, Iddman, 
leader. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Lethu, Lombard King, 5th cent., Laitn, Ledi, 
Letus. English Laid, Lady, Late, Lathy, Leath, Leete* 
Laith, Late, j^^^ Germ. Lethe, Lette, Leyde. French Laity, Laitii^, 
Letho, Lede, Ledo, Ledoux, Ledieu, Lettu. 

diminutives. 
Old Germ. Ledila, 9th cent. — Eng. Lathall, Leathley^ 
Letley — French Li^talle, Letaille, Li^toile. Old Germ. 
Ledoc, 8th cent. — French Leduc, Letac, Letocq. 

PATRONYMICS. 

Old German Leiting, 9th cent. English Leedino, 
Lathangue. Mod. Germ. Leding. French Letanq. 



t 



THE WARRlOll AND HIS ARMS. li)5 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Ger, spear) French Ledagre. (Hard) Old German 
Lethard, Letard, 9th cent. — English Leathart — French 
Latard. {llere^ warrior) Old Germ. Leither, Lctar, Lether, 
8th cent. — Ang.-Sax. Lethar {Episcopus^ Cod. Dip. 981) — 
Eng. Later, Leather, Leader — Modern German Leder, 
Leiter — French Ledier, Le Thi^re ? (Man) English 
Laidman, Ladyman. {Rice, powerful) Old Germ. Letoerich, 
8th cent. — French Laederich. {Ramm, ran, raven) Old 
Germ. Lethramnus, 9th cent. — French Laduron, Letteron. 
(Rat J counsel) Old German Laidarat, (Archbishop of Lyons^ 
8th cent.) — French Ladret, Laterrade. {Ward, guardian) 
Old German Lethward, 8th cent. — English Lateward. 

There is another root very difficult to separate 
from the above, Goth, lathon, Old High German 
ladon, to invite, in the sense, according to Forste- 
mann, of challenge. So that in any case the 
names come under this head. 

simple forms. 
English Ladd, Lath, Lattey, Latta, French Lad^ Lad, Lath. 

LaTTE. Challenge 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Here, warrior) Eng. Latter — French Latry, Latour. 
{Leof, dear) English Latliff. {Mar, famous) Old German 
Lathomar, 7th cent. — Latomer, RoU Bait. Abb. — Latimarus, 
Domesday — Eng. Latimer. 

From the Goth, driugan, Ang.-Sax. dreogan, 
militari, we may take the following. 

simple forms. 

Old German Drogo, Drugo, Trogo, Trugo, 7th cent, prog 

Drogo, Domesday. English Troke, Trow, True, Drew. Drew. 

Mod. Germ. Droge, Troche, Drue. French Truc, Trou, ^^^^itari. 

Drou, Druey. 

diminutives. 

Eng. Drewell, Trowell — French Truelle. French 

Droulin. 



196 THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 

PHONETIC ENDING. 

English Druggan, Drown. French Drugeon, Dkouen, 
Drouyn (de Lhuys.) 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Bert, famous) French Trubert. {Hard, fortis) French 
Drouard. {Hari, warrior) Old German Truogheri, 9th 
cent. — English Drewery, Drury, Trower — Mod. German 
Drucker, Truger — French Drucquer. (Man) English 
Trueman — Mod. Germ. Drumann. 

The following seem to be from Anglo-Saxon 
griUan, ad litem provocare. There is only one 
Old Germ, name, which Forstemann thus derives. 

simple forms. 
Eng. Grill, Greele, Greely, Crilly, Crealey — French 

ChaUenge CrRILL, GrILLY, GrEEL. 

compounds. 
{Hari, warrior) French Grellier. (Man) Old Germ. 
Grilieman, 10th cent. — Eng. Creelman. 

From the Goth, draban, Ang.-Saxon drepan, 
to hew, slash, wound, are probably the following. 

simple forms. 
Drab. Old Germ. Drebi, 8th cent. Eng. Trapp, Tripp. Mod. 

To slash. Qqyjji. Trappe. French Trappe, Tribou. 

diminutives. 
Old Germ. Trebel, 10th cent. Eng. Drabble, Travel, 
Treble. French Treboul, Treffil. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Wald, power) Old German Trapold, 9 th cent. — French 
Trabold, Drevault. 

In an age of hand-to-hand conflict, when 
every man had to depend on the strength of his 
own arm and the temper of his own steel, a tried 
and trusted weapon was naturally regarded with 
a feeling something akin to veneration. 



THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 197 

We find, both in the Celtic and Teutonic 
mytlis, that the sword of a celebrated warrior 
was often distinguished by a proper name, and 
that magical or peculiar properties were not 
unfrequently attributed to it. Thus the cele- 
brated sword called Skofnung, which belonged to 
the Icelandic warrior Hrolf Kraki, and which 
was afterwards carried away out of his grave, 
could not, as related in Scandinavian myths, be 
drawn in the presence of women, or so that the 
sun shone upon the hilt, without losing something 
of its virtue. 

The sword of Roland was called Durenda, a 
"word which also occurs frequently in the names 
of men, where it is probably derived, at least in 
many cases, from the weapon of the renowned 
champion. In France, at the present day, the 
name is extremely common. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old German Durand, Duorant, 9th and following cen- ^^''*°<^- 
turies. Durandus, Lib. Vit. Eng. Durand. Mod. Germ. ^° 
DoRAND, Durand. French Durand, Durandeau, Durant. 

ItaL DURANDY, DURANTO. 

COilPOUND. 

(Hard, fortis) French Durandard. 
Names derived from weapons are extremely 
common, but not, as it seems to me, at least as 
the general rule, in any metaphorical sense, but 
rather on the principle referred to p. 18. That 
is, in simple forms, the ancient termination gives 
the sense of " one having a sword," " one having 
a spear," &c. 



Roland. 



198 THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 

Sword itself is not common ; it is found in an 
Old Germ. Sueridus, 4th cent. — in the name 
Swerting, of a Goth mentioned in Beowulf — and 
in Svertmgr, the name of four Northmen in the 
Landnamabok. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Sword ^^^ Grerm. Sueridus, 4th cent. Eng. Sword. Modern 

Ensis. Germ. Schwerdt. French Sourd, Sourdeau, Serdou, Sert. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Here, warrior) Eng. Sworder, Sortor — Fr. Sourdiere. 
(Or else the same as Old English " sworder," swordsman ?) 
{Wal, stranger) Eng. Sort well — French Sourdeval. 

A more common word is brand, Old Norse 

brcmdr, signifying literally a torch, a burning, 

but metaphorically a sword, from its shining, in 

which sense it is still used in poetry. Graff gives 

it the former meaning in proper names, but 

Forstemann, more reasonably, as I think, the 

latter. It was common among the Lombards, 

and among the Northmen, but not among the 

Saxons, nor, except as a termination, among the 

Franks. Another form in Ang.-Sax. and Old 

Fries, is irond. The Brondings are a people 

mentioned in Beowulf, also in the Scop or Bard's 

song. 

simple FORMS. 

Old German Brantio, 9 th cent. Old Norse Brandr, 
Brand, Brandi. English Brand, Brandy, Brant, Brond, Brent — 
Brond. Mod. German Brandt — French Brand, Brandy, Brandau, 

^^°'^- Brandao, Brand. 

diminutives. 

Old Germ. Brandila, 5th cent. — Eng. Brandle— Modern 
Germ. Brandel — French Brandely, Brondel. Old Germ. 



THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 199 

Brandalenua, 8th cent. — Eng. Brandling — Modern German 
BrJvndlein. Eng. Brandis,* Brandish — Modern German 
Brandeis — French Brandes. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Hard) English Brand ard. {Here, waiTior) English 
Brander — French Bronder (or same as Old English 
"sworder," swordsman.) {Ram, raven) Eng. Brandram. 
{Red, counsel) Eng. Brandreth — Mod. Germ. Brandroth. 
{Rice, powerful) Eng. Brandrick. 

As a termination I find it in three English 
names, Gillibrand, Shierbrand, and Hilde- 
brand. And in five French, Albrand, Aude- 

BRAND, ChABRAND, GhEERBRANT, and HlLDE- 

brand. Perhaps we may find another in Mali- 
bran. The name of the Dutch painter, Rem- 
brandt, comes in here. 

Another word signifying a blade, sword, is 
Old Fries. Hinge , Germ, and Dan. Hinge, Dutch 
Hing. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Chlincho, 9th cent. English Cling, Clingo, g^o^d 
Clink, Clinch, Clench. Modern German Kling, Klink, 

Klencke. 

compounds. 

(Hard) Eng. Clinkard — Mod. Germ. Klinkhardt — 

French Clenchard. 

There is considerable probability that in 
proper names, spade (Ang.-Sax. spada, Old High 
German spata), had the meaning of sword. 
Forstemann observes that this sense obtains in 
the Romanic languages and in Polish. And the 

* Perhaps, rather, the ending in these names may be, as Pott has it, from 
«is, iron. And thus Brandis, &c., may be the converse of the Old Germ, names 
Ysbrand, Isanbrand, "Iron-sword." 



200 THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 

probability is increased by the fact that plough, 
as hereafter noticed, had sometimes the meaning 
of spear. 

SIMPLE rOEMS. 

Spade, Qi(j Grerman Spatto, 9tli cent. English Spade, Spady, 

Sword? ^PEiCJHT. Mod. Germ. Spaeth, Spat. French Spada. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Man) Eng. Spademan. {Here^ warrior) Eng. Spader. 
(Or perhaps more probably same as " sworder," swordsman.) 

A fourth word for a sword is Goth, meki, 
Ang.-Sax. meche. There is a Meaca mentioned 
in the Scop or Bard's song, as ruling the Myrg- 
ings (the people of the Old Nordalbingia), whose 
name seems to be from this origin. This root is 
very difficult to separate from another, mic, pro- 
bably meaning great. 

Me^lj SIMPLE FOEMS. 

Meech. Old German Meco, 9th cent. Meaca, Sc6p or Bard's 

Sword? song. Eng. Meek, Meekey, Meech. 

PATRONYMIC. 

English Meekinq. 

COMPOUND. 

(Herej warrior) Eng. Meeker. 

From the Ang.-Sax. seax or sex, a dagger or 
short sword, it is supposed by some writers — and 
this theory I think has the greatest probability 
— that the Saxons have derived their name. 
Hence in proper names the meaning may some- 
times be that of the nation, and sometimes that 
of the weapon. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Sax, Saxo, 7th cent. Ssexa, genealogy of the 
^ ^^^ East Saxon kings. Eng. Saxe, Sex, Sexey, Six. Modern 
Germ. Sachs, Sax. French Sax, Six. 



THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 201 

DIMINUTIVE. COMPOUND. 

English Saxl. (Afer, famous) Eng. Sexmer. 

The father of the above Ssexa was called 
Sledda. This seems to be from Old Norse sledda, 
a faulchion or curved sword. We seem to have 
here one of the instances of the earliest attempts 
at a family name. The father being called by a 
name signifying a sword, the son is called by a 
name perfectly different in sound, yet having the 
same meaning ; so as, without any confusion, to 
connect him with his father. The following 
names come in here. 

SIMPLE FORMS. g^^^ 

Sledda, Gen. East Sax. kings. Eng. Slade, Slate, Slight. Faulchion? 

PHONETIC ending. COMPOUNDS. 

Eng. Sladen. (Reref waiTior) Eng. Slader, Slater 1 

A very ancient name is Knife, which appears 
in the name Cniva, of a Gothic kmg of the 3rd 
cent, in Jornandes. Two centuries later we find 
in the same author a Gothic name Cnivida. 
This has the same meaning, " knife-wood," a 
poetical or pleonastic expression for a knife. 

simple FORMS. 

Old German Cniva, 3rd cent., Gniva. English Knife, 
Knipe, Canniffe (Manch.) Mod. Germ. Kniep. French 
Oanneva, Cheneveau. Ital. Canova ? 

• compounds. 

[Vid, wood) Old German Cnivida, 5th cent. — English 
Xnyvett — French Canivet, Ganivet. 

We see how in the English knife and in the 
French canif, the awkwardness of the uiitial k 
has been variously got rid of — in the one case by 
dropping it in the pronunciation altogether, and 



Knife. 
Culter. 



\3f 



K 



202 THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS* 

in the other by the Introduction of a vowel, so as 
to make it a dissyllable, as is the case in some of 
the above names. The latter course we have 
ourselves adopted in the name of the EngHsh 
king Canute, properly Cnut or Knut. 

There are more names derived from the spear 
than from the sword. One of the most common 
of all roots is Ang.-Sax. gdr. Old Norse geiv. Old 
Sax. and Old Fries, ger, Forstemann thinks 
that ger, avidus, and garo, paratus, may mix up 
with this root. The Old Frankish forms char 
and car, of liar^ army, are also often difficult to 
separate. 

Gare, Geer, SIMPLE FORMS. 

Gore. Old Germ. Gero, Kero, Caro, 7th cent. Old Norse Geir, 

Spear, q^^yti. Eng. Gare, Garey, Garrow, Geere, Geary, Gore, 
GuRR, Jary, Jeary, Carr, Carey, Carew, Core, Cory, 
Kerr. Mod. Germ. Gehr, Gohr, Kehr. French Garay, 
Garr4 Garey, Gareau, Gery, Geray, Giry, Girou, Gorre, 
Guerre, Guerry, Goer, Jayr, Jarry, Carey, Carr^ 
Careau, Cora, Coru. 

diminutives. 
Old Germ. Gericho, Kericho, 8th cent. — Eng. Garrick, 
Gerich, Carrick, Kerridge — Mod. Germ. Gericke, Gorich 
— French Guerico, Corich. Old German Gerlo, Kerilo, 
Cherilo, 8th cent. — Eng. Garell, Girl % Kerley, Kerrell, 
Cherrill — Mod, Germ. Kerhle — French Gairel, Gariel, 
Garrel, Garella, Gueurel, Carel,, Coralli. English 
Garling, Carling, Carlen", Girling — French Garrelon, 
Garlin, Carlin. English Garras, Gerish — French G^rez, 
GoREZ, Gorisse, Carraz. Eng. Gerkin — Modern German 
Gherken — French Carquin. 

patronymics. 
Old Germ. Gering, 8th cent. — English Garing, Goring, 
Gearing — Mod. Germ. Gering, Goring. 



THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 203 

COMPOUNDS 

(And, life, spirit) Old Germ. Gerand, 8th cent. — French 
Garand, Gerande, Gerente, Gorand, Gui^:rand. (Bad, bet, 
war) Old Germ. Kerpato, 8tli cent. — Eng. Garbett — French 
Gerbet, Guerbet. (Bold, bold) Old Germ. Garibald, duke in 
Bavaria, 6th cent., Kerbald — Eng. Gorbold, Gorbell, Cor- 
BOULD — French Garibal, Gerbault, Girbal — ItaL Gari- 
baldi, Gerbaldi. {Bert, bright) Old Germ. Garibert, 7th cent., 
Gerbert — Mod. Germ. Gerbert — Fren. Gerbert. (Brand, 
sword) Old German Gerbrand, 9th cent. — Eng. Garbrand, 
17th cent. — French Gheerbrant. (Brun, bright ?) Old 
Germ. Gerbrun — Eng. Gorebrown. {Bod, but, envoy) Old 
German Gaerbod, 8th cent. — Gerbodo, Domesday Yorks. — 
Eng. Garbutt — Mod. Germ. Gerboth — French Gerbaud, 
Gerbaut. (Hard) Old German Garehard, 7th cent., Ger- 
hard, Gerard, Girard — Eng. Garrard, Gerard — Modem 
German Gerhard — French Gerard, Girard, Girardin 
(French dimin.) Guerard. {Hari, warrior) Old German 
Garaheri, Caroheri, Gerher — Eng. Carary, Carrier — Mod. 
Germ. Gehrer, Kehrer — Fren. Garrier, Gerrier, Girier, 
GuERRiER, Jarrier, Carriere. {Lac, play) Old German 
Gerlac — Eng. Garlick — Mod. Germ. Gerlach. (Land) 
Old Germ. Gerland, 9th cent., Jerlent, 11th cent. — English 
Garland, Garland — French Jarland. (Man) Old Germ. 
Garaman, Caraman, German — Ang.-Sax. Jaruman, bishop 
ofMercia — English Garman, German, Germany, Gorman, 
Jakman, Carman, Kerman — Mod. German Germann, Kar- 
MANN — French German, Germain, Caraman. {Mund, pro- 
tection) Old German Garimund, Germund, 7 th cent. — Old 
Norse Geirmundr — English Garment — French Germond, 
GuERMONT, Garment. {Not, bold) Old Germ. Garnot, 8th 
cent. — Eng. Garnett — French Garnot, Guernet, Carnot. 
(Rod, red) Old German Kaerrod, 8th cent. — Old Norse 
Geirraudr — English Garrod — French Girod, Carod. (Laif, 
relic) Old Germ. Gerlif — Old Norse Geirleifr — Eng. Gerloff. 
(Ferhth, life, spirit) Gerferth, Lib. Vit. — English Garforth. 
(Stin, stone) Old German Kerstin, 11th cent. — Old Norse 
Geirstinn — English Garstin. (Wold, power) Old German 



204 THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 

Garivald, Garold, Gerwald, Gerald — English Gerhold, 
Garrold, Jarrold, Jerrold — Modern German Gerhold, 
Gerold — French Garault, Gerault, Girauld, Gueroult. 
(Ward^ guardian) Old German Garward, Geroard — French 
GiROUARD. (Was, vas, courageous) Old German Gervas — 
Eng. Jervis — French Gervaise. (Vid, wood*) Old Germ. 
Gervida, 7th cent. — English Garwood, Gurwood, Jerwood, 
(Wig, wi, war) Old Germ. Geravig, Gei'wi, 8th cent. — Eng. 
Garraway, Gorway, Garvey, Jarvie, Carroway. (Sind, 
way, journey) Old German Gersinda, 8th cent. — French 
Garzend, Guersant. (Wine, friend) Old German Girwin, 
Garoin, Caroin — Eng. Curwen — Modern German Gerwin, 
Kerwin — French Garvin. (Wan, hesLutj 1) Old German 
Geravan, 11th cent. — Eng. Caravan. 

phonetic ending. 
Old German Garino, Gerin, 7th cent. English Goren. 
Mod. German Goren. French Garin, Guerin, Guerineau. 

The oldest form of gar, as found in the 
Gothic, is gais, which shows the identity of the 
word with the old Celt, gais, weapon, the gcesum 
of Csesar, a sort of javelin used by the Gauls, and 
the Greek yaia-og. Forstemann finds a difficulty 
in the fact that the word is found in personal 
names long after Gothic times, as late as the 
10 th cent. But the theory which I have else- 
where proposed as to the adoption of names in 
many cases simply as having been borne by men 
who had gone before, is, I think, sufficient to 
account for this. Such names would generally — 
but not invariably — follow the changes of the 
language. The name of the great Vandal king 
Genserich, is in some readings, Gaiserich, and 
would come in here. 

* Ang.-Sax. gar-vmdu, spear- wood, a spear. 



THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 205 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

OaLi. 

Old Germ. Gaiso, Geeso, 6th cent. Eng. Gaze, Geazey, spear. 
Case, Casey, Kays. French Gaze, Caze, Jeze. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

English Gazelle, Cazaly — French Gazel, Gazelius, 
Cazel. French Cazalong. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Hardy fortis) Eng. Gazard — French Gaissard. {Herey 
warrior) Casere, Gen. kings of the East Angles — English 
Cayzer ? (Mundy protection) Eng. Casement 1 {Raudy 
red) French Jazeraud.''^ 

From the Celt, gais, weapon, the GaeHc tongue 
forms gctisge, bravery. And probably from some 
German form of the same word comes Eng. gash, 
to cut. Whether of these two meanings is to be 
found in the following group I cannot say, as the 
German character is not very strongly marked, 
and as I find no ancient names to correspond. 
Perhaps also, as Pott suggests, the French 
Gasc may be the same as Gascon. 

SIMPLE forms. 

Eng. Gash, Cash, Cashow, Cask, Casky. Mod. Germ. 
Kasch, Kaske. French Gasc, Gasche. 

diminutive. 
English GASKELL.+ 
compounds. 
(Man) English Cashman ? (Hari, warrior) English 
Gashry 1 

Another form from the same root as gar and 
gais is gaid, English " goad," to which I put the 
followmg. 

"* Seems to correspond with the Old Norse Geirraudr. This termination I 
have taken to be generally from another word, hrod, glory. 

t Or according to Mr. Arthur, from Gael. Gaisgeil, valiant. 



Gash. 
Vulnerare f 



206 THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

jj^^j Old German Gaido, Caide, 9th cent. English Gade, 

Gate, Cade, Gate, Cato. Mod. German Gaide. French 
Gaide, Gaitte, Gaytte. 

compounds. 
(Bon, fatal,) Eng, Gadban — French Gattebon. (Gary 
spear) Eng. Gataker — French Gatechair. (Hari, warrior) 
English Gaiter, Cater. 

The root sp forms maay of the words signify- 
ing a weapon or sharp instrument, and forms 
them perhaps in two different senses. One sense 
may be that of darting or shooting forth, as 
found in spew, spout, spirt, speed — the other that 
of diminution, as found in spare, speck, split, spin 
(to draw out or attenuate), sparrow, spink (small 
birds), sprat (small fish), &c., — this gives the 
sense of a fine or sharp point. 

In the latter sense I take it is formed the 
word spear, Ang.-Sax. spere. Old High German 
and Old Sax. spir, cognate with Latin sparus, &c. 
It is by no means a common word, either in 
ancient or modern names. 

simple FORMS. 

Hasta ^^^ German Sperus, 8th cent. English Speae, Spyer. 

Mod. German Speer. French Spire^ Spiro. 

PATRONYMICS. 

English Spearing, Spiring. Mod. Germ. Sporing. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Man) Eng. Spearman. (Wine, friend) Eng. Sperwin. 

From the same root as spear comes spit — 
Old Norse spiot, Dan. spyd, Dutch speet, Ital. 
spiedo. Old High Germ, spiz. Mod. Germ, spiess, 
all having the same meaning of dart or spear. 



} 



THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 207 

and no doubt closely allied to the word spade, 
p. 200. I do not find any ancient names to cor- 
respond with the following. 

SIMPLE FORMS. Spit. 

Eng. Spitty, Spitta, Spite, Speed, Spice. Mod. Germ. Spear. 
Spiess. 

A third form from the same root is spike — 
Old Norse spik, falcicula, Dutch spijk, pike, Lat. 
spica, point, &c. The Old Norse spekia, philoso- 
phari, spakr, wise, sj^eki, wisdom, might inter- 
mix in the following names. 

simple forms. gpike^ 

Spech, Domesday. Eng. Speak, Speck, Spike. Mod. point. 
German Speck. French Spicq. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Mem) English Speakman, Spikeman. Mod. German 

SPECKMAjfN. 

From the root sp above referred to, and pro- 
bably in the former of the two senses, is formed 
Ang.-Sax. spreot, sprit, which has the double 
sense of sprout, branch, twig, and also of dart 
or spear. In the latter sense might be taken the 
EngHsh names Sprout, Sproat, Spratt, &c., but 
there is another sense allied to that of sprouting, 
viz., that of vigour, activity, " sprightliness," to 
which, on the whole, I have thought it better 
elsewhere to place them. 

Another word for a spear was Old Norse 
doerr, probably from the Sansc. root tar, to pene- 
trate, to which Forstemann places the following 
ancient names. The word durand, durant, p. 1 9 7, 
I take also to be from this origin. 



>.^^-> t*. 






208 THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Dar. Dor. ^^^ German Tarro, Terra, Torro, 9tli cent. Terri, Lib. 

Spear. 

Vit. English Dark, Darrow, Door, Dorey, Durre, Tarr, 
Tarry, Terry, Torry. Mod. German Dooer. French 
Dary, Darru, Dor, Dori^, Dory, Doreau, Durr, Durey, 
DuREAu, DuRU, Tar]^, Terray, Terre. 

diminutives. 
Old German Darila, 9th cent. — Eng. Darrell, Darley, 

DORRELL, DURELL, DuRLEY, TURRELL French DOREL, 

Durel, Tarlay, Turell. 

phonetic ending. 
English DoRAN. French Dorin, Torin, 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Bon, fatal) Eng. Dorbon* — French Tarabon. (Gaud, 
Goth) Eng, Daracott — French Dargaud. (Gund, war) 
Old Germ. Taragun,t 9th cent. — Eng. Darrigon, Dargan 
— French Taragon, Targant, Dargenne. (Here, warrior) 
Eng. Tarryer, Terrier — Fren. Darier, Terrier, Terreur, 
(Ois, hostage 1 comrade 1) Eng. Darkies — French Dorchies, 
Turgis. (Man) English Dorm an, Durman — Mod. German 
Dormann. {Mar, famous) Old German Terrimar, 9th cent. 
—English Dormer — Mod. Germ. Dormeier — French Doer- 
MER. {Not, bold) Old German Ternod, 9th cent. — English 
Ternouth — French Tarnaud, Darnet. {Wine, friend) Old 
Germ. Daroin, 8th cent. — English Darwin. {Wald, power\ 
Old Germ. Derold — Mod Germ. Darold, Turhold — French 
Darralde, Dorvault. 

From the above root dar I take to be formed 
Ang.-Sax. dareth, English darty found in two or 
three ancient names. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Dart. Qi^ German Daredus,J Tarit ? 8th cent. Eng. Dardy, 
Jaculum. 

* Fttrstemann has no examples of hon as an ending. But it evidently occurs 
in some of the words signifying spear, as in Gadban, p. 206. 

t Fbrstemann seems to think this name corrupted. Only, I presume, in so 
far that it has lost the final d. 

X Forstemann does not place either of these two names here. Daredus, hel 
suggests, may stand for Dagredus ; and Tarit he places to the root dar, with &n\ 
ending probably phonetic. But from the root dar with such an ending may no! 
the word dareth, dart, be formed ? 



THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 209 

Dart, Dearth, Tart, Tarratt 1 French Darte, Dard, 
Bardie, Tard, Tardy, Tardu, Taride 1 Tarratte 1 

PHONETIC ending. 

Eng. Darton. French Dardenne, Daridan. 

COMrOUNDS. 

{Ilari, warrior) Old German Dirodhar, 8th 'cent. — Eng. 
Darter, Tarter — French Dardier, Taratre, Tartteb, 
Tartary. 

From the Old High Germ, ecca, Mod. Germ. 
ecJce, Ang.-Sax. ecg, edge, sharpness, cognate with 
Lat. acies, &c., and from the root found in Sansc. 
ag, ac, to pierce, I take the forms ag, ac, eg, ec, 
widely spread in proper names. And I also in- 
clude the forms hag, hac, though Old Norse hagr, 
handy, useful, might be suitable. Grimm, how- 
ever, explains the name Hagen as "spinosus.'* 
Still it must be admitted that the varied forms 
of the group suggest the probability of an admix- 
ture of roots. 

SIIUPLE FORilS. 

Old German Ago, Acco, Hago, Hacco, Ego, Eggo, Ecco, 
Hego, Hecco, Aiko, Aio, Eyo, 4th cent. Old Norse Haki. ^g, Ack, 
English Agg, Ague, Ache, Ake, A key, Haig, Haggie, Eck. 
Hack, Haw, Hay, Egg, Ego, Edge, Eye, Heggie, Heck, ^"^^ 
Hedge. Mod. German Acke, Egge, Ecke, Hacke, Heye. - '^'^ 
French Hacq, Hache, Hage, Haye. '" ^^^^"^-*^ 

diminutives. 
Old Germ. Hagilo, Hachili, Eccila, 9th cent. — Ang.-Sax. 
Hagel, Cod. Dip, — Eng. Hagel, Heckle, Hail — Modern 
Germ. Hacked — French Hecklj^. Old German Hacchilin, 
Echelin, 8th cent. — Eng. Achlin, Hailing — Mod. German 
Hagelen — French Egalin. 

COl^IPOUNDS 

(Hard, fortis) Old German Agihard, Achard, Aicard, 
Eckliard, Heccard, 8tli cent. — English Achard, Haggard — 

A 2 



210 THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 

Mod. Germ. Eckardt, Hagart, Hackert — French Acart, 
Aycard, Hagard. (Hari, warrior) Old German Agihar 
Agar, Aichar, Aiher, Egiher, Hager, 8tli cent. — Eng. Agar 
Acre, Ayer, Eager, Hagar — Mod. Germ. Acker, Aicher, 
Eger, Hager, Hayer — French Acar. (Earn, ran, raven) 
Old German Agramnus, Agrannus, 8th cent. — 'Eng. Acron 
Acorn 1 — French A gram, Agron. (Lac, play) Old German 
Ekkileich, 9th cent. — French Aclocque. (Leof, dear) Old 
Germ. Ailiv, 9th cent. — Old Norse Eylifr — Eng. Ayliffe. 
(Mar, famous) Old German Agomar, Aimar, 7 th cent. — 
French Aymer. (Man) Old German Egiman, 9th cent. — 
Eng. AiKMAN, Hackman, Hedgman, Hayman — Mod. Germ. 
Hachmann, Heckmann, Haymann — Fr. Heymen. (Mund, 
protection) Old Germ. Agimund, Ekimunt, 9th cent. — Old 
Norse Agmund, Aamund. — Agemund, Domesday — English 
Hammond — French Agmand, Eymond, Aymont, Echement. 
(iVo^, bold) Old German Eginot — French Agenet. (Eat, 
counsel) Old German Egered, Accarad, 7th cent. — English 
AcROYD? — French Egrot, Eyraud. (Wald, power) Old 
Germ. Agiovald, Agold, Ekkold, 7th cent. — Mod. German 
EcKHOLDT — French Agoult, Accault. (Ward, guardian) 
Old Germ. Eguard, 11th cent. — Fr. Echivard, Hacquart. 
(Wine, friend) Old German Agiwin, 8th cent. — French 
AiGOiN. (Ulf, wolf) Old Germ. Achiulf, a Wern, 5th cent. 
— Eng. AcHUFF. 

The root ig or ic, which Forstemann considers 
obscure, I should rather take to be another form 
of ag or ac, as found in Old Fries, ig, point, edge, 
sword, Lat. ico, &c. 

simple FORMS. 

Ic Old Germ. Igo, Ico, 8th cent. Iccius, Belgic name in 

Cuspis. Csesar 1 Eng. Igo, Hick. Mod. Germ, Icke. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old Germ. Ikiko, 10th cent. — Eng. Hickock. 

compounds. 
(Ulf, wolf) Old Germ. Igulf, 8th cent.--French Igouf. 



THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 211 

From the root ag or ac is produced by a 
phonetic termination the form agin or akin. The 
only appellatives that I find are the Old High 
Germ, agana, Goth, ahana. Old Norse bgUy stalk, 
stem, spike, North Eng. awn, the beard of barley, 
from which we may assume for proper names the 
meaning of spear or weapon, 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Agino, Eggino, Achino, Hagino, Haino, Tth Agin. 
cent. Eng. Ac an, Acken, Aikin, Hagen, Hacon, Hain.* <^^spis. 
Mod. Germ. Hagen, Heyxe. Fr. Agon, Egon, Eychenne, 
Hagene, Hacquin, Hain. 

compounds. 
{Bert^ famous) Old German Aganbert, Agembert, Sth 
cent. — Eng. Agombar ? — French Echanbard. {Fred, peace) 
Old Germ. Aganfred, Ainfred, Sth cent. — French Hainfray. 
(Hart, warrior) Old Germ. Agenar, Haginer, Tth cent. — Old 
Norse Agnar — Mod. Germ. Hagner — French Haguenoer. 
(Hard, fortis) Old Germ. Eginhard, 8th cent. — Mod. Germ. 
Heinhardt — French Echinard, Ignard. 

From the same root ag or ac, is also probably 
formed agil, p. 154, which may have a kindred 
meaning. I have there referred to the word as 
obscure, but I am inclined to think that it comes 
in here, and that it corresponds with Ang.-Sax. 
egly a point, eglan, to pierce. 

From the root ag or ac, as a nasalized form 
comes ang or anc (Old High Germ, ango, Ang.- 
Sax. 07cga, goad, prick, point), to which I put the 
following. There are several other names, par- 
ticularly French, which would seem to come in 

* A form Ain appears to be found in names of places, as Ainsley and 
Ainsworth. , ^^ 



212 THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 

here, but a comparison with the Old Frankish 
names shows the original form to have been ing. 
At the same time I feel by no means sure that 
the root ing, except as a termination, is not often 
the same as ang. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

-^"s- Old Germ. Anco, Hanco, Sth cent. Eng. 1 Ang, Hang 

Voini (^owditch). Mod. Germ. Anke, Hanke. French Ang^ 
Anguy. 

compounds. 
{Wine, friend) Old German Ancoin, Sth cent. — English 
Ang WIN — French Angevin. 

As agil from ag, so angil seems to be formed 
from ang. The appellative corresponding is 
Ang.-Sax. angel, a hook, but in proper names I 
should rather suggest the meaning of a barbed 
spear. The theory which derives the Saxons 
from their seax or knife, the Lombards from their 
hart or axe, and the Franks from t\\QiT franca or 
javelin, derives the Angles also from their angel 
or hook. In proper names then we may hesitate 
whether to take the weapon, or the people's name, 
or, if we accept the above theory, the one as 
derived through the other. Forstemann also 
proposes the Lat. angelus, as a word of Christian 
introduction, with an admixture of ingil, as an 
extended form of the root ing. My own impres- 
sion — taking all the above groupings together, 
and finding in them one common root — is in 
favour of the prevailing meaning of weapon. 

^ .J SIMPLE FORMS. 

Hook. Old German Angilo, Engilo, Ingilo, 7th cent. English 

Barb. 



THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 213 

Angel, Angley, Angelo, Engall, Ingle, Ingelow. Mod. 
German Angele, Engel, Ingel. Frencli Angel, Engel, 
Ingel. 

diminutives. 
Old Germ. Angelin, 9tli cent.— Eng. Anglin — Modern 
Germ. Engelin, Englen — French Encelain. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Bert, bright) Old Germ. Angilbert, Engilbert, 8th cent. 
Eng. Engleburtt — Mod. German Englebrecht — French ? 
Inghelbrecht. {Haid, " hood") Old Germ. Anglehaidis, 
9th cent. — Fr. Anglade. (Hard) Old German Angilhart, 
Engelhart, 8th cent. — English Engleheart — Mod. German 
Engelhardt — French Axglard. {Here, warrior) Old Germ. 
Angelher, Engilher, 8th cent. — Eng. Angler — Mod. Germ. 
Engler — French Angelier. (Land) Old Germ. Ingaland 
— Eng. England. (Man) Old Germ. Angilman, 8th cent. 
— Eng. Angleman — Modern German Englemann. {Mund, 
protection) Old German Angelmund, 8th cent. — French 
Anglement. {Dio, servant) Old Germ. Angildeo, Engildiu, 
8th cent. — Anglo-Saxon Angeltheow — English Ingledew, 
{Sind, via) Old Germ. Ingilsind, 9 th cent. — Eng. Inglesent. 

Another root with the probable meaning of 
spear or sharp instrument is to be found in Ang.- 
Saxon staca^ stake, spear — sticca, stick, spike — 
stician, to pierce — Old Norse stichi, dagger, &c. 

simple forms. 

stack. 

Old Germ. Stacco, 9th cent., Stucchus, 8th cent. Eng. ^nc^ 
Stack, Stag, Stick, Stock, Stuck, Stuckey. Mod. Germ. Cuspis. 
Stacks, Stich, Stock, Stucke. French Stach, Stocq. 

compounds. 

{Here, warrior) Old German Stacher, 9th cent. — English 
Staker, Sticker, Stoker, Stocker — Mod. Germ. Stecker. 
(Hard) Eng. Stackard — Mod. Germ. Steckert, Stichert 
Stockhardt. {Man) Eng. Stackman, Stagman, Stickman, 
Stockman — Modern German Stackemann, Stegemann 
Stockmann. 



214 THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 

From staca, sticca, a sharp point, is formed, 
perhaps as a diminutive, Old High German 
stachilla, cuspis, Old Norse sticJcill/^ a sharp 
point. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

stickeL ^^S' Staggall, Steggall, Stickle, Stockill. Modern 
Cuspis. Germ. Stickel, Stockel. 

COMPOUNDS, 

(Here, warrior) Eng. Stackler, Stickler, Stocqueler — 
Mod. Germ. Stiegler. 

A nasalized form of stac or stic I take to be 
stang, sting (Ang.-Saxon stceng, styng, pole, or as 
Forstemann suggests, spear, stingian, to pierce, 
stab). None of the ancient names in Forste- 
mann's hst fall in with this group. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

stang. Eng. Staitk, Sting. Mod. Germ. Stang. Mod. Dan, 

Sting. StANGE, StLNCK ? 

Spear? COMPOUNDS. 

(Hari, warrior) Old Norse Stangar — English Stanger, 
Stinger. (Man) Eng. Stinchman. 

As spade in some ancient dialects was used in 
the sense of sword, so plough (Ang.-Saxon plog. 
Old High Germ, ploh), had in a similar manner 
the sense of spear. This obtained in Old High 
German, and Stark gives that meaning to the 
following three ancient names. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Bloc, 11th cent. Plucca, Lib. Vit. English 
Plough. Pj^^^jjj Plugg, Plough, Block, Blockey, Blogg, Bluck, 

Spear ? 

Blow. Mod. German Plugge, Block. French Plocque, 
Plou, Bloc. 



* Hence the summit called Stickle Pike in Cumberland, and the German 
Stackelberg. 



THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 215 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old German riugclo, 13 th cent. French Blooaille, 
Bloquel. 

phonetic ending. 

Old Germ, riuckone, 13th cent. Eng. Blowen. French 
Ploquin, Pluquin, Plouin. 

compounds. 

{Helm, helmet) French Plougoulm. {Hart, warrior) 
Eng. Blower — Modern German Plucker, Ploger — French 
Ployer, Bloquiere. (Man) Eng. Ploughman — Modern 
Germ. Blockmann. {Notf bold) Plukenet, Roll Bait. Abb. — 
Eng. Plucknett.* 

Tacitus tells us that the Germans were generally 
armed with a short spear, adapted either for close 
or distant fighting, and which was called in their 
language j^^a 7}2ea. From this word, apparently 
allied to the Modern German pfriem, Forstemann 
derives the following ancient names, which are 
mostly Frankish. 

simple forms. 

English Frame, Freem. French Fremy, Fremeaux, Fram. 
Fromme, Forme. Spear. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Eng. Fremlin. French Fromillon. 
phonetic ending. 
Old Germ. Fermin. Fermimis, Lib. Vit. Eng. Fermin. 
French Fremin, Fremineau, Fermin. 

compounds. 
(Bald, fortis) Old German Frambold, 8th cent. — French 
Fraimbault. {Hari, warrior) Old German Frammier, 9th 
cent. — French Premier, Fremery, Fermery. [Man) Old 
German Framan, 9th cent. — French Fromain. (Mund, 
protection) Old Germ. Framund, 8th cent. — Eng. Fromunt, 
Fremont — French Fremont, Froment. 

• Perhaps, as a slight corruption, Plunket. 



216 THE WABRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 

PHONETIC INTRUSION OP W. 

{Gar, spear) Old German Framengar, 8tli cent. — English 
FiRMiNGER — French Fremunger, Fremancour ? 

From the Gothic and High German asf, 
branch, also spear (cognate with Lat. liastaf), 
Fcirstemann takes the following root. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

A-st. j]jjg Aste, Este, Esty. French Este, Hesteau. 

'Spear. 

diminutives. 

Eng. Astle, Estle — French Astel, Estelle. French 

Estocq. 

compounds. 

(^Hari, warrior) Old German Asthar, 8th cent. — English 

AsTOR, Astray — French Astier. (Ric, power) Old Germ. 

Astericus, 9th cent. — Mod. Germ. Estrich — French Astruc 

— Ital. AsTRico. (Ward, guardian) Old German Asduard, 

9th cent. — French Estavard. (Wood) English Astwood 

(like Garwood p. 204.) 

Perhaps allied in its root to the last word is 
Ang.-Sax. cbsc, the ash tree. The Ang.-Sax. cesc 
also signified a spear, on account of spears being 
made of ash-wood. For the same reason it like- 
wise signified a ship or a boat. There is a third 
sense derived from Northern mythology {see p. 
142), which might obtain in proper names. But 
on the whole I prefer to take as the general sense 
that of the weapon. 

simple forms. 

-^sc, son of Hengist. Old Norse Askr. English Ash, 
Ask, Askey. Mod. Germ. Asche, Esch. 

diminutives. 

Old German Askila, 4th cent. — Eng. Haskell — French 
AscoLi, EsQuiLLE. Old German Ascelin, 11th cent. — Eng, 
AsHUN — French Escalin. 



Asc. 
Spear. 



THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 217 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Bert, famous) Ang.-Sax. iEscbyrlit (found in ^scbyrlitaes 
gcat, Cod. Dip. 1091)— Eng. Ashpaut. {Ilari, warrior) Old 
Germ. Ascbari, Eskerc, 8tb cent. — Anglo-Saxon ^scbere — 
English AsiiER — Modern German Asciier, Escher — French 
EscARi^. (Bald, fortis) Eng. Ashbold. (Man) Old Germ. 
Ascman — Aschman, Hund. Rolls — Eng. Ashman — Modern 
German Eschmann — French Aeschimann. {Mar, famous) 
Ang.'Sax. ^scmer — Eng. Ashmore (or local). {Ric, power) 
Old Germ. Eskirich, 8th cent. — Mod. German Eschrich — 
French Escayrac. ( Wid, wood) Old Germ. Asquid — Ascuit, 
Domesday — Eng. Asqwith,* Ashwith, Ashwood. {Wine, 
friend) Old Germ. Ascwin, 8th cent. — Ang. -Saxon ^scwine 
— Eng. AsHWiN. ( Ulf, wolf) Old Germ. Ascolf, 9th cent. — 
Eng. AscouGH. 

Another word signifying dart or spear is 
Goth, uzd, Ang.-Saxon and Old Fries, ord. Old 
High Germ, ort, Old Norse oddi\ to which I put 
the following. Most of our forms in od seem, 
however, rather to be from aud, prosperity, than 
from the above Old Norse word. 

simple FGRINIS. 

Old Germ. Ort, 8th cent. Old Norse Oddr, Oddi. Eng. 
Ord, Orth, Hord, Hort, Oddy. Mod. Germ. Ort, Orth. 
French 1 Orth, Hortus ? 

DliHNUTIVES. 

Old Germ. Ortila, 9th cent. — Eng. Hurdle — Mod. Germ. 
Ortel — Ital. Ortelli. Mod. German Oertlixg, Orteln — 
French Ortolan. Eng, Ordish — French Hozdez {Gothic 
form.) French Hordequin. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Gar, spear) Old Germ. Ortger, 8th cent, — Eng. Orgar 1 
— French Ortiguier. {Hari, warrior) Old Germ. Ortahar, 



Ord 
Dart. 



Some of these names might be local. 
B 2 






218 THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 

8th cent., Hortarius* (prince of the Alamanni), 4th cent. — 
Eng. HoRDER, (Liuh, love) Old Germ. Ortliub, 11th cent. — 
Modern German Ortlteb — French Horteloup. {Ward 
guardian) Old German Hordward, llfch cent. — English 
Ordward. {Wig, wi, war) Old Germ. Ordwig, 9th cent. — 
Eng. Ordway. 

From the above root ord or odd seems to be 
formed, by a prefix, the Anglo-Saxon hrord. Old 
Norse broddr, spear, dart, Old English brode, to 
prick. To this Stark places the following Old 
German names. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Broda, 13th cent. An g. -Sax. Brorda. Old 
Brod. jSTorse Broddr. Broth, Eoll Batt. Abb. English Broad, 
Brodie. French Brot, Broet, Braud, Brodu, Proteau, 
Prot. 

phonetic ending. 
Eng. Protyn. French Brodin, Prodin. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Had, war) Old German Prothadins, 7th cent. — English 
Brodhead — French Prothaut. {Hart, warrior) Old Germ. 
Brothar,+ Broter, Produrius, 8th cent. — Brother, King of 
Denmark, Brother, Danish king of DubHn — Eng. Brother^ 
Protheroe — Mod. German Bruder. {Eic, power) English 
Broderick. 



Dart. 



^' ^ 



■ -I 



From the Ang.-Sax. pil, Old Norse pila, dart, 
arrow, I take the following. And I do not feel 
tiX at all sure that many other names placed else- 
where to hil, pil, lenitas, placiditas, ought not to 
come in here. * 



* Grimm's derivation of this name {Gesch. d. Deutsch. sprach.), from Anglo- 
Saxon corther, troup, company, seems by no means a satisfactory one. But we 
must remember that this great scholar wrote without the full data wliich the 
Altdeutsches Namenhuch now affords. 

t I take it that brother, frater, intermixes in these names. 



t 



THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS, 219 

SIMPLE FORMS. ^^^^ 

Eng. Peel. Mod. Gei-m. Piehl, Peel. French Pielle, ^^^ 



Piella, Piol£ 



PATRONYIMICS. 



Enjj. Peeling. Frencli Piolenc. 

o 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Bon, fatal) Frencli Pelabon. (Hard) Modern German 
Pielert — Frencli Pielard. {Beam, shaft, liandle) English 

PiLBEAM.* 

As the Ang.-Sax. dareth, dart, from the root 
dar, p. 208, so may, I take it, the Old Norse 
hilldr (hiledr f), dart, be formed from the root 
hil or 'pil (Gr. paXXoo "?) To this we may place 
the foUowmg, though bald, audax, is apt to 
intermix. 

SIIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Pilde. French Pilte, Pelt4 Billoteau ? ^^^ 

' ' Dart 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Harij warrior) English Billiter, Builder — French 
Bellettre, Peltier, Peltzer. {Rat, counsel) Old German 
Bildrad, 8th cent. — French Peltret, Pelleteret. 

From the Old Sax. scapt, Anglo-Saxon scaft, 
sceft, spear, shaft, arrow — literally, that which is 
shaped or smoothed — we may take the following. 

simple FORMS. ^, ,, 

Shaft. 

Eng. Shaft, Shafto. French Chaft, Chapt. Spear. 

COMPOUNDS. Attqw. 

{Hari, warrior) Old Germ. Scaptarius, 6th cent. — Ang.- 
Sax. Sceafthere — Eng. Shapter — Fr. Schefter, Chefter. 
(Wdld, power) Old Germ. Scaftolt — Eng. Scaffold. 

From the Ang.-Sax. flan, dart, arrow — that 
which is flown or flung — we may probably take 
the following. 

t Like the Ang.-Sax garbeam, spear handle. But probably in both cases the 
•word is only used as a pleonastic form of spear or dart. 



220 THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 

Plan. SIMPLE FOKMS. 

Bart. Eng. Flane, Flawn. French Flan, Flanneau, Flohn. 

■^^^°^- COMPOUNDS. 

{Bert, famous) Old Germ. Flanbert, Flambert, Stli cent. 
— Eng. Flambard — -French Flambert. {Gar, spear) Old 
Germ. Flanigar, 9 th cent. — French Flammgar. 

There is a word nagal found in a few ancient 

names, which I think may come in here. Forste- 

mann refers to nagal, unguis, remarking at the 

same time that the sense does not seem a 

particularly suitable one for names. But nagal, 

clavis, m the sense rather of a sharp point, spike, 

spear, appears to me to be sufficiently appropriate. 

Nor does it seem necessary to take it, as 

suggested by Mone (Heldensage), in connection 

with the mythological smith Weland. 

simple forms. 
Nagal ^^^ German Nagal, 9th cent. Old Norse Nagle. Eng. 

Clavis. Nagle, Nail. Mod. Germ. Nagel, Nahl. Dan. Nagel. 
Cuspis. French Nagel, Nei^l, N^ly. 

compounds. 
{Hard, durus) Old Germ. Nagalhard, 8th cent. — French 
Nallard. {Bert, bright) French Nalbert. {Hari, warrior) 
Eng. Naylor* — Modern German Nagler — Dan. Nagler — 
French Ni^ollier. 

There is a curious set of names derived from 
the above word nagal, nail — to all appearance of 
comparatively modern origin — and found both 
in English and in German. Such is English 
TuFFNELL, on which Mr. Lower remarks — " In 
the 17th century this name was spelt Tufnaile, 
and I am therefore rather inclined to take it 

* Of course these names, with the exception perhaps of the French, migh 
])e from the trade. 



THE WARIIIOR AND HIS ARMS. 221 

an pied de la lettre, and to consider " tough naiP 
as its etymon. I believe that in this case Mr. 
Lower has " hit the nail on the head." Not so, 
however, in the case of Horsenail (the name, 
by the way, as he tells us, of a Kentish farrier)? 
which he seems to have been beguiled into think- 
ing a corruption of Arsenal. I take it that this 
name, corresponding with the Germ. Rosnagel, 
is also nothing else than what it seems. We 
have also Hartnell corresponding with a Germ- 
Hartnagel, Coppernoll with a Germ. Kupfer- 
NAGEL, and HooFNAiL with a Germ. Hufnagel. 
And we have Isnell (iron-nail), Braznell? 
Crucknell, Hocknell, Bradnell, Dartnell, 
Prangnell (Germ, prangen, to glitter V) Brit- 
NELL (German hreit, broad), Scarnell, Court- 
NELL (Dutch, Dan. hort, short.) The Germans 
have Thurnagel (door-nail), Eecknagel (rack- 
nail), ScHiNNAGL (plate-nail), Blankennagel 
(white-nail), Bodnagel (red-nail), Bundnagel 
(round-nail), Wackernagel,'''' and several others. 
This curious class of names, standing very much 
by themselves, must I think have had some 
peculiar origin. 

From the Old High German hart a, an axe, I 
take to be most probably the following. Words 
also suitable are hart, beard, and Old Norse 
hardi, giant. And the root hert, bright, famous, 
is also liable to intermix. 

* Germ. v)acker, noble, stout, brave. Pott's suggestion that wacker is an 
epithet applied, not to the nail, but to a man called Nagel, hardly helps us much' 
seeing the number of other similar names. 



1 



222 THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Bardo, Barto, Pardo, Parto, 9tli cent. Eng. 
Bard, h^rd^ Bardy, Bartie, Part, Pardoe. Modern German 
Barde, Bart, Barth. French Bard, Barde, Bardy, 
Bardeau, Barteau, Party. 

diminutives. 
Old German Bardilo, 9tli cent. — English Bardouleau, 
Bardelle — Modern German Bardel — French Bardelle, 
Bartel. French Bardillon, Pardaillon. 

phonetic ending. 
Old Germ. Bardinus, 8tli ceot. Eng. Bardin, Pardon. 
Mod. Germ. Barten. Fr. Bardon, Bardonneau, Pardon. 

PATRONYMICS. 

Old Germ. Barding, 9th cent. Eng. Barding, Parding. 

COMPOUNDS.* 

(Sari, warrior) Eng. Barter, Pardar, Parter — Modern 
Germ. Barther. (Man) Eng. Bartman — Modern German 
Barthmann. (U^/j wolf) Old German Bartholf — English 
Bardolph. 

From the Ang.-Sax. becca, axe, might be the 
following. But I think, now too late, that they 
ought not to have been separated from the root 
hig, hie, to slash, p. 177. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Beck. Old Germ. Becco, Begga, Becca, 7th cent. Eng. Beck, 

^xe. Begg, Beach, Beechey, Peak, Peach, Peachey. Modern 

Germ. Beckh, Peck. French Bec, Beck, Becquey, Pech. 

diminutives. 
Eng. Beacall, Pechell — Mod. Germ. Beckel — French 
1 BecklA Eng. Beakem 1 — French Becquemie. 

compounds. 
(Had, war ?) Eng. Beckett, Beckett — French Bi^chade, 
Becquet, Pecquet. (Hari, warrior) Eng. Beecher, Pecker 
— French Becker, Pecquery. (Man) English Beckman, 
Beachman — French Bechman. 



* I do not include here Baktlbtt and Bartram, for I think that they are 
rather from bert, famous. 



THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 223 

There is a word score, found in two or three 
ancient names, which Stark refers to Old High 
Germ, scoray schora, spade, shovel, supposing, as 
in former cases, the meaning to be that of weapon 
This word, and another, scaVy which Forstemann 
assigns to Old High Germ, scara, acies, I include 
together in the general sense of cutting, as shown 
in Ang.-Sax. scearian, sceorian, 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old German Scarius, 9th cent., Scoro, Scori, 13th cent. Scar, 
English Scare, Scarrow, Sheer, Sherry, Score, Shore, Tocut. 
Shorey, Scurry, Shurey. Modern German Scar, Schar, 
Scheer, Schurr. French Cheri ? Chereau 1 Chorey ? 

diminutives. 
Old Germ. Scherilo, 9th cent. — Eng. Sherrell. 

compounds. 
(Brand, sword) English Shierbrand — Modern German 
Scheurbrakd. (Man) Old German Scureman, 14th cent. 
— Eng. ScARMAN, Sharman, Sherman, Shorman — Modem 
German Schiermann, Schurmann. 

I am inclined to the opinion that wood in 
proper names has sometimes the sense of spear, or 
at least of a weapon. We find a peculiar use of 
this word in Anglo-Saxon ; thus gar-ivudu is 
"spear wood," a spear — hence the Old German 
name Gervida, our Garwood. The same is no 
doubt the sense in the Old German Asquid, our 
AsQWiTH — "ash-wood" in the sense of a spear, 
and probably in our Astwood, p. 216. An Old 
Frankish name Bonavida, 9th cent., " fatal wood," 
is probably also a figurative expression for a 
spear. So also the Gothic name Cnivida, our 



224 THE WAMHOR AND HIS ARMS. 

y Knyvett, is " knife-wood," a knife. It seems to 
me probable that wood of itself may sometimes 
have the same sort of meaning. There is an Old 
German name Widolaic, our Wedlake and 
Wedlock, from laca% to play. This compares 
with the Anglo-Saxon cesc-plega, " ash-play," i.e., 
play of spears. A similar mode of expression is 
by no means uncommon even in English. Thus, 
in a sense more or less poetical, we use steel for 
a sword, and gold for money. Hence also in 
sacred poetry, such an expression as " fatal wood" 
for the cross. And the poetical element, it must 
be observed, enters largely into the composition 
of ancient names. 

From the Ang.-Sax. hoga. Old High German 
hogo, pogo, poco, English bow, arcus, I take the 
following. But there is another word from the 
same general root signifymg to bend, viz., Gothic 
hangs, Old High Germ, hauc, Anglo-Saxon hedg, 
ring, bracelet, which I think also enters into the 
composition of mens names, and which it is 
extremely difficult to separate from the present 
group. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Bocco, 9th cent. ? Ang.-SaxoD Boge. Old 
Bog. iq^orse Bogi. Eng. Bogg, Boag, Bogie, Bohy, Bow, Beau, 
Bock ^ Mod. Germ. Boge, Pogge, Bock ? French Pog4 

BOCH? 

diminutives. 
Ang. -Saxon Bogel (found in Bogeles pearruc)* — Eng. 
BoGLE, BowELL — Mod. German Poggel — French Poggiale. 

* Bogel's paddock. 



Bow, 
Arcus 



THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 225 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Hard, fortis) Eng. Bogard — Modern German Bogert — 
French Bochard, Bohard, Pochard. (Man) English 
BoGMAN, Bowman — Mod. Germ. Bochmann ? (J/ar, famous) 
Anglo-Saxon Boomer, Bohmer {found in Bocmeres stigele, 
Bohmeres* stigele) — English Pogmore, Bowmer — French 

BOCHMER, BOIMER. 

From the extended form found in Modern 
Germ, hogen, may be the following. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Eng. BoGGON, BowEN. Mod. German Bohn ? French Bogen, 

BOCHIN, BOIN, BoHNjg. ^°^- 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Hard, fortis) English Poignard 1 — Modern German 
BoGENHARDT — Fr. BoGNARD, PoiGNARD ? {Hari, warrior) 
Eng. BoDGENER — Mod. German Bogxer — French Bognier. 

A common word in ancient names was helrriy 
helmet. We have very few names at present in 
which it can be traced, but as it is apt to change 
into hem or em, and so to mix up with other 
words, it is probable that many more names may 
exist in a disguised form. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Ang. -Saxon Helm {found in Helmes tre6w,f Cod. Dip. Helm. 
1266.) Eng. Helm. Mod. Germ. Halm, Helm. ^^^^*- 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Burg, protection) Old German Helmburg, 9th cent. — 
English Hemberg, Hembery, Hembrow. {Ger, spear) Old 
German Helmger, 8th cent. — Eng. Almiger {or to amal^ 
p. U3.) 

Another word signifying helmet is Ang.-Sax. 
col, Old Norse kollr. This seems to have been 



* Bohmer's style. These two names seem to be the same, 
t Ilehu's tree. 

c 2 



Helmet 



226 THE WAERIOR AND HIS ARMS. 

common in Anglo-Saxon and Old Norse names, 
but, judging by Forstemann's list, not generally 
in Old German names. 

SIMPLE FOEMS. 

cou. Old Germ. Colo, 9th cent. Ang.-Sax. Cola, Colo, Cole. 

Old Norse Kollr, Koli. Eng. Coll a, Colley, Coley, Cole. 
Mod. Germ. Kohl, Koll. Dan. Kohl. French Colle, 
Coli, Colleau. 

diminutives. 
Old Germ. Colaicho, 8th cent. — Eng. Collick, College 
— Mod. Germ. Kohlig. French Collichon. Old German 
Cholensus, 8th cent. — Eng. Colenso, Collins. 

patronymics. 

Eng. Colling. Mod. Germ. Kohling. Dan. Kolling. 
French Collange. 

compounds. 

{Bert, bright) Old German Colobert, 8th cent. — English 
Colbreath, Coolbreath — Fr. Colbert. {Brand, sword) 
Ang.-Sax. Colbrand — Eng. Colbran. {Biorn, bear) Old 
Norse Kolbiorn — Eng. Colburn. (Hard) Eng. Collard — 
Modern German Kohlhardt — French Collard. {Had, 
warrior) Eng. Collier, Collar — Modern German Koller — 
Dan. Koller — French Collier, Collery, Coli^re. (Man) 
Old Germ. Coloman, Colman, 9th cent. — Colman, Bishop of 
Lindisfarne, a.d. 6G3 — Eng. Colman, Coleman — Modern 
Germ. Kohlmann — French Collman. {Mar, famous) Ang.- 
Saxon Colomor {found in Colomores* sic. Cod. Dip. 509) — 
Encf. Collamore, Colmer — Mod. Germ. Kollmeyer. 

I 

phonetic intrusion of n, m. 
{Bert, bright) French Colombert. (Hard) French 
Colin ard. || 

*' Until something better shall be found," 
Forstemann places the following to Old High 
Germ. h4ha, Ang.-Sax. Mfe, Mod. Germ, hauhe, 



* "Colomore'.ssyke." Syke, a word still used in the North of England, 
signifies a runner sometimes dry. 



THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 227 

cap, crest, or, most probably, helmet. As I 
cannot say that I am able to suggest anything 
better, I continue them under the same head. 
The root of the Saxon names Offa or Uffa may 
be, however, liable to intermix. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old German Hubo, Huba, Hufo, 8th cent. Hobbesune, Hub. 
Domesday. Eng. Hube, Hoby, Hoop, Hope, Hoof. Mod. Helmet. 
German Haube, Hupe. French Hoube, Houppe, Huppe, 

Choupe. 

diminutiyes. 
English Hubback, Chubback — Mod. German Hobbeke, 
HoPKE — French Hubac. English Hopkin — Mod. German 
HoPKEN. Eng. Hubble — French Hubel. Eng. Hoblin — 
French Hublin, Houplon, Chobillon. Dutch Hobbema. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Hard) English Hubbard — French Hubard, Chopard. 
(Man) Eng. Hobman, Hopman, Hoofman — Mod. German 
Hoppmann, Hoffmann ? w^s v. 

There is a name Copestake or Capstick, 
which in the previous edition I completely 
mistook. It is evidently the German kopfstilcJc, 
head-piece. 

From the Ang.-Sax. scyld, Old High German 
scilt, Old Norse shiold, EngUsh shield, there are 
not many names, though as noted p. 148, it was 
anciently a name of honour. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Scyld, ancestor of Woden (Anglo-Saxon Gen.) Scyld scutum. 
(found in Scyldes treow, Cod. Dip. 436.^ Skiold, mythical 
king of Denmark. English Shield, Skelt. Mod. German 
ScHiLDT.* French? Schilte. 



* Hence Rothschild, " red shield," adopted, as it is said, by the founder 
of the family from the sign of his place of business, and certainly not an improve- 
ment upon his original name of Anshelm, " divine helmet." 



228 THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 

PATRONYMICS. 

Old Sax. Sciltung, 9th cent. Eng. Skelding, Scolding, 
Skoulding. 

A more common word in men's names is rand, 
rim, in the sense, according to Forstemann, of 
shield, and to which, as a High German form, I 
put rans. 

-Raod. SIMPLE FORMS. 

Shield. Old Germ. Rando, Rente, 4th cent. Eng. Rand, Rance, 

Rondeau, Round 1 Mod. German Rand. French Rond, 
"RoNDY, Rondeau, Ronce, Ronze. 

diminutives. 
English Randle, Rendel, Rentle, Rundle ? — French 
Rondelle. English Rantem, Ransom. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Hariy warrior) Old German Ranthar, 8th cent., Ranzer, 
10th cent. — Eng. Render, Renter — Mod. German Ranter, 
Renter — French Randier, Ronzier, Ronceray. (ifar, 
famous) Eng. Rentmore, Wrentmore. (Wine, friend) Old 
Germ. Randuin, 8th cent. — French Randouin. ( Ulf, wolf) 
Old Germ. Randulf, 8th cent. — English Randolph — Modern 
German Randolff. 

An allied form of rand is Old High German 
ramft, Mod. Germ, ranft, which seems to occur in 
a few names. 

Eamft. simple FORMS. 

Shield. Old Germ. Rampo, 9th cent. Mod. Germ. Rampf. 

diminutive. 
English Rampling. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Hari, warrior) Eng. Rafter, Raftery. Fr. Raftier. 

A third root signifying shield is Ang.-Sax. hordy 
Old High Germ, hort, which, though Forstemann 
only has it as a termination (as in Heribord, 
Hiltiport, &c.), evidently occurs in the following. 



THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 229 

SIMPLE FORMS. ^^^.^^ 

English Board, Port. French Borde, Borda, Port, siueici 

Porta. 

compounds. 

(Hari, warrior) Eng. Boarder, Border — Fr. Bordier, 
Border Y. (Man) English Boardman, Portman — French ? 
BoRDMANN. (Wine, friend) Eng. Boardwine, Portwine — 
French Portevin. fvs^c^'W^ 

A fourth word signifying shield — but of 
which I find no trace in ancient names — may be 
Ang.-Sax. disc. Old High Germ. tisc. This had 
the meaning of dish, plate, flat surface, but I 
think that like rand and hord, the most probable 
meaning in men's names is that of shield. 

simple forms. 

Disk. 

English Dix 1* Dixie ? Mod. German Disch. French shield. 

BlESCHjt TiSCL 

COIklPOUNDS. 

(Rari, warrior) Eng. Disher — Mod. German Tischer — 
French Discry, Tixier. (Man) English Dishman — Modem 
German Dixmann. 

From the Ang.-Sax. hring, hrinc, Eng. ring, 
in the sense of ring-armour, coat of mail, Forste- 
mann derives a word ring in ancient names. And 
from the Old High Germ, ringan, luctari, rang, 
battle, Ang.-Sax. rinc, combatant, he also derives 
a form rang, rank, renk. But as the separation, 
in the ancient names even, is doubtful, and in the 
modern impracticable, I take them together — 
the sense being in either case a warhke one. 

* In Ang. -Saxon sc and x frequently interchange. Thus Bosworth gives the 
plural of disc as discos and dlxas. 

+ Or, as seems to be the case in another name, Dietsch, this may only be a 
corruption of Deutsch. 



230 THE WARRIOIl AND HIS ARMS. 

■ Ring. SIMPLE FORMS. 

Mail. Old Germ. Rincho, Renco, 9th cent. Eng. Ring, Rink. 

Mod, Germ. Ranke, Ringe, Rinck. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old Germ. Ringilo — English Wrinkle — Mod. German 
RiNGEL — French Ringel. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Hard, fortis) Old German Renchard, 6th cent. — Modern 
German Ringert — French Ringard, Rangheard. (Hari, 
warrior) Old German Rincar, Ranchar, 9th cent. — English 
Ringer, Rancour — Mod. Germ. Ringer, Rencker — French 
RiNGiER. fWald, power) Old Germ. Ringolt — Ang. -Saxon 
Hringwold (found in Hringwoldes heorh, Cod. Dip. 1117.^ 
— Eng. Ringgold — Mod. Germ. Ringwald. 

The root sar, ser, for which Forstemann pro- 
poses Old High German saro, Ang.-Saxon searo, 
armour, enters into a great number of names. 



Sar, Ser. 
Armour. 



SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Saro, Sario, Sarra, 8th cent. English Sare, 
Sarah, Sear. Mod. German Sahr, Sehr, Serre. French 
Sarre, Sar, Sarra, Sari, Serre, Serra, Sere, Sery, Serieu 

sorr^, sorieu. 

diminutives. 
Old German Serila, Serlo, 6th cent. — ^Old Norse Sbrli, 
Solli— Eng. Sarel, Serrell, Serle, Sorlie, Solly — French 

Serail, Sorel. 

compounds. 
(Bot, envoy) Old Germ. Sarabot, 9th cent. — Eng. Serbutt 
— French Sorbet. {Hard) French Serard. {Here, warrior) 
French Serrier. (Ger, spear) French Sarger. (Gaud, 
Goth) Old German Saregaud, 8th cent. — English Sargood. 
(Man) Old Germ. Saraman, 8 th cent. — Eng. Sermon — Mod. 
German Saarmann — French Saramon, Ceri^monie ? {Rat, 
counsel) Old German Sarrad, Sarrat, 9th cent. — English 
Sarratt — French Sarette. {Wald, power) Old German 
Serald, 9th cent. — French Sarrault. (Wine, friend) Old 
Germ. Saroin, 8th cent. — French Sarrion, Seroin. 



i 



THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 231 

From the above root sar, a.ccorcUng to 
Diefenbach, is formed Old Norse serhr, Ang.-Sax. 
syrice, syrce, shirt, North. Eng. sarh. To this 
may be put the following names, the meaning of 
course being taken to be that of a shirt of mail. 

SIIVrPLE FORMS. 

Old German Saraclio, lOth cent. Sere, Lih Vit. — Eng. gerk. 
Sarch, Search, Shark, Sharkey, Shirk, Shirkey. shirt of mail. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old German Sarcliilo, 1 0th cent. Eng. Sharkley. 

One of the most common of all roots in Teutonic 
names is Goth, hain, Ang.-Saxon /i67v, Old Norse 
her, army. Grimm suggests that the original 
meaning may rather have been soldier, which 
would consist better with the use of the word as 
a post-fix. Other roots which may intermix are 
ara, eagle, and Ang.-Sax. heor. Old Norse hior 
sword, both found in ancient names. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old German Herio, 8tli cent. Enojlish Harre, Hare, 

Har Her 

Harry, Harrow, Charie, Cherry. Mod. German Hehr, Army. 
Herr, Heer. French Haro, Harry, Herr, Hj^reau, 
Herry, Herou, Charey, Chario, Charue. 

diminutives. 
Old German Haric, Herico, 8th cent. — Eng. Harridoe 
Herridge, Herrick — Modern German Haricke, Harke — 
French Herichj^. Old Germ. Heril, Herilo, Herili — En^-. 
Harral, Harle, Harley, Harlow, Hearl, Hearly — Mod. 
German Herel, Herl, Herrle, Harle — French Harel, 
Hariel, Harlay, Harl^, Herel. Old German Herelin, 
11th cent. — Eng. Harlixg— Mod. Germ. Harlin — French 
Herlan. Eng. Harris, Harries, Herries — Fr. Heriez, 
Herrisse, 



232 THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 

PATRONYMICS. 

01(1 Germ. Herinc, 9th cent. Eng. Hearing, Herring. 
Modern German Harring, Herring, Heering. French 
Harang, Herincq, Hering. 

compounds. 
(And, life, spirit) Old Germ. Heriand, 9th cent. — French 
Harand. (Bat, pat, path, war) Old German Heripato, 9th 
cent. — English Herepath, Herbet — French Herbette. 
(Bald, bold) Old German Haribald, Herbald, 8th cent. — 
French Herbault. (Ber, bear) English Harbar, Harber, 
Harbour — Mod. Germ. Herber — French Herber. (Bert, 
bright) Old German Hariberaht, Frankish king, 6 th cent. — 
Aripert, Lombard king, 7th cent., Heribert, Herbert — Eng. 
Harbert, Herbert — Mod. Germ. Harprecht, Herbert — 
French Herbert. (Bord, shield) Old Germ. Heribord, 11th 
cent. — Eng. Harboard, Harbord. (Bod, envoy) Old Germ. 
Herbod, 8th cent. — English Harbud — Modern German 
Herbothe — French Herbut. (Ger, spear) Old German 
Hariger, Hariker, Harker, Chargar, 7th cent. — English 
Harker, Charker — Mod. Germ. Herger. (Gaud, Goth) 
Old German Haregaud,* 6th cent. — Eng. Hargood. (Gisil, 
gil, hostage) Old German Oharegisil, 6th cent. — English 
Hargill. (Hard) Old Germ. Hariard, Herard, 7th cent. 
Fr. HERARD. (Here, warrior) Old Germ. Harier, 9th cent. — 
French Charier. (Laith, terrible) Arlot, Lib. Vit. — Eng. 
Harlot 1 — Fr. Harlet ? (Land) Old Germ. Hariland, 8th 
cent. — Eng. Harland. (Man) Old Ger. Hariman, Harman, 
Herman, 7th cent. — English Harryman, Harman, Hermon, 
Chapman — Modern German Harmann, Hermann — French 
Herman, Hermain. (Mand, gaudium) Old German 
Herimand, Herimant, 10th cent. — Fr. Harmand, Harmant, 
Hermand. (Mar. famous) Old German Herimer, Harmar, 
6th cent. — English Harmer — French Harmier, Hermier. 
(Mot, courage) Old Germ. Harimot, 8th cent. — Mod. Germ. 



* Perhaps also, with a phonetic n, the Old German Heringaud, English 
Heringaud. But Forstemann takes it to be rather the same as Aringaud [artn, 
eagle. ) 



THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 233 

Herrmutii — French Hkrmet, Charmotte. (Mund, pro- 
tection) Old Germ. Herimund, Cbarimund, 5tli cent. — Eng. 
Harmond — French Charmond, Charmont. (Nand, daring) 
Old German Herinand, 10th cent. — Spanish Hernandez •^^ayi^ 

{Sand, envoy) Old German Hersand^ 11th cent. — English ^y%J*^i ^ 

Hersant — French Hersent. (Wald, power) Old German ,^^ iiMj\yr%M..»^ 
Carlo valda,* prince of the Batavi, 1st cent., Heroald, Hariold, 
8th cent. — Old Norse Haraldr — Eng. Harold — Mod. Germ. 
Herold — French Herold, Heroult. (Ward, guardian) 
Old Germ. Hariward, Her ward, Heroard, 8th cent. — Ang.- 
Sax. Hereward — Old Norse Harvardr — English Harward, 
Harvard — Mod. German Harward — French Herouard. 
(Vid, wood) Old German Ervid, 7th cent. — Eng. Harwood. 
(Wig, wi, war) Old German Heriwig, Hairiveo, 7th cent. 
— Eng. Harvey — Mod. German Herwig — French Hervy 
Hervieu, Charvey, CharaVay. (Wine, friend) Old Germ. 
Harwin, Charivin, Charoin, 8th cent. — Eng. Harwin — 
French Herouin, Charvin, Charoin. (To this Old Germ. 
Erwin, Ervin — Eng. Irwin, Irvin ?) 

The above word, liari, warrior, was one of the 
most common post-fixes in Old German names. 
It appears variously as har, hari, her, heri, and 
forms many of our endings in er and ery, and of 
the French in ier. In certain cases, however, the 
ending er appears to be phonetic, as noticed at 
p. 29. 

From the Ang.-Sax. fana. Old High German 
fano. Mod. German f aline, Old French ya??o?z, an 
ensign, of which, however, there is but a slight 
trace in ancient names, I take the following. 
Another word fagin, fain, joyful, is apt to 
intermix. 

* A&cat of had, p. 167, so car is the oldest form of har. 
D 2 



234 THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 

SIMPLE FOEMS. 

Fan. Eng, Fann, Fanny, Fenn. Mod. Germ. Fahne. French 

Ensign, -p^^^^ j^^^^ 

DIMINUTIVES. 

English Fennell — French Fenaille. English Fanline, 
Fenlon — French Fenelon. 

phonetic ending=old FUT^iacB. fanon ? 
Eng. Fannon. French Fannon. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Hari, warrior) Eng. Fanner, Fenner — Modern German 
Pfanner — French Fanniere (or same as Old High German 
fanner, standard-bearer.) 

From the Anglo-Saxon cumbor, standard or 
standard ©nsign, appoars to be the name Cumbra, of an 
Ang.-Sax. chief, a.d. 756 (Rog. Wend.) Also of 
a Cumbro in the Traditiones Corhejenses. And 
hence may be our Cumber and Cumper. The 
names Cumberbeach, Cumberbatch, Cumber- 
patch, all no doubt variations of the same word, 
may possibly contain the Ang.-Sax. hedg, English 
badge. 
Banner Banner, though it might be, as at p. 175, a 

vexiuum. compouud of ban, might also be from banner, an 
ensign. There was a noble family of Banners in 
Denmark, whose founder, according to Saxo, was 
a Dane named Tymmo, who assumed the name 
of Banner for some exploit, probably capturing a 
standard, at a battle between Canute and 
Edmund of England. 

From the Lombard bandu, ensign, standard, as 
the most appropriate derivative from bindan, to 
bind, Forstemann derives the root band, bend. 
But the Ang.-Saxon bcend, bend, crown, chaplet. 



THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 235 

from hendany to bend, appears to me to be a word 
that might at any rate intermix. In addition to 
the above, Fcirstemann also suggests the Old Sax. 
hant, pagus, and its High German form panz. I 
am also inclined to include in the group the 
forms bond, bund, for, though the derivation 
from the Ang.-Sax. bonda, buiida, husbandman, 
seems at first sight the most natural, it does not 
appear to receive much sanction from the ancient 
names. Nevertheless, it is very probable that 
there may be some intermixture of roots. In the 
comparative table of patronymic forms appended 
to " Words and Places," Mr. Taylor finds Bond- 
ings in Bondmgham (Somers), and in Bontigny 
(Lorraine). I also add Bansings as found in 
Bensington (Oxf.), anciently Banesinghas. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old German Bando, Bant, Pando, Penta, Ponto, Panzo? 
Benzo, Penzo, 6 th cent. Ang.-Sax. Pen da, king of Mercia. Band. 
Benza, Pinda, Lib. Vit. Eng. Band, Bendy, Bent, Bond, VexiUum. 
BuNDY, Pond, Bance, Bence, Bonsey, Bcnse. Mod. Germ. 
Banse, Panse, Bente, Bense, Bund, Bunte. French 
Bend A, Bind a, Bance, Bence, Benz, Bondy, Bondeau, 
Bont4 Bonz^, Pantou, Panthou, Pond, Pont, Ponti, 

PONTEAU, PONTHIEU, PaNSU, PeXS^ PiNSEAU, PoNCEAU. 

DliONUTIVES. 

Eng. Bantock, Bundock — Modern German Bandke, 
Pantke — French Pantiche. Ang.-Sax. Buntel (found in 
Bunteles pyt^ Cod. Dip. 11 02 J — Eng. Bexdle, Bendelow, 
Bentall, Bundle, Bonsall, Pendall, Pentelow — Mod. Ger. 
Bandel, Bendell, Bexzel — Fr. Pantel, Bunzel, Poncel. 
Old German Benzlin, 10th cent.- — Benzelinns, Domesday. — 
g Eng. Pantlin — French Bancelin. 



236 THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 

PHONETIC ENDING. 

English Banton, Benton, Binden, Benson,* Bunten, 
Panton, Pentin, Penson, Ponson. Mod. German Bunsen. 
Prench Pansin, Pinson, Pinsonneau, Ponson. 

patronymics. 

Eng. Banting, Bending, Bentinck, Bunting, Panting. 
Mod. Gerna. Bentingck, Bunting. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Hard, fortis) Old German Pantard, 9tli cent. — English 
PiNDARD — Frencli Bansard, Pensard, Pinsard, Ponsard. 
(Hari, warrior) Ang.-Sax. Pender (found in Penderes clif, 
Cod, Dip. 1266^ — Eng. Bander, Bender, Binder, Bonter, 
Bonser, Bunter, Panter, Pantry, Panther, Pender, 
Pinder, Ponder, Punter — Mod. Germ. Bender, Binder — 
French Bender, Binder, Pontier, Ponsery. {Rat, counsel) 
Old Germ. Bandrad, Pantarat, 6 th cent. — Eng. Banderet, 
Bentwright, Pendered. {Ulf, wolf) Old Germ. Pandulf, 
prince of Capua, 11th cent. — Ital. Pandolfio. 

Then there are some names of a different class 
derived from weapons, such as Shakespere, 
Shakeshaft, Drawsword, &c., which are of 
less, though still of considerable antiquity, and 
which do not enter into the Teutonic name- 
system ; on these it is not necessary for me to 
dwell further, as all that can be said upon them 
is to be found in the last work of Mr. Lower. 

We now come to another class of names of 
warlike origin — those derived from words signify- 
ing courage and valour. One of the most common 
roots is the Old High Germ, mdt, muat, Old Sax. 
muod, Ang.-Saxon mod, Modern German muth, 
courage. Along with this I follow Forstemann 

* Benson, Bunsen, &c., might be patronymics. But I am more inclined 
to take the form as Bens-on, Buns-en. 



THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 237 

in classing moz, muoz, though Weinhold (Deutsche 
Frauen) refers it to Old High German muoza, 
moss. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Mot, Moata, Muato, Moda, Moza, Muozo, 6th 
cent. Ang.-Sax. Moda [found in Modingaham, " the home ■^Q^ 
of the sons of Moda," now Mottingham).* Mote, Hund, Mode. 
Rolls. Eng. MoTT, Mottow, Mote, Moat, Mouat, Moth courage. 
Mouth, Mode, Mood, Moody, Mose, Mosey, Moss, Mouse, 
Muzzy. Mod. German Mode, Muth, Moth, Mutz, Muss. 
French Motte, Mott^, Moteau, Moitie, Mothu, Moutie, 
Mossy, Mousse, Moussy, Moussu, Mussey. 

diminutives. 

Old Germ. Motilo, Mutila, Muezill, 7 th cent. — English 
Mouttell, Mutlow, Motley, Model, Muddle, Mousell, 
MussELL — Mod. Germ. Model, Mudel, Mutzell — French 
Motelle, Mutel, Moussel. Old Germ. Mudilane, Motilane, 
8th cent. — Eng. Mudlix, Moslin — Mod. Germ. Muslein — 
French Modelonde ? Eng. Muddock, Musick — Modern 
Germ. Mushacke — French MousAC. 

COMPOUNDS. 

( Bert, famous) Old German Mutbraht, 9th cent. — Eng. 
MusPRATT. {Hard, fortis) Old Germ. Moathart, 9th cent. 
— Eng. MussARD — Mod. Germ. Mozart, Mushard — French 
MoTARD, Moutard, Mouzard, Musard. {Hari, warrior) 
Old German Muatheri, Motar,+ Modar, 8th cent. — English 
MouTRiE, Moder, Mutter, Moser, Mouser — Mod. Germ. 
Moder. Mutter — Fr. Moutry, Moitry, Moutier, Moitier. 
(Helm) Old German Moathelm, 9th cent. — Eng. Mootham ] 
{Man) Eng. Muddiman, Mobsman. {Ram, ran, raven) Old 
Ger. Moderannus, 8th cent. — Eng. Mottram — Fr. Motheron, 
MoussERON. {Red, counsel) English Moderate. {RiCy 
dominion) Old German Modericha,;}: 11th cent. — English 
MuDRiDGE — Mod. Germ. Muthreich. 



* Mr. Taylor finds the same name in Mutigny in France. 

t It is very probable that mother, mater, intermixes. 

t Hence perhaps the town of Motrico in Spain. 



238 THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 

PHONETIC ENDING. 

Old Germ. Moatin, Muatin, 8th cent. Englisli Motion, 
Mutton, Mouzon. Fr. Mouson, Mosson, Mozin, Musson. 

I am rather inclined to class along with the above 
a group of names ending in st — either by trans- 
position for ts, tz (as for instance Must = Mutz) — 
or by a simple phonetic hardening of the termina- 
tion. The latter is in accordance with a common 
tendency — for instance, a number of Punch is 
before me in which an Irish game-keeper comforts 
an unlucky sportsman with " Shure, yer honner, 
you do it very nist." 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Must. Eng. Moist, Must, Musty, Musto. Mod. Germ. Most- 

Courage? -p^.^^^j^ MOUSTY. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Eng. MusTiLL. Mod. Germ. Mosthal ? Fr. Mustel. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Hard, fortis) Eng. Mustard. (Sari, warrior) English 
Muster — Mod. Germ. Moster— French Moustier.* (i?ow, 
raven) Eng. Mostran. (Ulf, wolf) Eng. Mustoph. 

Another word signifying valour or courage is 
Goth, aljan. Old High German ellan, Ang.-Sax. 
ellen, cognate probably with Gael, allanta,^ fierce, 
to which may be placed the following. 



Allan. 
EUen. 



SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old German Alyan, 8th cent. English Allain, Allan, 
Ellion, Ellen. Mod. German Allehn. French Allain, 



Courage. ALLIEN, HeLLION. 



* Pott makes the French Moiistier a contraction of Monastier, and if the 
name stood by itself, that derivation might be accepted. 

t Allan, as a Christian name la more probably from the Gaelic. So may 
also be some of the above simple forms, c>cj, '> -*r-»v^ '/^"u 



Nand. 
Nan. 



THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 239 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Bert, famous) Old German EUinbert, 9th cent. — French 
Elambert. {Burg, protection) Old Germ. Ellinburga, 8tli 
cent. — Modern German Ellenberg — French Halinbourg. 
{Ger, spear) Old German EUanger, 11th cent. — French 
Allengry. {Hari, warrior) Old Germ. Ellanher, 9th cent. 
— Eng. Ellenor — Mod. Germ. Allner — French Allonier. 
(Man) Eng. Hallingman. 

A third root mth the meaning of valour or 
daring is nan, nant, from the Goth, nanthian, 

audere. 

simple forms. 
Old German Nando, Nanno, 5th cent. English Nann, 
Nanny. Modern German Nanne, Nanny, Nenne. French Daring, 
Nant, Nanteau, Nanta. 

diminutives. 
Old Germ. Nandilo, 8th cent. — Mod. German Nendel — 
French Nanteuil. Old Germ. Nanzo, 8th cent. — English 
Nans, Nance —Mod. Germ. Nanz — French Nancy ]* 

PATRONYMICS. 

Old Germ. Nan dung, Nending, 8th cent. — Mod. Germ. 
Naning — French Nenning. Eng. Nanson — Dan. Nansen. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Hard, fortis) Old German Nanhart, 11th cent. — French 
Nenard. {Hari, warrior) Old Germ. Nanthar, 9th cent. — 
Eog. Nannery, Nexner — French Nantier. 

The word nod, not, rather common in personal 
names, is referred by Fiirstemann to Goth. 7iauths> 
Mod. Germ, noth, English 7ieed, with a probable 
admixture from Old High Germ, hnoton, quassare, 
or Goth, knods, genus. But as the ending of 
Ang.-Sax. names, in which it was rather common, 

* May of course be from the place. Can the place be from the personal 
name ? Mr. Taylor refers it, along with Nantes, to Celt, nant, a vaUey. 



240 THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 

Bos worth derives it from Ang.- Saxon ndih, bold, 
daring, nethan, audere, which is certainly a 
preferable sense for names. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Noth. . Old Germ. Noto, Noti, Not, Nuti, Sth cent. Eng. Nott, 
Caring. NoTHEY, NoAD, NuTT.* Mod. Germ. Noth, Nutt. French 
Naud, Naudeau, Naudy, Nod^ Notte. 

diminutives. 
Old Germ. Nothicho, 9tli cent. — Eng. Nottidge. Eng. 
Noddle, Nuttall — Mod. Germ. Notel — French Nottelle. 

PATRONYMICS. 

Old Germ. Noding, Noting, 9th cent. English Noding, 
Nutting. Mod. Germ. Nuding. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Hariy warrior) Old Germ. Nothar, 10th cent. — English 
Nodder, Nutter, Noser 1 Nusser ? — Mod. Germ. N otter, 
NiJTZER — Fr. Naudier, Nodier, Notre, Notaire, Noziere. 
{Hard, fortis) Old Germ. Nothart, 8th cent. — Eng. Nothard. 
{Man) Noteman, Hund. Rolls. — Eng. Notman, Nuttman. 

PHONETIC INTRUSION OP I. 

{Hari, warrior) Old Germ. Nodalhar, Sth cent. — French 

NODLER. 

The most common of all words with this 
meaning in men^s names is the Ang.-Saxon bold, 
Old High Germ, bald, audax, fortis. The form 
haltz, bah, which runs through the formation, I 
take to be High German. This word is apt to 
mix with bal, p. 192. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Bald. Old German Bald, Baldo, Baudo, Paid, Belto, 4th cent. 

Eng. Bold, Baldey, Bolt, Belt, Baud. Modern German 



Balz. 
Fortis. 



* The Danish Knut (Canute) might intermix. The name was derived, as I 
have read, from a wen upon his head, but I cannot find the authority again. The 
name Knutu is still found in Denmark, and the patronymic Knudsen is very 
common. 



THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 241 

Bald, Boldt, Polte. French Balde, Baldi, Baud, 
Baudeau, Fold. Old German Baldzo,* Balzo, Palzo, 9th 
cent. — Eng. Balls, Palsy — Mod. Germ. Baltz, Balz. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Eng. Baldick, Baltic — Mod. Germ. Boltche — French 
Balzac. Old Germ. Baldechin, 9th cent. — Eng. Balchin — 
French Baudichon — Ital. Baldachini. Old Ger. Baldemia, 
Balsemia, Balsmus, 8th cent. — Eng. Beldam, Balsam — Mod. 
Germ. Paldamus — French Balsemine (Fretich dimin. 1 ) 

patronymics. 

Old Germ. Balding, Balding, 8th cent. Eng. Bolding, 
Boulting, Paulding. Mod. Germ. Balding. 

compounds. 

{Hard, fortis) Old German Baldhard, 8th cent. — French 
Baltard, Baltazard (=:Baltzard.) (Hari, warrior) Old 
Germ. Baldher, Balther, Paldheri, Paltar, 8th cent. — Ang.- 
Sax. Baldhere — Eng. Boldery, Balder, Bolter, Poulter, 
Powter, Powder — Mod. Germ. Baltzer — French Baltar, 
Baudier, Paultre. (Had, war) Old Germ. Balthad, 8th 
cent. — Eng. Baldhead ? (Earn, ran, raven) Old German 
Baldram, Baldrannus, Paldhram, 8th cent. — Eng. Beltram 
— Modern German Pelldram — French Baudron — Italian 
Beltramo. (Mund, protection) Old Germ. Baldmunt, 8th 
cent. — French Baudement. (Bat, counsel) Old German 
Paldrat, 8th cent. — French Pautrat. (Rand, shield) Old 
German Baldrand, 9th cent. — French Baudrand. (RiCj 
dominion) Old Germ. Baldarich (Thuringian king). Baldric? 
Baldrih, 6th cent. — Ang.-Saxon Baldric — Eng. Baldridge, 
Baldry, Bowdry — French Baudry. (Rit, ride) Old Germ. 
Baldi'it, 9th cent. — French Baudrit. ( War, defence V) Old 
Germ. Baldoar, 8th cent. — Eng. Boughtwhore ?t — French 
Bauduer. (Wine, friend) Old Germ, Baldwin, 8th cent. — 

* It is not easy to say how these should be classed — Forstemann places them 
as diminutives — i.e., Baldzo=Baldizo, as WUlizo from Willo, p. 23. I have taken 
them, however, only to be High German forms 

t An early freeman of Connecticut (Suffolk Surnames). He has certainly 
eontrived to spell his name with the utmost amount of unpleasantness. 

E 2 



Trass. 
Fierce. 



242 THE WARRIOB AND HIS ARMS. 

Ang.-Sax. Bald wine — Eng. Baldwin — Dutch Boudewyn — 
French Baudouin — Ital. Baldovino. (Vid, wood) Old 
German Balsoidis, 9th cent. — Eng. Boltwood. ( Ulf, wolf) 
Old German Baldulf, 8th cent — Mod German Baldauf* — 
French Baudeuf. ( Wig, war) Old Germ. Balduig, 7th cent. 
— French Baldeveck. 

PHONETIC ENDING IN W. 

Old German Baldin, Paldeni, 11th cent. Eng. Bolden, 
PoLDEN. Modern German Baldenius, Polten. French 
Baudin, Balsan. 

phonetic ending in r. 

Old Germ. Baldro, 9th cent. Eng. Boldero, BouDROwt 
— French Baudro. 

From the Goth. thraSy fierce, swift, vehement. 
Old Norse thrasa, to contend, Forstemann derives 
the following ancient names. The name of the 
Vandal king Thrasamnnd comes from this root 
which is probably cognate with Irish treas^ 
combat. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Thraso, Traso, Treso, 9th cent. Eng. Trass, 
Trace, Tress, Traies, Tracy, Draysey. French Trays, 
Tress, Tracy, Trens, Dreyss. 

compounds. 
{Hardy fortis) French Trassard, Tressard. {Wald, 
power) Old German Trasuuald, 7 th cent. — Modern German 
Traswalt — Ital. Tresoldi. 

phonetic ending in n. 
Old Germ. Drasuno, 9 th cent. French Tress an. J 

phonetic ending in r. 
Old Germ. Trasarus, 9th cent. Eng. Traiser, Treasure, 
Dresser. French Terseur 1 

* Pott, taking this name au pied de la lettre, explains it as bald auf, 
"early up." 

t See p. 130. 

t Pott's derivation of Tressan from '* tres sain" is, I think, very unhappy. 



Trum. 



THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 243 

The Ang.-Sax. trumy firm, strong, courageous, 
appears to be found in a few names. The 
AltdeiUsches Namenhuch has only one name, 
Tromolt, 8th century, corresponding with a 
Trumuald in the Lib, Vit. In addition to the 
Saxon Trumhere below cited, there was also a 
Trumwine, bishop of Whitherne. The placing 
of Turnbull here is in accordance with a sugges- 
tion of Mr. Charnock in Notes and Queries. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Eng. Drum, Drummey, Trump, Trumpy. Mod, German p™^ 

TrAUM. strong. 

COMPOUlsTDS.* 

{Bald, fortis) English Trumbull, Tremble, Turnbull. 
{Here, warrior) Anglo-Saxon Trumhere, bishop of Mercia — 
Eng. Trumper, Drummer 1 — Mod. Germ. Trummer — French 
Dromery. 

From the Old High Germ. hwaSy Ang.-Saxon 
hwcBs, Old Norse hvass, sharp, keen, fierce, rather 
than from the verb wasjan, poUere, suggested by 
Graff, I take the following, though it is likely 
enough that there may be an intermixture. And 
I also think that wat is in some cases from hivcety 
another Ang.-Sax. form of the same word. Thus 
the Old German names Kerhuuas, Gerwas,t 
Kerwat {ger, spear) all seem evidently to mean 
" spear-sharp." At the same time, except as a 
termination, I do not find sufficient ground for 
bringing it in here. As I have at p. 238 taken 

* The Eng. Drummond, French Drumond, might be placed here, but I 
rather prefer the suggestion of Pott, who refers them to an Old Germ. Drudmunt. 

t I have, p. 204, taken the secondary sense of boldness, but in connection 
with the spear the direct sense of sharpness seems on the whole the best. 



244 THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 

must to be the same as muss, so owing to the 
same cause — the unsatisfying sound of s final — I 
bring in here some forms in wast and wash. We 
have an instance of the latter in the name of 
Washington, Ang.-Sax. Wassingatun, " the town 
of the Wassings/^ 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Wass, Old German Oasus, Waso, 9th cent. Ang.-Sax. Wasso, 

Keen. Cod. Dip. 971. Old Norse Hvassi (surname.) Eng. Wass, 

Bold, ^^gjj^ Quash, "Waste. Modern German Wass. French 

Vasse, Vassy. 

diminutives. 

Eng. Wassell, Wastell, Yassall — Modern German 
Wessel — French Vassal. Old Germ. Wascelin, 11th cent. 
— French Yasselin. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Hard, fortis) French Yassard, Guessard. {Hari, 
warrior) Eng. Yasser, Washer — French Yasseur, Yessier. 
(Man) Old Germ. Wesmannus, 11th cent. — Eng. Wasman, 
Washman — Mod. Germ. Wassmann. 

phonetic ending. 
Old Germ. Huasuni, 8th cent. Eng. Wesson. French 
Yasson, Quezin. 

There is a root jug, which is referred by 

Stark to Go\h. jukan. Old High German juhhun, 

to combat, Goth, jiuka, Ang.-Sax. geoc, courage, 

fierceness. The root is probably the same as the 

Sansc. yug, to dart forth. 

simple forms. 
Old German Jugo. English Jugg, Judge, Jew, Juo.* 
"^' French Jauge, Jaugey, Juge, Jue, Ju^, Jul 

Combat. ' i i > i 

diminutives. 
Old Germ. Jngaz, Jugizus — Eng. Jukes, Juggs, Jewiss 
— French Jouisse. Eng. Juggins. Eng. Jeula, Jewell — 
French Jugla, Julia ? (homme de lettres.) 

* A Boston surname— English ? 



THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 245 

COMPOUNDS. 

(And, prosperity) French Jougaud, Jouuaud, Jouet — 
Eng, Jewett, Jowett. (Bei't, famous) French Joubert. 
(Hard, fortis) French Jaugeard, Jouard. (Hari, warrior) 
Eng. Jewery 1* — French Jugier, Juery. (Mar, famous) 
Old German Jugumar, 9th cent. — French Joumar. ( Wcdd, 
power) French Jouault. 

phonetic ending. 
Eng. Jewin. French Juquin, Juign^ Juin ? 

From the Ang.- Saxon stare, sterc, Old High 

German starh, strong, rough, fierce, are the 

following. 

simple forms. 
Old Germ. Starco, Staracho, 8th cent. English Stark, stark. 
Starkey, Stirk, Stork 1 Sturge. Modern German Stark, ^''■°^^- 

^ Fierce. 

Sterk. French Staar 1 

COMPOUNDS. 

(ffari, warrior) Old Germ. Starchar, 8th cent. — English 
Starker, Stericker, Straker — Modern German Sterker — 
French 1 Stricker. (Man) Old Germ. Starcman, 8th cent. 
— Starcman, Hund. Rolls. — English Starkman — French 
Sterckeman. 

In the Ang.-Sax. and Old High German snel. 
Old Norse sniallr, there mingles with the sense 
of swiftness or celerity sufficient of that of bold- 
ness or fierceness to bring them under this head. 

simple forms. SneL 

Old German Snello, Snel, 8th cent. Old Norse Sniallr. Brave. 
Eng. Snell. Mod. Germ. Schnell. Active. 

PATRONYMICS. 

Old Germ. Snellung, 8th cent. Eng. Snellino. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Gar, spear) Old German Snelger, 8th cent. English 
Snelgar. 



* Or local, from jeiverie, a district inhabited by Jewa (HalliwellJ. 



Snar. 
Fortis. 



246 THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 

From the same root as snel comes Ang.-Sax. 

snear, celer, fortis, which is found in two Old 

ceier. Gcrm. names, Snaring and Snarholf. Also in a 

Snearri in the Liber Vitw, and in Enghsh Snare 

and Snarey. 

Also I think in a warlike sense are to be 
taken the names derived from the Old High 
Germ., funs. Old Norse and Ang.-Sax. fus, eager, 
impetuous, a word which we still retain in the 
degenerate sense of fuss. In ancient names we 
find it more frequently as a termination, as in 
Hadufuns {had, war), Valafons {val, slaughter), 
Bonofusus {bon, slaughter), &c. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Funs. Old Germ. Eonsa, Funso, Fussio, 6th cent. Eng. Faunce, 
Fus Euss, FussEY, Foss ?* FossEY 1 French Fousse, Fusy, 
'"^^"'^"^^•FoissY, Fosse? Fossy? 

diminutives. 
Fussel, Bund. Rolls. — Eng. Fussell — French Fusil — 
Ital. FusELi. English Fossick — French FoisSAC — Span. 1 
Fonseca. 

compounds. 

{Hard, fortis) Eng. Fuszard — Fr. Foussard, Fossard. 
(Hari, warrior) French Foussier, Fusier, Fossier, Foncier ? 

It seems to me rather probable that the 
following contain an allied form to the above. 
Graff, 3.733, has some trace of a root fiz, in the 
sense of movement. 

simple FORMS. 

i^- Old German Fizo, 9th cent. English Fize, Fiz, Fees. 

Impetuous? -p^g^^j^ FiZEAU, FeSSY. 

* Besides the local word, the Low Genu, foss, fox, might come in. 



THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 247 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Eug. Feasal — French Fizel. English Physick. Old 
Germ. Fizilin, 9th cent. — Eng. Fishline 1 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Hard, fortis) Eng. Fizard — French Fissart, Fessard. 

There are two unexplained words, Jlsc and 

fuse, occurring in Old Germ, names, which I think 

may be formed out of the preceding — the Swed. 

Jiaska, Old Eng. ^5^, to bustle about, showing the 

related Teutonic words, and the Welsh ffysg, 

impetuous, which I take to be also cognate, 

preserving most closely the sense. The form j^5c 

is only found in one Old Germ, name Fisculf ; the 

form fuse in the following. From the frequent 

interchange of se and a?, it is probable that fix 

( = fisc), d^ndi fox (=foseJ, may in some cases 

come in here. 

simple forms. 

Old Germ. Fuscias (a Vandal), 6th cent., Fusco, Fusca 
(Franks), 9th cent. Eng. Fux ? Fox ? Foskey, Fisk, Fish, ^'''''• 
Fix. Mod. Germ. Fisch, Fix. French Fusch, Fix, Fisq, 

FlESCHI. 

diminutives. 
Old Germ. Fusculo, 8th cent. — Eng. Foxell ? — Modem 
Germ. Fuchsel ? — Ital. Foscolo. 

phonetic ending. 
Eng. Foxen, Fisken, Fixson. French Fixon. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Hari, warrior) Old German Fuscari, 8th cent. — English 
FoxERY — French Fixary — Ital. Foscari. {Hard, fortis) 
Mod. Germ. Fischart. {Hild, war) Old German Fuscildis, 
8th cent.— ItaL Fuscaldo.* {Ulf, wolf) Old Germ. Fiscolf, 
8th cent. — Mod. Germ. Fischhof ? 

* Corresponds more nearly with wald, power, though hild and wald are 
liable to intermix. The name Fuscildis is Prankish. 



248 THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 

From the Aiig.-Sax. cdf, c6f, strenuous, seem 
to be the following. There are but slight traces 
of this root in Old Germ, names, but it frequently 
occurs among the Anglo-Saxons. There was a 
converted heathen priest named Coifi, who on the 
reception of Christianity by the people of North- 
umbria, undertook the demolition of the ancient 
shrines. It has been asserted that this is not a 
Saxon but a Cymric name, and that it denotes 
in Welsh a druid ; but Mr. Kemble has shown 
good reasons for believing that it is from the 
Ang.-Sax. c6f, active, strenuous. It also appears 
in the form cuf, as in the names Blethcuf and 
Wincuf, Cod. Dip. 981. The Old High German 
hop. Mod. Germ, hopf, head, perhaps in the sense 
of helmet, is a root liable to intermix. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old German Cuppa, a Frank, 6th cent., Coppo, 9th cent. 
strenuous. Ang.-Sax. Coifi. Eng. Coffey, Covey, Copp, Cob,* Cuff, 
CuFFEY, Cubby. Modern German Kaup, Kopp, Kubbe. 
French Coffy, Copeau, Cufay. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old Germ Cuffola, 8th cent. — English Cuffley, Cubley, 
Copley, Covell — Mod. German Coppel — French Coville, 
CoPEL. Cofsi, Copsi, Domesday — Eng. Copsey — Modern 
German Kopisch — French Coppez. English Cubbidge, 
CoppocK. Eng. CoPELiN, Cufflin. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Ha/rd) English Covert, Coppard — French Coffard, 
Coiffard, Caffort. {Et, p. 189, note) Eng. Cubitt, Cupit. 
(Man) Old Germ. Coufman,t 9th cent. — English Coffman, 

COPEMAN, CUFMAN. 

* Job Cob, one of the quaintest of names. 

t "One of the very few ancient names," Forstemann remarks, "that is 
derived from a trading origin." I take it, however, to be by no means certain that 
it is so. 



THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 249 

PHONETIC ENDING. 

English Coffin, Coppin, Coveny. French Coffin, 

COFFINEAU. 

From the Old Norse fJca, North. Eng. feeh, 
Eng. fidget, are probably the following, but the 
sense I take to be rather that of warlike ardour 
and impatience. 

simple forms. Fick. 

Old German Ficcho, 9th cent. Figge, Urn]). Edw. Srd. impetuous. 
Eng. FiGG, FiDGE. Modern German Fiege, Fick. French 

FiGEAU. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Eng. FiCKLIN, FiCKLING. 
COMPOUNDS. 

[Hari, warrior) Eng. Ficker — French Figuier, Ficher. 
From the Goth, driusan, Ang.-Sax. dreosan, 
cadere, mere, we may get also a sense of 
impetuosity suitable for the purpose. 

siiveple forms. 
Old German Dranso, Drooz, Di*usa, Truozi, 6th cent, ^™c®- 
Eng. Druce, Truce, Trowse, Truss. French Trousseau, ™^^ ^ 
Tross, Droz. 

diminutives. 
Eng. Trussell. French Trousel. 
phonetic ending. 
Old German Drusun, Trusun, 11th cent. Fr. Trusson. 

The Ang.-Sax. tJirist, bold, daring, appears to 
be found in Thristlingaden, "the valley of the Tj^g^^ 
Thristlings," Cod. Dip. 570. And to this, rather ^oid. 
than to Fr. triste, sad, I put Eng. Trist, Trister, 
perhaps Tristram {ram, raven) though a Celtic 
origin may be upheld. ^^* 



History of Christian Names, 2.145 

F 2 



250 THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 

The word hard (Goth, hardus. Old High 
Germ, hart, Anglo-Saxon heard), so common, 
particularly as an ending, in men s names, may 
be taken to comprise some sense both oi fortis 
and durus, and to betoken endurance, vigour, and 
courage. The older derivation of Bernard, &c., 
from ard, art, kind, sort, nature, is certainly 
erroneous, but it is very possible that there may 
be an intermixture of hard or ard, not in the 
sense of fortis or durus, but as an ending like 
that in coward, drunkard, and many other words 
both in the Teutonic and Romanic languages, as 
noticed by Grimm (Deutsch. Gramm,, 2.339.^ 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

TT J TT . Old Germ. Hardo, Herti, 9 th cent. Eng. Hard, Hardy, 

Hard, Hart, ' ' o j » 

Strong, Herd, Hart, Heart, Hartie, Hearty, Chard, Chart. 
Hardy. Modern German Hardt, Hartz, Herde, Herth. French 
Hardi, Hardy, Hart, Artus. 

diminutives. 
English Hartell — Modern German Haertel — French 
Hardel4 Arteil. 

patronymics. 
Old Germ. Harding, Arding. Eng. Harding, Arding, 
Harting. Mod. Germ. Harting, Hartung.* 

compounds. 
(Gar, spear) Old German Hartker, 8th cent. — English 
Hardacre. (Hard, reduplication) Old German Hartai*t, 
10th cent. — French Hartard. (Helm) Old Germ. Arthelm, 
9th cent. — Eng. Hardham. (Hari, warrior) Old German 
Artheri, Hardier, Charterius, 6th cent. — English Harder, 
Hardyear, Harter, Arter, Charter — Modern German 
Harder, Horder — Fr. Hardier, Ardier, Artur, Chartier. 



* The Eng. name Ha.rtstonge may not improbably arise out of a nu3Con< 
ception of Hartung. 



THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 251 

{Land) Old German Artalaud, 8tli cent. — Eng. Hartland. 
(Man) Old German Hartman, Hertman, 8tli cent. — English 
Hardman, Herdman — Mod. Germ. Hartmann, Erdmann — 
French Hartmann. {Mund, protection) Old Germ. Harto- 
mund, 3rd cent. — Eng. Hardiment. {Nagal, nail) Old 
Germ. Hartnagal, 9th cent. — Eng. Hartnall — Mod. Germ. 
HiiRTNAGEL. {Xid, strife) Old Germ. Hartnid, Hart nit, 9 th 
cent. — Eng. Hartnett. {Rat, counsel) Old Germ. Hartrat, 
6th cent. — English Hartwright — Mod. German Hartrot. 
{Rice, powerful) Old Germ. Harderich, Hertrih, 5th cent. — 
Eng. Hartridge, Hartry — Modern Gernlan Hertrich — 
French? Herterich. {Ulf, wolf) Old Germ. Hardulf, 8th 
cent. — Eng. Hardoff. {Wold, power) Old German Artald, 
9th cent. — Mod. Germ. Artelt — French Artault. {Wig, 
wic, war) Old Germ. Hardwic, Hartuih, 8th cent. — English 
Hardwick, Hardwidge, Hardaway — Modern German 
Hardweck. {Wine, friend) Old Germ. Hardwin, Hardoin, 
7th cent. — English Ardouin — French HerdeviN; Hardoin, 
Hardouin, Ardouin. 

phonetic ending. 
Old German Hardini, Hardin, 8th cent. Eng. Harden, 
Harton, Arden. Mod. Germ. Herden. French Hardon, 
Charton. 

From the Old High Germ, fasti, Ang.-Saxon 
fcest, firm, unyielding, I take the following, which 
I think may come in here. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old German Fasta. Feste, Hund. Rolls. English Fast, Fast. 
Feast, Fist. Mod. Germ. Fest. French Fastou, Feste, Firm. 
Festu. 

phonetic ending. 
Old Germ. Fastun, 8th cent. Eng. Fastin. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Burg, protection) Old German Fastbui-g, 8th cent. — 
French ? Fisteberg. {Ha/ri, warrior) Old German Fastheri, 



252 THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 

9th cent. — Eng. Faster, Fester, Feaster, Fister — Modem 
German Faster — French Fastier, Fastr^ Fester. {JJlfy 
wolf) Old German. Fastulf, 8th cent. — Eng. Fastaff. 

From the Ang.-Sax. slide, stiih, firm, steadfast 
— the latter also having the meaning of severus, 
asper, we may take the following. I also include 
the form stad, which Forstemann refers to stadt, 
town, but which — referring to Old Norse staddr, 
constitutus, stedia, firmare — I take to be only one 
of the forms of this root. 

simple forms. 
stid. Eng. Stitt, Stith, Stead, Steady, Steed, State, Stand, 

stad. Stent. Mod. Germ. Stade. 

Firm. 

PATRONYMICS. 

Old Germ. Stiding, Stinding, 9th cent. Eng. Standing. 
Mod. Germ. Steding. 

compounds. 

(Man) English Stedman, Steedman — Modern German 
Stedmann. {Ulf, wolf) Old German Stadolf, 8th cent. — 
Stithuulf, Lib Vit. — Eng. Stidolph. 

Probably in something of a warlike sense is 
to be taken the following group, the root of 
which seems to be the Sanscrit hmc, vociferari, 
whence a number of words of similar meaning in 
the Aryan languages. Then in the Old Norse 
hroki, pride, insolence, lirohr, vir fortis et grandis, 
also insolens, the sense seems to approach to that 
of defiance, which is suitable for proper names. 

simple FORMS. 

Old German Rocco, Ruccho, Roho, Roo, Crucus, Crocus 

Itock Xiuclc 

stridere (^^^S ^^ ^^^ Alamanni, 4th cent.) English Rock, Rockey, 
RoAKE, Roach, Ruck, Rugg, Rook, Rue, Crock. Modem 



THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 253 

German Rocke, Ritcke, Raucii, Rogge, Ruhe. French 
RocQUE, Roche, Rogue, Rog4 Rogeau, Croco, Cruq, 
Croue. 

diminutives. 
Old Germ. Rocula, 7th cent. — French Roucolle. Old 
Germ. Roccolenus, 6th cent. — French Rocquelin, Roguelin. 
Eng. RocHEZ — French Rogez, Roques. 

compounds. 
(Bert, famous) Old German Rocbert, 8th cent. — French 
RoQUEBERT. (Ut, p. 189, note) English Roget, Rockett, 
Crockett — French Roget, Roquette, Crochet. (Hard 
fortis) Old German Ruchart, Hrohhart, 9th cent. — Modern 
German Ruckert — French Rochard, Rohard, Crochard. 
(Hari, warrior) Old German Roacheri, Ruachari, 9th cent. — 
Eng. RoKER, RooKER, RucKER, Croker, Crocker — Modem 
German Rucker — French Raucour, Rocher, Rouher. 
(Man) English Rugman. ( Ulf, wolf) Old German Rocculf, 
Roholf, Roolf, 8th cent. — Old Norse Hrolfr — Eng. Rolfe — 
Mod. Germ. Rohloff. (Wald, power) Old Germ. Rochold, 
Rouhold, 8th cent. — French Rocault, Rocauld, Rohault. 
(Ward, guardian) French Croquart. 

In a similar sense I take the root imm, which 
Forstemann considers obscure, and which Abel 
takes to be a contraction of irmin. The root 
meaning seems to be noise, as in Old Norse ymia, 
stridere. Hence Old Norse ymr, clash of arms, 
and yma, battle. The name of the giant Ymir in 
Northern mythology is from this root — the sense 
being primarily that of loud voice, which suggests 
that of huge stature. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Immo, Ymmo, Emmo, 7th cent. Old Norse 
Ymi. Eng. Yem 1 Modern German Imm, Ihm. French stridere 
Eme, Emy. 



254 THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old Germ. Ymizo, 11th cent. — English Eames, Hymes, 
Emms — Modern German Imse — French Imbs. Old German 
Imico, 8th cent. — Eng. Image — Mod. Germ. Immich. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Bert, famous) Old German Imbert, 7th cent. — English 
Imbeet — French Imbert. {Bald, fortis) French Imbault. 
{Hard^ fortis) Old Germ. Emehard, 8th cent. — Mod. Germ. 
Emmert — French Imard. {Har% warrior) Old German 
Emaher, Emheri, 10th cent. — Eng. Ember, Emery — French 
Imer, Emmery. {Ric, dominion) Old German Emrich, 8th 
cent. — Eng. Emerick — Modern German Emerich — French 
Emeric, Emericque. 

PHONETIC ending. 

Old German Imino, 8th cent. Anglo-Saxon Immine. 
Eng. Emeny. French Emmon. 

Probably in something of a warlike sense 
are to be taken the following, which seem to 
be from Old High Germ. Htan, Ang.-Sax. ridan^ 
English ride. 

simple FORMS. 

jjj^g Eng. Ride, Ridey, "Writt, Write. Mod. Germ. Ritt. 

Equitare. French Rideau, Ridde, Riette. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Eng. RiDDELL — Modern German Riedl — French Ridel, 
RiEDLE. Old Germ. Ridelenus, 8th cent. — Eng. Ridlon — 
French Riedling. Eng. Riddick. 

patronymic. 

Eng. Riding, Ridding. 

compounds. 

{Ger, spear) Old German Rideger, 10th cent. — English 

RiDGER. (Hard) English Ridhard. {Aud, prosperity) 

French Ritaud, Redaut — Eng. Rideout, Redout. {Har% 

warrior) Eng. Rider, Writer, Wrighter — Mod. German 

RiTTER, RiDDER — French Ridiere. 



THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 255 

From the Goth, neiths, Ang.-Sax. niiJi, malice, 
hatred, strife, Forstemann derives the following. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Nid, Nitho, Nitto, Nizo, 8tli cent. English ^^.^j^ 
Knitt, Neate, Need, Niess, Nice 1 Mod. German Nied, strife. 
NiETE, Nitze, Nizze. French Nizey. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Bald, fortis) Old German Nithbald, 9 th cent. — Modern 
German Nippolt — French Nibault. (Bert, famous) Old 
Germ. Nidperht, 8th cent. — French Nibart. (Bod, envoy) 
Old Germ. Nidaboto, 9th cent. — Eng. Nibbett, Nisbet ? — 
Mod. Germ. Niepoth — French Nebout. (Goz, Goth) Old 
Germ. Nidgoz, 9th cent. — Eng. Negus.* (Hard, fortis) Old 
German Nidhard, Nihard, 9th cent. — Modern German 

NlEDHARDT, NiTZERT — French NiZARD, NiSARD, NiARD. 

(Hari, warrior) Old Germ. Nither, 8th cent. — Mod. German 
Nieder — French Nij^DRfe, Netter. (Had, war) Old Germ. 
Nidhad, 8th cent. — Ang.-Sax. Nithhad — French Nitot. 

The following group, which are rather apt to 
mix with the preceding, I connect with a word 
nadal, very common in Frankish names, and 
which Weinhold refers to Old High German 
nadala, acus, in a supposed poetical allusion to 
the snake. This, however, I think very far- 
fetched, and simply class the word along with 
others of the same sort already introduced in 
this chapter. The root is nad, which, as Mr. 
Wedgwood has shown, has the sense of piercing, 
and from which are formed needle (Old High 
Germ, nadala, Ang.-Sax. nedl) — nettle t (Ang.- 
Sax. netl. Mod. Germ, nessel) — and as he thinks, 

* Hence the name of the beverage, from its inventor, one Colonel Negus. 
t The Lat. urtica may be from a root of similar meaning— cnf. ord, ort, p. 217. 



Acus. 



t 



256 THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 

the Ang.-Saxon nceddre, Eng. adder. I include 
the form nestle on the principle referred to p. 238 
— the Norwegian iiaestle, nettle, is a case in 
point. And for an example of the converse we 
have Eng. nest, Lat. nidus, Welsh nyth. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Nadai. Qid Germ. Nadal, Nadala, 8fch cent. English Nad all, 

Needle, Nettle, Nestle. Modern German Nadell, Neidl, 

Nessel. French Nidelay, Nizolle, Nestlie. 

diminutives. 

Old German Nadalina, Natalinus, 8th cent. — English 

Nestling — Modern German Nadelin, Niedling — French 

Nestlen. 

compounds. 

i "^ {Hari, warrior) Old Germ. Natlahar, 8th cent. — English 

Needler, Nalder* — Modern German Nadler, Nessler — 
French Nesseler. {Rat, counsel) Old Germ. Nadalrad, 8th 
cent. — Eng. Naldrett — Mod. Germ. Nesselrath ? 

Another name which I take also to be from 

a weapon is Sneezy. This, along with an Old 

German Snizolf (ulf, wolf) may be referred to 

'^^^'^ Ang.-Sax. snce^, spear. 

n And there are a few names overlooked in 

£ their proper place in this chapter, which may be 

^ ^ referred to Old High Germ, fehd. Mod. German 

^ f elide, Ang.-SsiK. fcegth, faeth, Eng. feud. 

V simple forms 

Faid. Old Germ. Feito, 9th cent. Eng. Faed, Faith, Faithy. 

French Feydeau, Feytou. 

phonetic ending. 
Old Germ. Fedane, 7th cect. Eng. Feddon. 

I take the above to be from the same root as 
the Germ.. fechte7i, Ang.SsiX. feohtan, Eng. fight. 

* Either by transposition for Nadler, or perhaps containing the Dutch form 
tiaald, needle, 



•^ 



•K-i 



Feud. 



THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 257 

The name Fechter seems to be of German 
origin, but Ficatier in the directory of Paris 
looks like the same name in a more thoroughly 
French guise. Or we might connect it with 
Germ. Jichte, the pine-tree, whence Pott derives 
the German name Fichte. 

From the Old Sax. werod, Ang.-Sax. weorod, 
host, army, we may take the following. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old German Werot, 9 th cent. Verritus, Fiisian prince werod. 
in Tacitus, 1st cent. — here 1 English Werrett, Verity 1 Armj. 
Virtue 1 French Virot, YtRiTi^, Vertu 1 

From the Goth, slahan, slohun, Anglo-Saxon 
slagan, slean, Eng. slay, Old English sle, slow, 
occidere, rather than from the Old High German 
slou. Mod. Germ, schlau, Eng. sly, as proposed by 
Forstemann, I take the following. The name 
Slybody, found in Sussex in the 17th century, 
might have been included here, but as the name 
Slytbody is found in the same county at an 
earlier date (Pat. Brit.), we may rather refer it, 
along with our name Slight, to Anglo-Saxon 
slitta, contention, and explain Slytbody as a 
messenger of strife, or perhaps rather in the 
higher sense as a herald of war. 



SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old German Slaugo, Slougo, Sliu,* 8th cent. English 
Slagg, Slegg, Slack, Slay, Slewey, Slow, Slowey, Slee, 
Sly. Mod. Germ. Schlauch, Schlech. slaughter. 



Slag. 



• Grimm fFrauennamen aus blumenj, derives this (female' name from Old 
Norse sly, conferva palustris— a very doubtful derivation, as it seems to me. 

G 2 



258 THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Man) English Slewman, Slowman, Slyman, Sleeman. 
(Ulf, wolf) Old German Slougolf, Sliholf, Sth cent.— English 
Slyofp. 

There is a word of yet more hateful sound 

which appears to come before us in men's names? 

viz., the Old High Germ, mort, Ang.-Sax. mord 

morth, Old Scotch morili, murth, Eng. murder. 

Old Eng. mort, Lat. morSy death. The meaning 

is probably nothing more than that of slayer, so 

common in the names of this chapter. There are 

but few names in the Altdeutsches Namenhuch, 

and Forstemann does not give an opinion upon 

them. Pott suggests the above meaning in the 

case of the Germ, names Mordt and Mordtmann, 

but the German Martyrt and the French 

Mortemart he explains, unsatisfactorily, as I 

think, as mors martyrum. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Mort. Old German Morto. English Mort, Morde, Morday* 

Mors. Mordue, Murt, Murta, Murtha, Morse. Mod. German 

MoRDT, Mortz. Fr. Mort, Mortieu, Morda, Mourceau, 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Murdoc, Domesday — Eng. Murdock — Modem German 
Mortzschke — French Mordaque. Eng. Mortal, Myrtle, 
Morsel, Mursel — French Mourzelas 1 Fr. Morsaline. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Hard, fortis) Eng. Murtard — Mod. Germ. Martyrt ? 
— French Mordret (for Mordert ?) {Ram, raven) Old 
Germ. Mordramnus,* Maurdrannns (Abbot of Corvey), Sth 
cent. — Eng. Mortram. {Hari, warrior) English MoRTARt — 
French Mortier, Morziere. {Mard, fame) French Morte- 

* Wrongly placed by Forstemann. 
t Or the extended form, as found in Eng. murder. 



A\ 



THE WARRIOR AND HIS ARMS. 259 

MARD, MORTEMART.* (Man) MoRTIMAIN, Roll Batt. Abb. — 
Eng. MoRSMAN — Mod. Germ. Mordtmann. 

In concluding this chapter we may remark 
how the one thought of war seems to have been 
at the bottom of the hearts of our forefathers. 
We have seen how everything long a ad straight 
seems to have been, par excellence, a spear — 
everything broad and flat, j^^a?' excellence, a 
shield. And so, in proper names, a song may 
have been the song of victory — an ornament may 
have been the reward of valour. Thus there 
may be in reality a number of other names at the 
bottom of which is a war sense, but in which the 
expression is not sufficiently prominent to warrant 
their introduction here. 

* Might be local — there being two places so called in France. At the same 
time I believe, as elsewhere stated, that many names of places in France are simply 
names of men. 



CHAPTEE XIV. 



THE PROTECTOR AND THE FRIEND. 

It is a long list of fierce and cruel names that 
we have just been considering. These — with 
scarcely an exception — must have been given in 
the cradle — it was a war baptism, so to speak. 
The innocent babe on his mothers breast was 
called by a warlike name, in the hope that his 
sword would one day make other babes orphans, 
and other women childless. Even the gentler 
sex had the same ungentle names, for war was 
the religion of the day. 

It is a pleasant change then to turn to names 
which speak of peace and good-will, of love, 
friendship, and affection — even though in some 
cases we may have to put a certain Hmitation 
upon the sense. We can scarcely suppose, for 
instance, that frid or frith, peace, so common in 
ancient names, was used in that sense of peace on 
earth and good- will towards men, which had no 
place in the fierce religion of our forefathers. 
The idea, if applied to their own tribe, might be 
rather that of protection or security — if applied 
to their enemies, that of conquest or subjugation. 
This root was widely spread over all the German 
tribes, but it is by no means so common in French 
and English names as might be expected. In 
many cases, both as a prefix and as a termination, 
it changes inio frey or free. 



THE PROTECTOR AND THE FRIEND. 261 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Friddo, Fritto, 9th cent. Eng. Frid, Fred, rrfd, Frith. 
Fread, Frith, Freeth, Frethy. Modern German Fried, ^®*^®- 
Frede. French Fri^e, Fr^eau, Fret4 Freteau. 

diminutives. 

Old German Fritila, Fridila, 8th cent. — Ang.-Sax. Fridla 
— Mod. Germ. Friedel — French Fredoille, Fritel. Old 
German Fridulin, 9th cent. — English Freeling? — French 
Frelon ? 

compounds. 

(Bad, war) Old German Fridibad, Suabian Prince, 5th 
cent. — Eng. Freebout — French Frepat. (Bald, bold) Old 
German Frithubald, 6th cent. — French Frebault. (Bern, 
bear) Old German Fridubem, 9th cent. — Fiiebernus ] 
Domesday — Eng. Freeborn ? (Birg, protection) Old Germ. 
Fridubirg, 8th cent. — Eng. Freeborough ? Freebridge 1 
(Bod, envoy) Old German Frithubodo, 9th cent. — English 
Freebody. (Hari, warrior) Old Germ. Fridehere, 9th cent. 
— Mod. German Fretter — French Frediere. (Dag, day) 
Old Germ. Frittag, 9th cent. — Eng. Friday — Mod. German 
Freitag. (Lind, gentle) Old German Fridulind, 9th cent. 
Frelond, Hund. Rolls, — Eng. Freeland ? (Liuh, love) Old 
German Fridiliuba — Eng. Freelove ? (Rice, powerful) Old 
Germ. Frithuric, 6 th cent. — Old Norse Fridrekr (Icelandic 
bishop) — Eng. Frederick — Mod. Germ. Friderich — French 
Frederick. (Stan, stone) Ang.-Saxon Frithestan — English 
Freestone 1 

Another word with the meaning of peace — but 
into which there enters more of the sense of 
friendship and relationship — is Anglo-Saxon sib. 
Hence the name, according to Grimm, of the 
goddess Sif, wife of Thor in Northern mythology. 

simple forms. 
Old German Sibja, 6th cent., Siffo, Sivo. Anglo-Saxon g.. g. 
Sibba, bishop of Elmham. Eng. Sipp, Seavt. Mod. Germ. Friendship. 
Siebe, Seppe. French Sive. 



262 THE PROTECTOR AND THE FRIEND. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old Germ. Sibico, 8th cent. — Eng. Sibbick — Mod. Germ. 
SiEBECKE. Old German Sevila ? 7tli cent. — English Sibel, 
Sibley — Mod. German Sybel — French Sevilla ? Sybille ? 
Eng. SiFFKEN — Mod. German Sieveking. English Sipling. 
French Sebillon, De Sevelinges.* 

PATEONYMTCS, 

Eng. SiBSON. Eng. Seppings. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Harif warrior) Eng. Sibery, Sievier — French Sipiere, 
Silver. (Lets, learned) Eng. Sipless 1 (RiCy power) Old 
Germ. Sivracus, 8th cent — Eng. Sivrac, Shiverick — French 
Sevry 1 (Rat, counsel) Eng. Sievewright ? 

LOCAL name. 
(Thorp, village) Eng. Sibthorp, Sipthorp. 

Another root of similar meaning may be sem, 
sim (Anglo-Saxon seman, to mediate, appease ; 
sema, syma, a peace-maker.) There is only one 
Old Germ, name from this root, which Forstemann 
does not class. The word sam, p. 75, is apt to 
intermix. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Sem Sim ^^^ Germ. Simo, Syme, 9th cent. English Syme, Simm. 
Mediation. French Semey, Sem4 Sem, Simus. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Eng. SiMCO. English Simmill — French Semel, Semele, 
SiMiL. Eng. Simkin — French Semichon. 

compounds. 

(Gis, his, hostage) Eng. Simkiss. (Hari, warrior) French 
SiMiER. (Hard) French Simard, Simart. 

Friend. There are a number of words of which the 

Amicus, meaning is friendship and affection. Friend itself 

* This looks as if it were formed on the same principle as the Italian names 
referred to by Salverte, originating in the family feuda of the middle ages. "A 
man did not call himself Tibaldo Capuletti, or Salvino Armati, but Tibaldo cU 
CapvJUiti, Salvino degV Armati— ouq of the Capuletti, one of the Armati." 



U 



THE PROTECTOR AND THE FRIEND. 263 

is an ancient name, though not common. We 
find an Old Germ. Friunt, 8th cent., Eng. Friend^ 
Modern German Freund, French Friand and 
Friant. Then we have Friendship, correspond- 
ing with an Old Germ. Friuntskap, 9th cent., of 
which Forstemann observes that it is ** a name 
standing altogether by itself." But we seem to 
have one or two similar names, as probably 
WiNSHiP, from winey friend. 

The last word wine, is the most common of 
all words with this meaning, occurring most 
frequently as a termination. It frequently, 
and especially in French, takes the prefixes g and 
q, as noticed at p. 47. It is probable that Ang.- 
Sax. win, strife, war, intermixes. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old German Wino, Win, Wina, Wini, Winni, 8tli cent., 
Guuine, 8th cent., Quino, llth cent. Ang.-Sax. Wine, Srd Wine, 
bishop of London. Eng. Winn, Winney, Wine, Wheen, ^"®°<^- 
Whenn, Vine, Viney, Quin, Quiney, Queen, GwynnI 
Mod. Germ. Wein, Winne, Quin. French Yin ay, Guen^, 
Gueneau, Guenu, Quenay, Queneau, Quin, Quineau. 

diminutives. 
Old Germ. Yinnilo, 9 th cent. — English Winlo, Yinall, 
QuENNELL — French Quenelle. Eng. Quinlin. Old Germ. 
Winicho, Winika — English Winch — Mod. Germ. Winecke, 
WiNKE — French Yincke, Yinche. Old German Winizo, 
Winzo,* 8th cent. — Ang.-Saxon Wynsy, bishop of Lichfield 
— Eng. Quince, Quincey — French Yincey, Quincey. 

patronymics. 
Eng. WiNSON — French Yinson, Quenessen. Old Germ 
Wininc, 8th cent. — Eng. Winning — Mod. Germ. Winning. 

* Forstemann— less reasonably, as it appears to me — places these two names 
to the root winid, loend (Vandal. ) 



264 THE PROTECTOR AND THE FRIEND. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Bald, bold) Old German Winibald, 8tli cent. — English 
"WiXBOLT, Wimble — French Guimbal. {Burg, protection) 
Old Germ. Wineburg, 8th cent. — Eng. Wixbridge ? — Mod. 
German Weinberg — French Yinboukg. {Cof, strenuous) 
Ang.-Sax. Wincuf, Cod. Dip. 981 — Eng. Wincup — Modem 
Germ. Weinkopf. {Brud, dear) Old Germ. Winidrud, 8th 
cent. — Eng. Windred. {Gaud, Goth) Old Germ. Winegaud, 
8th cent. — Eng. Wingood, Wingate. {Gar, spear) Old Ger. 
Winiger, Yinegar, 7 th cent. — Eng. Winegar, Yinegar — 
Mod. Germ. Weinger. (Hard) Old Germ. Winihart, 8th 
cent. — Mod. Germ. Weinhardt — Fr. Quenard, Quinard. 
{Hari, warrior) Old Germ. Winiheri, Winier, 8th cent. — Eng. 
Winer, Quiner — Mod. Germ. Winheer — French Guinier, 
GuiNERY, Quinier. {Laic, play) Old Germ. Winleich, 8th 
cent. — Uinilac, Lib. Vit. — English Winlock. (Man) Old 
Germ. Winiman, 7th cent. — Ang.-Sax. Winemen — English 
WiNEMAN, WiNMEN, Whenman — Mod. German Weinmann. 
{Mar, famous) Old German Winimar, 8th cent. — French 
QuENEMER. {Rat, counsel) Old Germ. Winirat, 8th cent. — 
French Guenerat. {Stan, stone) Anglo-Saxon Wynstan — 
Eng. Winston. {Wald, power) Old German Wine void, 
Guinald, 8th cent. — Modern German Weinhold — French 

GUENAULT, QUENAULT, QuiNAULT. 

phonetic ENDING. 

Old Germ. Yinin, 8th cent. Eng. Yinen. Mod. Germ. 
Weinen. French Winnen, Guenin. 

The Old High Germ. Huh, Ang.-Saxon leof, 
dear, is also very common in proper names. 
There are, however, other roots very liable to 
intermix, as Goth, laifs, superstes, and Old High 
Germ, /dp, praise, both found in ancient names. 

simple forms. 
Lib, Lif. Old Germ. Liuba, Liuf, Leupo, Liebus, 6th cent. Ang.- 
^Dear°^ Sax. Leof. Old Norse Liufa. English Lief, Life, Loup, 



f 



THE PROTECTOR AND THE FRIEND. 2()5 

Lirp, TiKAP, Lunv, Love, ISIod. (icnn. Lier, Lippe, Libbe. 
Ercmh Livio, hi:i'Pi:, I^iEPPE, LovY, Loup, LouvA, Louveau, 

Ll'PPK. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old Gorman Liuvicho, Libicho, 8tli cent. — Old Danish 
Livick — Eug. Livick, Lovick, Lubbock — INIodern German 
LiKHU'ir, LiEBiG, Lei'poc, Lubbecke — French Libec, Luba(^, 
Lkppu'H, Levi\>1'k ? Levick. Old German Lieuikin, lOth 
cent. — Eng. Lovekin — Fr. Liefquin. Old Germ. Liubilo, 
8th cent. —Eng. Lovell, Levell — Modern German Liebel, 
LipPEL — French Louvel. Old German Liebizo, Luviz, 
Liubisi (genit) — Ang.-Saxon Leofsy, bishop of Worcester — 
Eng. LiBBis, LovEYS, LivESEY', LovESEV — Modom German 
Lepsius — French Liboz, Lips. 

PATPvONYMICS. 

Old German Liubing, 8th cent. Anglo-Saxon Living, 
Archbishop of Canterbury. Lutincus, Domesday. English 
Living, Loving, Levinge. 

compounds. 
{Dag, day) Old German Liopdag, 10th cent. — Luiedai, 
Domesday — English Loveday. (Frid, peace) Old German 
Liupfrit — Eng. Lefroy 1 {Hard) Old German Liubhart, 
Leopard, 7th cent. — Eng. Leopard, Liberty ? — Mod. Germ. 
LiPiiARD, LipPEKT, LiEBERT — French Libert, Lippert. 
{Ilari, warrior) Old German Liublieri, Libher, Lipher, 8th 
cent. — Eng. Lepper, Lover, Lever — Mod. Germ. Lieber — 
French Liebherre, Levier, Louvier. {Lind, gentle) Old 
German Liublind, 8th cent. — English Loveland ? {Man) 
Old German Liubman, 8th cent — Eng. Loveman — IModern 
Germ. Lu:b.mann. {Mar^ famous) Old German Leobmar, 
10th cent. — English Livemore. {Jitc, power) Old German 
Liubrich, 7th cent. — Ang.-Saxon Lcofric — Eng. Loveridge. 

{Trut, dear) Old Germ. Lipdrud, 8th cent. — Eng. Liptrot 

]\Iod. Germ. Liebetuut. ( Wald, power) Old Germ. Lupoald 
7th cent. — Ang.-Sax. Leofweald — French Libault. 

H 2 



266 THE PROTECTOR AND THE FRIEND. 

Another word of similar meaning is probably 
minn, from Old High German minna, Ang.-Sax. 
myn, love, affection. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Minn. Old German Minna, 9th cent. English Minn, Mynn, 

Love. Minney, Minnow. French Minne, Mine. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old Germ. Minigo, 9th cent. — Eng. Minoch, Minke — 
French Minich. Old German Miniul, 11th cent. — French 
MiNEL. Eng. MiNCHiN — French Minachon. Eng. Minns, 
Mince. 

compounds. 

{Halt, hood) Eng. Minnett — French Minnette. {Hard) 
Old German Minard, 11th cent. — English Minard — French 
MiNARD, MiNART. {Hari, warrior) English Miner — French 
MiNiER, MiNEUR % {Rat^ counsel) French Mineret. 

The word sweet, dulcis, in the various forms 
of Old High German suaz. Mod. Germ, siiss. Old 
Sax. s6t, Anglo-Saxon swet, swSs, appears to be 
found in some ancient and modern names. The 
few Old Germ, names which I have ventured to 
put here are not explained by Forstemann, and 
the existence of the word is more clearly shown 
by the names found in our own early records. 
The Ang.-Sax. smith, vehement, may be liable to 
intermix, as well as a word swed found in some 
names, and referred by Forstemann to Old Bigh 
German sivedan, cremare. 

simple forms. 
Old German Suoto, ISoto, Suto, Suzo, Swiza, 9th cent. 
Sweet, guet, an under-Unant before Domesday. English Sweet, 
^ ^T' Sweat, Suit, Suett, Suse, Sauce. Modern German Sause, 

Dulcis. ) J J ? J 

SiJss. French Suasso, Soussi, Susse, Soto, Suet. 



THE PROTECTOR AND THE FRIEND. 267 

PATRONYMICS. 

Sueting, Domesday. Eiig. Sweeting. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Man) Ang.-Sax. Swetman, name of the minter on on£ of 
the coins found at Alfriston, Suffolk — English Sweetman — 
ModerD German Susmann — French 1 Zoutman. (Leof dear) 
English Sweetlove, Sutliff 1 Sutcliff 1 

The root of sweet is su, the primitive meaning 
of which seems to be liquescere, and whence also 
the words suck, sugar, &c. The particle su or 
sug is foiuid in several Old Celtic names, as 
Sucarius, Sucaria {Grut, 742.3), which Gluck — 
taking the Old Celt, sucar as the equivalent of 
the Welsh liygar — explains as amabilis. The 
same word comes before us in some Old German 
names ; I take it to be from Old High German 
sugan, Ang.-Sax. sucan, Eng. such, and suppose 
the meaning to be the same as that of the above 

word sweet. 

simple forms. 
Old German Zucho. ADglo-Saxon Sucga, Succa,ybwwc? 
apparently in Sucgangrdf Succanscylf Cod. Dip. 441, 1232. 
Souch, Roll Batt. Abb. English Sugg, Suck, Suckey, Such, sug. 
Sew, Sewey. Mod. Germ. Zuck. French Souchay, Sue.* Sweet. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old German Zuchilo, Lombard king, 6th cent. — English 
SucKLEY — French Suchel. Suckling, Domesday — English 
Suckling. 

compounds. 

(And, prosperity) French SuccAUD, Suquet, Sougit — 
Eng. Suggett. (Hard) Mod. Germ. Zuckert, Suckard — 
French Souchard. (Man) Eng. Suckman. (Eat, counsel) 
French Soucherad, Soucheret. 

* Pott's suggestion of sang-sue, leech, hardly needs to be considered. 



Su. 



Dear. 
Cams. 



268 THE PROTECTOB AND THE FRIEND. 

EXTENDED FOEM=ENG. SUgar, GERM. ZUCkeT t 

Old Germ. Suger.* English Sugar, Sucker. Modem 
Germ. Zucker. French Sougere, Soucherre. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Hard) French Soucherard. (i/ar, famous) English 
SucKERMORE. {Man) Eng. Sugarman {Sviff. Suim.) 

Between deaVy cams, and deer, the animal, it 
is impossible to distinguish even in ancient names. 
The former is the preferable sense, though it is 
probable that there may be an admixture of the 
two. The larger proportion of the ancient names 
are those of women. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Dioro, Diura, Teor, 8th cent. Anglo-Saxon 
Diora. Old Norse Diri. English Dear, Dearey, Tear, 
Tearey. Mod. German Diehr, Thier, Theuer. French 
Thiry, Thierry, Thierrj^, Tireau. 

/ V /' ■ -■ -. 

' compounds. 

{Leofy dear) Ang.-Sax. Deorlaf, bishop of the Magassetas 
— Eng. Dearlove. {Bert, famous) Eng. Dearbird. (Man) 
Dereman, Domesday — Eng. Dearman. ( Wald, power) Old 
Germ. Deorovald, Deorold, 7th cent. — Mod. Germ. Dorwald 
— French Thirault. {Wine, friend) Ang.-Sax. Deorwyn 
{Mss. Cott.) — Eng. Derwin — French Thirouin. 

There is a word hily common in ancient and 
modern names, and which Grimm (Deutsche 
Myth.) explains to mean "lenitas, placiditas.^t 
Bil was the name of one of the minor goddesses 
in Northern mythology. 

* Forstemann makes this a corruption of Swithger. There seems, however, 
auflacient ground for taking it as it is. Compare the Celtic name Sucarius. 

t This root may, however, sometimes intermix with another hal, hale, as 
•nggested at p. 191. 



THE PKOTECTOR AND THE FRIEND. 269 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Bilo, Billa, 9th cent. English Bill, Billy, 
Billow, Pill, Pillky, Pillow. Mod. Germ. Bille, Bila. Gentleness 
Dan. BiLLK French Bille, Billey, Pille, Pilley. 

DISUNUTIVES. 

Old German Bilicha, Pilicho, 9th cent. — Eng. Bilke — 
Mod. Germ. Bilke, Belke, Pielke — French Bilco, Belac, 
Belloc. Old Germ. Biliza, Piliza, Peliza, 11th cent. — Eng. 
BiLLis, Belliss, Belsey — French Billez, Belaize, Belz, 
Pelez, Pillas. French Bilken, Billequin. 

PATKONYMICS. 

Old Germ. Billung, Billing, Pillunc, 8th cent. English 
Billing, Billingay. Modern German Billing. French 
Billing. 

compounds. 

{Bold) French Bilbault. {Frid, peace) Old German 
Bilfrid, Pillfrid, 8th cent. — Eng. Belfry, Pilford. {Gat^ 
union ?) Old German Piligat, 9 th cent. — French Pellagot, 
Pellecat, Pelcot. {Gard, protection) Old Germ. Beligarda, 
9th cent. — Mod. German Pelegaard — French Belligard, 
Belicard. {Ger, spear) Modern German Bilger — French 
Peligri. {Grim, fierce) Old German Biligrim, Pilgrim, 
Pilegrin — English Pilgrim — French Pellegrin. {Heit, 
state, hood) Old Germ. Biliheid, 8th cent. — English Billet, 
Bellett, Pellett, Pilot — French Bilhet, Billet, Belet, 
PiLETTE, Pilot, Pilate. (Hard) Eng. Billiard, Bellord 
— Modern German Bilhardt — French Billard, Billiard, 
Bellart, Pellard, Pillard. {Hari, warrior) Eng. Beller 
— Mod. Germ. Biller — French Billi^re, Bellier, Pellier. 
(Rdm) Old German Bilihelm, 9th cent. — Eng. Billham, 
Pelham — French Belhomme. (Man) English Billman, 
Bellman, Bellmain, Pillman — French Bellemain, Pelman. 
{Mm\ famous) Old German Belimar, 8th cent. — Eno-lish 
BiLLAMORE, Bellmore — Modem German Bilmer — French 
Bellemare. {Mund, protection) Old Germ. Pilimunt, 8th 
cent. — English Bellment — French Belment. {Noty bold) 
Fr. Bellenot, Belnot. {Sind, via) Old Germ. Belissendis, 



Smelt. 



270 THE PROTECTOR AND THE FRIEND. 

11 til cent. — French Belissent. (Wald, power) English 
BiLLYEALD — French Billault. {Ward, guardian) English 
Belwaed. (Wine, friend) French Bellavoine. (Wig, wi, 
war) French Pelvey. 

phonetic ending. 
Old Germ. Pillin. Eng. Billin, Pilon. Mod. German 
Bellin. French Belin, Billion, Pillien, Pellin. 

The Ang.-Sax. smelt, mild, gentle, is found as 
Gentle, the name of a priest. Cod, Dip. 822, and we have 
an Eng. Smelt. I find no other trace of it as an 
ancient name, and it is possible that the one in 
question may have been conferred on account of 
character, superseding his ordinary name. 

Another word of similar meaning may be 

found in Old High German trut, Modern German 

travi, Low German dvud, dear, beloved. But 

the name Thrudr, of one of the Yalkyrjur, is 

supposed by Weinhold ( Deutschen Frauen)^ to 

come in, which is probable, more particularly 

when the word is used as a termination, in which 

case it is found only in the names of women.* 

And perhaps for this reason, though it was very 

common in Frankish names, we find at present 

only scanty traces of it in French. Another root 

liable to intermix is Gothic drauht. Old Norse 

drdtt, people. 

simple forms. 
^ , ^ , Old Germ. Drudo, Trudo, Truto, Truut, Trut, 8th cent. 

Drud, Tnit. ' ' ' ' ' 

Dear. Eng. DROUGHT, Drowdy, Trood, Trout, Trott. Modem 
Germ. Drude, Drute. French Drude, Troude, Trutey, 
Trote, Trott]^. 

* It ia still retained in some christian names of women, as Gertrude and 
Mildred. 



THE PROTECTOR AND TUE FRIEND. 271 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Ilari, warrior) Old Germ. Trudbar, 8tli cent. — English 
Trotter 1 — Modern German Troder — French Trottier ? 
(Man) Old German Trutman, 8th cent. — Troteman, Ilund, 
Rolls — Eug. Trottmax — Modern Germ. Trautman. {Rat^ 
counsel) French Trotrot ? 

PHONETIC ENDING. 

Old German Trutin, 9th cent. English Troughton, 
Trodden. French Trudon, Trutin. 

Another word of similar meaning is tate (Old 
Norse teitr. Old High Germ zeiz), which denotes, 
according to Mr. Kemble, " gentleness, kindness, 
and tenderness of disposition." Perhaps some- 
thing of cheerfulness may enter into the sense, 
the Old Norse teitr being expressed by " hilaris/' 
It was not unfrequent in Anglo-Saxon times, but 
seems to have been more especially common 
among the Northmen. There are rather an 
unusual number of churchmen with this name ; 
thus, out of eleven Northmen called Teitr in the 
Annales Islandiae, there are five, viz., one bishop, 
one prior, one deacon, and two priests. We 
might almost be disposed to thmk that it was 
sometimes a name of endearment bestowed upon 
a beloved pastor, to the superseding perhaps of 
his ordinary name. 

simple forms. 
Ang.-Sax. Tata, Minister — Tata, Presbyter — Ethelberga, Tate. 
"otherwise called Tate," daughter of Ethelbert, king of Amiable. 
Kent — Tate Hatte, Mss. Cott. Old Norse Teitr. English 
Tait, Tate, Tato, Teat, Tite. French Tete, Tat^. 

Upon the whole then it will be seen that 
Tait is a very good name for a bishop. And 
there is a very good bishop for the name. 



272 THE PROTECTOR AND THE FRIEND. 

The following names may perhaps be referred 
to the Old High Germ, form zeiz, corresponding 
with Old Norse teitr. 

SIMPLE FOEMS. 

Zeiz. Qj^ German Zeizo, 8tli cent — Eng. Size. Mod. German 

""* ^' Zeiz. French Siess, Ciza. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old Germ. Zeizilo, 8tli cent. — English Sisley? — French 
Seyssel, Cj^zille. French Sisco, Cesac. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Hard J French Cj^zard. {Hari, warrior) Old Germ, 
Zeizheri, 9th cent. — English Sizer — Modern German Zaiser 
— French Ciceri 1 (Lind, gentle) Old Germ. Zeizlind, 9th 
cent. — English Sizeland. 

phonetic ending. 

Old German Ceizan, 9th cent. English Sizen. French 
Ceysson. 

Another root having the meaning of affection 
or fondness may be dod, tod, tot. In the former 
edition I referred to the Friesic dod, a blockhead, 
and to the two Old English words doddypate 
and dodipol, of the same meaning, quoted by 
Halliwell. Also to the name of the curious and 
extinct bird the dodo, which I suppose to have 
been so named by the Dutch from its well- 
known stupidity. But there is another sense, no 
doubt allied, and perhaps from the same root, 
which I think more suitable for proper names — 
that of fondness. We see the connection in our 
own word " dote" — to be foolish and to be fond. 
Forstemann speaks of the root as obscure, and 
refers to Old High German toto, patrmus, tota, 
admater, which may perhaps however only be 



THE PROTECTOR AND THE FRIEND. 273 

derived senses— tlie root lyin£^ deeper. Another 
root very apt to intermix is deot, people. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old German Dodo, Doddo, Doda (wife of the Frankish jj^^ ^qj 
king Tlicodebert), Todo, Totta, Tozo, Tozi, Gtli cent. Ang.- Dear. 
Sax. Dodda, Dudda, (bishoj) of Winchester), Totta,* (bishop 
of Leicester). English Dodd, Todd, Toddy, Tottey, Dutt, 
DuDDY, Dozy. Modern German Dode, Tode, Tott, Todt. 
French Dodo, Dod^ Dothee, Toty. 

diminutives. 
Old Germ. Totilas, Goth, king, 7th cent. — Eng. Tottell, 
Dozell, Duddle. Eng. Dotchin. 

COMPOUNDS t 

(Hard) French Dodard. [Hari, warrior) Old German 
Dothari, 9th cent. — Eng. Tozier — Fr. Doziere. (Man) 
Old German Totman, 9 th cent. — English Dodman, Todman, 
ToTMAN — Modern German Todtmann — French Dodeman. 
{Ric, power) Old Germ. Dotrih, 9th cent. — English Dotry, 
Doddridge, Dottridge. 

phonetic ending. 
Old German Dodlin, Todin, 8th cent. English Totten. 
French Dodin, Dotin, Dozon. 

Along with the above, and in accordance with 
the classification of Forstemann, I brinpf in a 
group containing a dipthong as below. 

SIMPLE forms. 
Old German Duodo, Tuoto, Touto, Tooza, 8th cent. J)o^K^ 
Eng. DowD, Dowdy, Doody^, Doubt, Doubty, Toot, Dowse. Dear. 
Fr. DouDEAU, DouTEY^ Tout, Toutay, Dousse, Touzeau, 

TOUZE. 



* This bishop was also called Torthelm, and Mr. Kemble considers Totta 
nothing more than an abbreviation, which may be the case. 

t The German name Todleben seems to be formed upon an Old German 
Totleib. I have taken this, p. 11, to be from Ueb, dear ; however, the form is 
rather that of laib, superstes. 

1 2 



274 THE PROTECTOR AND THE miEND. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old Germ. Toutilo — Eng. Dowdle, Toodle, Tootall — 
French Doudelle, Touzel. Old German Duodelin, llth 
cent. — French Doussoulin, Touzelin. Old Germ. Tuoticha 
— Eng. Toothaker 1 — French Tousac. Eng. Dowdiken. 

PATRONYMICS. 

Eng. DowpiNG, Dowsing. 

PHONETIC ending. 

English DowDEN, Doudney, Dowson. French Boudan? 

DOUSSAN, TOUTAN, TOUZIN. 

From the Old Norse linr. Old High German 
leni, mild, we may perhaps take the following. 
The Old N orse Uniii, snake, may, however, put in 
a claim. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old German Lino, 9th cent. Eng. Linn, Linney, Line, 

Linn, Line. 

Mild. Liney, Lean. Mod. German Linn, Leine. French Len4 

Linnee. 

diminutives. 

French Lenique. Eng. Linnell. 

PATRONYMICS. 

Eng. Leaning, Lining. 

COMPOUNDS 

(Heit, "hood") Old Germ. Linheit — Ang.-Sax. Liniet, 
Mss. Cott. — Eng. Linnet— Fr. Linotte. (Hard) French 
LiNARD. {GeVj spear) Eng. Linnegar — French Lenegre. 

From the Goth, ansts, Old High Germ, anst, 
gratia, Forstemann derives some ancient names. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Anst. Old Germ. Ansteus ?* Eng. Anstey. m 

Gratia. "i 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Hari, warrior) Old German Anster, 9th cent. — English 
Anster. 



Forstemann derives this name from ans, semi-dcus, and thius, servant. 



I 



THE rROTECTOR AND THE FRIEND. 275 

Another root of similar meaning may be nad, 
nat, which Furstemann refers to Old Norse ndth, 
gratia, Old High German gandda. However it 
seems to me very doubtful whether it is not a 
simpler form of nadcd, acus, p. 256. 

SIMPLE FORMS. ^^ ^ ,^^ 

Nad, Nat. 

Old Germ. Natto, Nado, 8th cent. Eng. Natt. Mod. Gratia. 
Germ. Nath. French Natte. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Eng. NTatkixs. French Natiez. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Aud, prosperity) French Nadaud. {Hari, warrior) 
French Natier, Natter. ( Wcdd, power) Eng. Nadauld — 
French Nadault. 

Then theie are several words with the mean- 
ing of help or protection. Help itself was by no 
means uncommon in ancient names, though it 
will be seen that we have a very scanty list at 
present. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Helpo, leader of the Saxons, 10th cent. Eng. ^ .^, 
Helps. Mod. Germ. Helf. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Hari, warrior) Eng. Helper. {Ric, power) Hilpericus, 
Burgundian king, 5th cent., Frankish king, 6th cent., 
Helfrich, 8th cent. — English Helfrich — Modern German 
Helfrich. 

A very common word, particularly as a 
termination, is Old High Germ, munt, Ang.-Sax. 
mund, protection. The earlier German writers 
— as English writers still do sometimes at present 
— translated mund by mouth — thus Rosamund, 
" rosy mouth." 



276 



THE PROTECTOR AND THE FRIEND. 



SIMPLE FORMS. 

Mund,Mxint. 01(1 German Mundo, Munt, 6th cent. — English Mundy, 

Protection. MuNDAY, MouND, MouNT — Modern German Munb, Mundt, 

MuNTZ — French Monde, Mondo, Montj^e — Span. Montes. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

'; Old German MovvSiXas, P7'ocopius, 6th cent. English 

V- Mundell — French Mundel, Montel. 

PATEONYMICS. 

Old Germ. Muntinc. Eng. Munting. Modern German 

Munding. 

compounds. 
[Hard) French Mondehard, {Hari, warrior) French 
MoNDiERE, Montier. {Wold, power) Old Germ. Mundoald 
— French Montault. 

PHONETIC ending. 

Eng. MuNDEN, Mountain. French Mondin, Montagne, 
Montagny. 




<ii 



•nA- 



-t 



As a termination, mund in English becomes 
frequently ment, as in Williment, Element, 
Garment, Hardiment, Argument, which are 
probably from the Old Germ, names Willimund, 
Elemund, Garimund, Hartomund, Argemund. 
Another similar name may be Monument, from 
an Old German Munemimd. 

Another word having the meaning of pro- 
tection is gardy gart, with its High Germ, forms 
card, cart. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Ang.-Sax. Carda (found in Cardan'^ hlcew, Cardan 

Protection. stigeU, Cod. Dip. 427,570.^ English Gard, Gardie, Card, 

Cart, Carty. French Gard, Gardey, Gerdy, Cart, 

Carteau. 

diminutives. 

Old German Gardilo, 8th cent. — Eng. Cartell — French 

Gerdolle. English Gerduck. 



Gard, Card. 



Carda's lotvc or mound (probably a grave-mound), and Carda's style. 



THE PROTECTOR AND THE FRIEND. 2/7 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Ilari, warrior) Old German Cartheri, Karthar, Gardar, 
8tli cent. — En<3dish Garter (IGtli cent.), Carder, Carter — 
French Gardkre, Cartier, Carthery. (Rat, counsel) Old 
German Gardrad, lltli cent. — Eng. Cartwrigiit ? — French 
Carteret. (Jiic, power) Ang.-Sax. Gyrdhricg (found in 
Gyrdhricges ford, Cod. Dip. 3G9.^ Engli&h Cartridge. 
{Dio, thew, servant) Old Germ. Cartdiuha, 8th cent. — Eng. 
Carthew. {Wald, power) French Cartault. (Wealh, 
stranger) Eng. Card well ? 

PHONETIC ENDING. 

Old Germ. Gardin, 11th cent. Eng. Garden, Garden, 
Carton. Mod. Germ. Karthin. French Gardin, Cardon, 
Carton. 

Another word of similar meaning is ward, 
vjart, (Ang.-Sax. weard. Old High German wart, 
guardian.) 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. AYarto, Wardo, Ward, 6th cent. Ang.-Sax ^'"^''^*'*- 

„ Guardian. 

Wearda (found m Weardan^ hyl, Cod. Dip. 1101^, Weard, 
(found in Weardesheorh, now Warhorough, Oxf, Cod. Dip. 
343. J Eng. Ward, Vardy. Mod. Germ. Wart, Warth. 
French Yart, Yerdij^. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Eng. Wardell. French Yerdel. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Hari, warrior) Eng. Warder, Warter — Fr. Yerdier, 
Yerdery. (Man) Old German Wartman, 9th cent. — Eno-. 
Wardman — Mod. Germ. Wartman. 

For the word war, Forstemann proposes no 
fewer than five different derivations, viz., ivari, 
defence, war, true, tvdron, servare, war, domi- 
cilium, and wer, man. To these I add Anglo- 



* Wearda's hill and Weard's barrow— Weardan and Weardes, as the respective 
genitives of Wearda and Weard, following the rules of Anglo-Saxon declension. 



Ware. 



278 THE PROTECTOR AND THE FRIEND. 

Saxon ivcer, bellum, as a root liable at any rate 
to intermix, though I am inclined to take as the 
general meaning the first of those proposed by 
Forstemann. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old German Wero, 8th cent. English Ware^ Warre, 
Defence. Warry, Weir, Wearey, Quarry. Mod. German Wehr. 
French Vare, Yaray, Vero, Yerry, Waro, Warre, 
War^e, Querrey. 

diminutives. 

Old Germ. Yaracco, 8tli cent. — Eng. Yarick — Modern 
German Quaritch — French Yarache. English Warrell, 
Yarrell, Quarrell — French Yarrall. Old German 
Waralenus, 8th cent. — English Yerling — Modern German 
Wehrlen — French Yerillon. French Yarichon. 

patronymics. 
Old Germ. Warinc, Waringa, 8th cent. Eng. Waring, 
Warring. French Yarengue, Yiareingue, Warengue. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Bald, fortis) Old Germ. Warbald, Warbalt, 8th cent. — 
Eng. Warbolt. {Burg^ protection) Old German Warburg, 
8th cent. — Eng. Warbrick — Mod. Germ. Warburg — Fren. 
Yerbrugge. (6rer, spear) Old German Warger, 8th cent. — 
Eng. Warraker, Warwicker — French Waroquier. {GoZy 
Goth) Old German Werigoz, 9th cent. — Eng. Yergoose.* 
(Hari, warrior) Old German Weriheri, Warher, 8th cent. 

English Warrier, Quarrier — French Yeriere. (Laic, 

play) Old Germ. Warlaicus, 8th cent. — Warloc [Hund. Rolls) 

Eng. Warlock — Mod. German Warlich. (Man) Old 

German Waraman, Warman, 8th cent. — English Warman, 
Quarman — Modern German Wehrmann — French Yermon. 
(Mar, famous) Old German Wcrimer, 8th cent. — English 
Warmer. {Lind, gentle) Old German Waralind, 7th cent. 

Enc. Warland. (^Nand, daring) Old German Werinant, 

8th cent. — French Yarinont. 



* Suffolk Surnames. 



THE PROTECTOR AND THE FRIEND. 279 

rnONETIC ENDING. 

Eng. Wauren. French Varaine. 

Another word of similar import in names 
may be hiirg, to which Fcirstemann gives the 
meaning of condere, servare. In female names, 
in which, as a termination, it was most frequent, 
the meaning may perhaps be rather that of 
chastity or maidenhood. It was most common 
in Frankish, and is still in French names. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old German Burgio, 9tli cent., Piirgo, Burco, 5th cent. Burg, Burk. 
Eng. BuRGE, Burke. Mod. Germ. Burke. French Berge, Protection. 
Bergeau, Bourg, Burg, Burq, Perjeaux ? 

diminutives. 
Old Germ. Burgizo, 10th cent. — Eng. Burgess — French 
Bourges. Eng. Burchell — French Burgal, Burckel. 

COMPOUNDS 

(Hard) Old German Burghard, 8th cent. — Burchard, 
Domesday — Eng. Burchard — Mod. Germ. Burckhardt — 
French Burgard, Bourquard, Burchard. {Hari, warrior) 
Old Germ. Burghar. 8th cent. — Eng. Burger — Mod. Germ. 
Burger, Burger — French Berger, Berquier, Bourgery. 
{Rat, counsel) Old German Burgarad, 8th cent. — French 
Bergerat. {Rand, shield) French Berguerand. ( Wald, 
power) Old Germ. Burgoald, 7th cent. — English Purgold — 
Mod. Germ. Burghold — French Berjeault. {Wine, friend) 
Eng. BuRGWiN — French Burvevin. 

The w^ord hud, hut Forstemann refers to the 
Old High German hutta, hut, or to hilt, hide. 
Perhaps, however, we might rather take the sense 
which is at the root of both of the above, that of 
covering, hiding, or protecting, as in Old High 
German huotan. Mod. Germ, hilten, Eng. hide. 



280 THE PROTECTOR AND THE FRIEND. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

„ . XX X Old Germ. Hudo, Hutto, Sth cent. Ens. Hudd, Huddt, 

Hud, Hut. ' ' & ' » 

Protection. HuTT, HuTTY. Modern German Hutte. French Hude, 

HOUDE, HUTTEAU. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old Germ. Huodilo — English Huddle — Modern German 
HiJTHEL — French Uudelo, Houdaille. Eng. Hudkin. 

PATEONYMIC. 

English Hutting. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Bert, famous) Old German Hudipert, 7th cent. — French 
HuDiBERT, Haudibert. {Burq, protection) French Haude- 
BOURG. {Hard, fortis) Eng. Huddert — French Houdart. 
{Man) Old German Hutuman, 9th cent. — Eng. Huttman — 
Modern German Hudemann. {Mai', famous) Old German 
Hudamar — French Houdemare. {Win% friend) Old Germ. 
Huuduin, 8th cent. — French Houdouin. {Wald, power) 
French Hudault. 

A somewhat doubtful word is bol, hul, which 
Ettmiiller places to Ang.-Sax. hdl, dormitorium, 
but for which Forstemann proposes Mid. High 
German huole, brother, fricDd, consort. This 
word, which is evidently allied to the Old Eng. 
bully, comrade, seems to me to be upon the whole 
the best, but there are other derivations which 
might be proposed. First, hull, taurus, as a 
symbol of strength. Secondly, the root of Eng. 
hully, which is, first loud noise, then bluster, 
intimidation, similar root-meanings being found 
at pages 252-3. Thirdly, the sense of bigness, 
as found in boll, bulk, and other words derived 
from the sense of swelling. 

^°\ ^^^ simple FORMS. 

Fnend. ^, Buolo, Bollo, Boli, Puolo, Pollo, Poulo, 

8th cent. Eng. Bool, Bowl, Boully, Bull, Bulley, Poole, 



THE PROTECTOR AND THE FRIEND. 281 

PooLEY, Pole, Pollo, Polley, Pull, Pulley. Mod. Germ. 
BoHL, Boll, Buol, Buhl, Bull. Norw. Bull. Fr. Bola, 
BoLLfe, Boll, Bolley, Bouilli^, Bouilly, Boulay, Boulo, 
BouLu, BuLLE, Bulla, Bully, Bulleau, Poulle, Pol, 
Poly, Polleau, Pulle. 

diminutives. 
Eng. Bullock, Bulck, Pollock — Mod. Germ. Bolicke, 
Bolke — French Bollack, Bouillac, Boulloche, Polac. 
Eng. BuLLiss — French Boulas, Buloz, Pollisse. 

patronymics. 
Eng. BoLiNG, Bulling, Pulling. Mod. Germ. Bohung. 

compounds. 

{Gar, spear) Old Germ. Pulcari, Pulgar, 9th cent. — Eng. 
Bulger, Bullaker — Mod. Germ. Polgar. {Gaud, Goth) 
French Bouligaud. {Hard) PoUardus, Domesday — English 
BuLLARD, Pollard — Modern German Bollert, Pohlert — 
French Bouillard, Boullard, Bulard, Poullard, Polart. 
{Hari, warrior) Old Germ. Bolheri — Eng. Buller, Bowler, 
PuLLAR — Mod. Germ. Buhler, Pohler — French Bouillier 
Bouillerie, Boulier, Boullery, Boler, Bullier. {Man) 
Eng. BoLLMAN, BuLMAN, PuLMAN, PoLEMAN — Mod. German 
Bollmaxn, Buhlmann, Pohlmaxn. {JIar, famous) Anglo- 
Sax. Bulemsere (found in BulemcBres thorn, Cod. Dip. 533.^ 
English Bullmore, Bulmer — French Boulmier. {Wine, 
friend) English PoLWiN. {War, defence) English Bulwee 
— French Polffer 1 

phonetic ending. 

English BoLLiN, Bullen. Bullion, Pullan. French 
Boulan, Bouillien, Poulin, Poulatn, Pulin. 

From the Goth, liulths, Old High Germ, holt, 
Ang.-Sax. hold, Old Norse hollr, faithful, friendly, 
Forstemann derives the word huld, hold, hul, hoi 
found in Old German names. To this I put the 
following, though there may be an admixture of 
Ang.-Sax. holt. Old High Germ, holz, wood, in the 
sense of spear or shield. 

J 2 



282 THE PROTECTOR AND THE FRIEN0, 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Hold. Old German Holda, 9 th cent. (Old Norse Hollti, more 

Faithful, probably in the other sense.) Holle, Hund, Rolls. English 

Friendly. 

Holt, Holl, Hole, Hoole, Hullah. Mod. Germ. Hulbe, 
Hold, Holt, Holle. French Hault, Hole. 

PATilONYMICS. 

Old Germ. Hulling. Eng. Holding.* 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Ger, spear) Eng. Holker— French Holacher. (Ilari, 
warrior) Old Germ. Huldear, lltli cent. — English Holder, 
Hoi^ter, Holler — Mod. Germ. Holder, Holler — French 
Hollier. (Lind, gentle) Old Germ. Holdelinda, 10th cent. 
— Eng. Holland ? — French Hollande 1 (Man) Old Ger. 
Holzman "? 9th cent. — Eng. Holtman, Holeman — Modem 
German Hollmann. {Rad, counsel) Old Germ. Holdrada, 
10th cent. — Eng? Holderried (Suff. Sum.) 

From the Gothic auths, Ang.-Sax. eaiJi, mild, 
gentle, Forstemann derives the stem euih, with 
which, however, aud, ead, prosperity, is very apt 
to intermix. 

simple FORMS. 

Euth. Old German Eudo, duke of Aquitania, 8th cent., Heudo, 

Mild, lith cent. Eng. Udy, Yewd, Youd. French Eude, Ude, 

^^^''^- Heudi^, 

diminutives. 

Old Germ. Eudila, 6th cent. — Fr. Heudel. Old German 

Eutilina, 8th cent. — French Eudeline. 

phonetic ending. 
Old German Eodin, 7th cent. — Eng. Yowden — French 

. Heudin. 

compounds. 

(Bert, famous) Old German Eutberta, 8th cent. — French 
Heudebert. (Ilari, warrior) Old Germ. Euthar, 8th cent. 
Eng. Ether 1 — Fr. Heudier, (Ric, dominion) Eutharicus, 
a Goth, son-in-law to Theodorich the great, 5th cent. — Eng. 
Etheridge 1 



And HoLLiNO, as found in HoLiiiNaawonxH, *' HoUings farm or estate." 



THE PROTECTOR AND THE FRIEND. 283 

The Ang.-Sax. mild, gentle, is found in three 
female names, Mildtlirith, Mildburh, and Mildgith 
in the genealogy of the kings of Mercia. And in 
two names, Milta and Miltunc, the former of 
which is also that of a woman, in the Altdeutsches 
Namenhuch. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Milta. Mod. Germ. Milde. French Mild^ 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Mildme, 12tli cent. Eng. Mildmay.* 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Thrith, woman) Ang.-Sax. Mildthrith — Eng. Mildred, 
MiLDERT {the former also a Christian name.) 

I am rather inclined to think that arm, 
arinin, p. 146, may also have the meanmg of 
mild or gentle. The German arvi, so far back 
as we can trace it, seems to have had, as at 
present, the meaning of poor. But the Celtic 
araf, which I take to be from the same root, has 
the meaning of gentle, and in river names I have 
elsewhere taken arm to be its equivalent. At 
the same time, the root-meaning of arm, poor, 
may be found in Sansc. arv, to desolate, and thus 
Arminius may signify vastator. 

From the Anglo-Saxon cemeta, emeta, quies, 
Forstemann derives the following ancient names. 
The Old English amese, to calm, quoted by 

* I before took this name to be from Ang.-Sax. mceg, Old Eng. mey, maiden. 
Such a name would be in accordance with ancient practice, and it would be the 
equivalent of the Ang.-Sax. Mildthrith. But I have found no trace whatever of 
the word in ancient use as an ending. I have suggested, p. 25, comparing it with 
the Friesic Mellema, that the d may be intrusive. However, of course the converse 
would equally apply. Pott, as usual, taking it au pied de la lettre, makes it " mild 
May," i.e., bom at that season. 



Mild. 
Mitis. 



284 THE PROTECTOR AND THE FRIEND. 

Halliwell, indicates that that form must also 
have prevailed in Anglo-Saxon, and points to the 
sense in proper names as probably that of peace- 
maker. The emmet (contracted ant), German 
ameise, is probably hence derived, in reference to 
its supposed rest during the wmter. 

SIMPLE FOEMS. 

Emet. Qi(j German Ammatas, Emita, Amizo, Emez,* 5th cent. 

T^' Eng. Amett, Emmett, Amiss, Emus. Mod. German Ameis. 
French Amette, Amade, Amed^e? Amis. 

COMPOUND. • 

(Ulf, wolf) French Amadeuf. 
In the same manner the stem lol, ltd, referred 
by Graff to Old Norse loUa, segnities, may rather 
be taken in the sense of Eng. " lull," to calm, in 
the sense probably of peace-maker. 

SIMPLE FOEMS. 

Old Germ. LuUo, Lul, Lolla, 7th cent. Ang.-Sax. Lula 

Lul. (found in Lulan treow, Cod. Dip. 18^, Lull (found in 

Soothe. LyJlQsheorh, Lulleswyrth^ Cod. Dip. 37 4,7 14. J Eng. Lull, 

LuLLY. Modern German Lohle. French Lully, Lolly, 

Laulhe, Laull. 

pateonymics. 
Ang.-Sax. Lulling (found in Lvllinges treow, Cod. Dip, 
227. J French Lullng. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Hard, fort is) Eng. Lollaed 1 (Man) Eng. Lulman. 

Perhaps on the whole most appropriately in 

this chapter will be introduced the names having 

the meaning of liberality or munificence. Though 

it may be uncertain in some cases whether the 



* Hence Basingstoke, in Anglo-Saxon Embasinga stoc, the place of the 
Emba.singfl, properly Emasings. 



THE PROTECTOR AND THE FRIEND. 285 

idea is not rather that of the prince than of the 
friend. " Bracelet-giver," in the sense of a 
rewarder of valour, is an expression of Anglo- 
Saxon poetry. 

From the Old High German geberi. Modem 
German gehen, dare, Forstemann derives the 
following Old German names, which he observes 
are found both with the root- vowel as gaby and 
with the vowel-change of the present into gib. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old German Gabo, Gebbo, Geppo, Givo, Jebo, Kyppo, 
Chippo, 8tli cent. Eng. Gabb, Gapp, Gaff, Gavey, Gibby, ^^^\ ^*p- 
GiBB, GiEVE, Jebb, Jeff, Kibb, Kibbey, Kipp, Chipp. 
Modern German Gabe, Gapp, Gepp, Kabe. French GabjS, 
Gapy, Gaveau, Cab4 Gibou, Gif, Jaffa, Japy, Chevy 1 

diminutives. 
Old Germ. Gabilo, 9tli cent. — English Gable, Gavelle, 
Cable, Kebel, Keppel — Mod. Germ. Gabel, Gavel, Gebel 
— French Gavelle, J avel, Gebel, Cavel — Span. Gavila. 
Old German Gibilin, 9th cent. — English Giblen, Kipling — 
French Giblin. Old Germ. Gebizo, 11th cent. — Eng. Gibbs ? 
Gipps 1 Gipsy — French Giboz, Gibus — Belg. Geefs. 

phonetic ending. 
Old German Gebino, Givin, 8th cent. — English Gaffin, 
Gibbon, Given, Giffin, Chippen — French Gabin, Gibon. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Bert, bright) Old German Gibert, 9th cent. — English 
GippERT — French Gibert — Italian Ghiberti. (Am, em, 
eagle) Eng. Giberne — French Giverne, Giverny, Gavarni. 
(Hard) Old German Gebahard, Givard, Gifard, 9th cent. — 
English Gerhard, Gibbard. Giffard — Modern German 
Gebhardt — French Giffard, Chippard. (Hari, warrior) 
Old German Gebaheri, 9th cent. — Old Norse Giafar — 
Eng. Gaffer y. Chipper, Cheever — Mod. Germ. Geber, 



286 THE PBOTECTOR AND THE FRIEND. 

Keber, — French Gibory, Chipier. {Rat, counsel) Old 
Germ. Geberat, Sth cent. — French Gabaret. {Man) Eng, 
Chipman. {Wold, power) Old German Gebald, Givold, 6th 
cent. — Mod. German Gabold — French Gabalda, Gavalda, 
G A VAULT, Gibault. ( Wine, friend) Old Germ. Ghiboin, 7 th 
cent. — French Giboin. 

From the Ang.- Saxon unna, dare, may be the 
following, though Forstemann takes the negative 
particle un to intermix. 

simple forms. 
Un. Old Germ. Unno, Unni, Una (female), 9th cent. Eng. 

Dare. XJnnA. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Rid, strife) Old German Unnid, Sth cent. — Eng. Unit 1 
{Wine, friend) Eng. Unwin.* 



* "We do not find an ancient name to correspond, but there is an Old Germ. 
Unwan, 9th cent., and an Ang. -Sax. Unwona (3rd bishop of Leicester) ; to which 
perhaps may be put our Unwin. The meaning of wan is not very clear ; 
Forstemann suggests Goth. wen$, opes, which seems to suit in this case. 



CHAPTER XV. 



ANCESTOR AND KINSMAN. 

Of the names derived from relationship, some 
have probably been surnames and nothing more. 
Others, in the first instance surnames, may have 
subsequently been adopted as baptismal, on the 
principle to which I have already referred. In 
one or two cases, as in the names signifying 
father, the idea may have extended somewhat 
beyond mere relationship. " My father," said his 
servants to the Syrian king, " if the prophet had 
bid thee do some great thing, wouldest thou not 
have done it V So also in the case of names 
having the meaning of ancestor there is no doubt 
present something of that sense of nobility which 
is always attached to ancient descent. Words 
with both of the above meanings seem to run 
through the range of the Teutonic name-system. 
The most common word with the former meaning 
is ad or at, which Forstemann and other writers 
refer to Goth, atta, Old Fries, atha, etha, father. 
The stem had or hath, war, p. 167, is, however, 
likely to intermix, as well as in some cases 
ead, prosperity. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Atto, Ati, Adi, Atha, Etti, 7th cent. Atta, 
Lib. Vit. Eng. Attoe, Atty, Addy, Etty. Mod. Germ. ^ ^^' 

Father. 

Ade, Ette. French Adde, Ad^e, Eth^e, Etey. 



288 ANCESTOR AND KINSMAN. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old Germ. Atacho, Sth cent. — Englisli Atack, AtkeY. 

Eug. Adkin, Atkin. English Addis, Atts — French Atys. 

Old German Attains,* (rex. Germanorum, Aurel. Vict.) 3rd 

cent. — Ang. -Saxon Attila — Old Norse Atli — Eng. Attle, 

Atley. 

compounds. 

{Gis, Ms, hostage) Old Germ. Atgis, Sth cent. — English 
Atkiss. (Got, Goth) Old Germ. Adogoto, Sth cent.- — Eng. 
Addicott (Hard) Old Germ. Adohard, 9th cent — French 
Edard — Ital. Attardi. {tlar% warrior) Old Germ. Adohar, 
Adoar, Sth cent. — English Adier — French Adour. (^<?/J 
superstes) Old German Adlef, Sth cent.— French Atlofp. 
(Man) Old Germ. Adiman, 9th cent. — English Admans — 
French Admant. {Mar, famous) Old German Adamar, 9th 
cent. — Eng. Atmore % — French Adhemar — Ital Adimari. 
{Ric, power) Old German Aderich, 6th cent. — Anglo-Saxon 
-^theric (found in jEtherices hlype,\ God. Dip. SI 3, and else- 
where) — Eng. Attridge, Etridge. [Rid, ride) Old German 
Atharid, 4th cent. — Ang. -Sax. ^thered [found in jEtheredes 
haga,X God. Dip, 595, and elsewhere) — Eng. Attride. ( Wid, 
wood) Old German Adhuid, Sth cent. — English Attwood 1 
(Wolf) Old Germ. Athaulf, Goth. King, 5th cent.— English 
Adolph § — Mod. Germ. Adolf — French Adolphe . 

There is a root an, for which Forstemann 
proposes Old High Germ, ano, Mod. Germ, ahne, 
avus, but suggests also an intermixture of another 
word ann, from Ang.-Sax. ann, favere. In the 
female names the latter seems the more probable 
derivation. There may also possibly be an inter- 
mixture of another word, Ang.-Sax. hana, Germ 
hahn, cock, which is not unsuitable for proper 
names. 

* The name of Attila, the renowned leader of the Huns, Grimm holds to be 
German and not Hunnish. 

t Jitheric's leap, probably in commemoration of some feat. 

t .^thered's hedge. 

§ This, as a surname, is, as Mr. Lower observes, of recent introduction. 



I 



ANCESTOR AND KINSMAN. 289 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Grerm. Anna, A nno, Euno, Hanno, Henno, 5th cent. 
Ang.-Sax. Anna, king of the East Angles. English Anne, An, En. 
Hann, Hanna, Hanney, Henn, Henney. Modern German ^^^ 
Haxne, Henne. French Anne, Ann^ Ann^e, Hanne, 
Hanno, Hany, Henne, Henno, Enne. 

diminutives. 
Old German Annico, Ennico, 8th cent. — English Enoch, 
Enock, Hankey ? — Mod. German Hannicke, Hennicke — 
French Hannicque, Henique, Henoc, Enique. Old Germ. 
Analo, 8th cent. — English Hannell, Hennell — French 
Hennel. Old Germ. Hennikin, 11th cent. — Eng. Hankin 
— Mod. Germ. Hanneken — French Hannequin, Hennequin. 
Old German Ennelin, 11th cent. — Eng. Hanlon. English 
Anniss, Enniss, Hennis, Hennessy — Mod. Germ. Hanisch 
— French Hennecy. 

PATRONYMICS. 

Old Germ. Anninc, 8th cent. Eng. Anning, Henning. 
Mod. Gei-m. Henning. French Hannong, Henning. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Bert, bright) Old German Anibert, 8th cent. — French 
Hannebert, Hennebert. {Fred, peace) Old Germ. Anafred, 
Enfrid, 8th cent. — Eng. Henfrey — French Anfray, Exfre. 
{Gard, protection) French Hennecart. {Ger, spear) Old 
Germ. Anager, Eneger, 8th cent. — Eng. Hanger, Henniker 
— French Anicker. {Grim, fierce) Old Germ. Anagrim, 8th 

cent. — English Ancrum. {Hard) Old German Henhart 

Mod. German Hennert — French Enard, Henard. {Hariy 
warrior) French Hannier, Anery. (Man) Old German 
Enman, 9th cent. — Eng. Hanman, Henman — Mod. Germ. 
Hannemann, Hennemann. {Mar, famous) Eng. Hanmer. 
{Red, counsel) Old Germ. Henred, 9th cent. — Eng. Hanrott 

Enright. {Wald, power) Old German Anawalt, Ennolt 

Eng. Anhault — Mod. Germ. Hanewald, Hanelt — French 
Enault, Henault. {Ulf, wolf) Old Germ. Anaolf, Gothic 
leader, 6th cent. — Eng. Enough — French Enouf. 

K 2 



I 



Aw, Av. 



290 ANCESTOR AND KINSMAN. 

There is a root aw, av, which Forstemann 
thinks may be from Goth, avo, grandmother, but, 
no doubt, like the Lat. avus, in the wider sense 
of ancestor. Graff refers to Old High German 
awa, river. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old German Avo, Ovo, Ouo, 8tli cent. English Ovey, 
Ancestor. -Frencli Avi. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old German Avila, 6 th cent. — English A VILA, Avill. 
Old German Avelina, 11th cent. — Eng. Aveline, Aveling, 
Evelyn — French Aveline. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Hard) Eng. Ha yard — French Avart. {Hari, warrior) 
Eng. Avery, Aver, Ower — French Avare, Auer. {Land) 
Old Germ. Auiland, 9th cent. — Eng. Haviland. (Man) 
Old German Ouwaman, 11th cent. — Eng. Howman ? — Mod. 
Germ. Avemann. 

From the above stem av comes apparently an 

extended form aviz, found in the folio wmg. 

simple forms. 
Aviz- Old Germ. Aveza, 11th cent. Eng. Avis, Aviz. French 

Ancestor? ^^^gg^,^ AviSSEAU, AviZEAU. 

COMPOUNDS 

{Hard, fortis) Eng. Evezard. Fr. Avizard, Avizart. 
A word of rather uncertain meaning in 
proper names is hah, respecting which Forstemann 
observes that it is " of a very ancient stamp, and 
approaching, as it seems, the nature and expres- 
sion of children's speech ; according to Mtiller 
(M.H.D. Worterhuch), the original meaning 
seems to be that of mother." 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Bab, Old Germ. Babo, Bavo, Pabo, Papo, 7th cent. Anglo- 

^*^* Saxon Babba (found in Babhanheorh, Cod. Dip. 623^. 

Parent ? 



ANCESTOR AND KINSMAN. 291 

John Babi, member for Bodmin, a.d. 1302. Englisli Babb, 
Babe, Baby, Baugh, Pape, Pavey. Mod. German Babe, 
Pape, Pappe. French Babeau, Babe, Pape, Papau, Papy, 

Pavy. 

diminutives. 

Old Germ. Babilo, Gth cent. — Aug.- Sax. Babel (found 
in Babeles heorh, Cod. Dip. 61 8J — Eng. Babell — French 
Babuleau. Old Germ. Bauika, 10th cent. — Eng. Babbage. 
Old Germ. Babolenus, Papolenus, Gth cent. — Eng. Papillon 
— French Baboulene, Bablix, Papillon. 

PHONETIC ending. 

Eng. Babin, Bavin. French Babin, Babonneau, Papin, 
Pavin. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Hardy fortis) Fr. Bavard, Baffert, Pappert, Pavard. 
(Hari, warrior) English Barer, Pavier — French Paper. 
(Wald, power) Fr. Babault, Papault. (Ward, guardian) 
French Babouard. ( Ulf wolf) Old Germ. Babulf, 8th cent. 
— Fr. Babeuf. 

Perhaps with something more of certainty 

the root tat may be taken to mean " father." 

Diefenbach quotes many ancient and widely 

spread forms with this meaning (as English 

«dad,"&c.) 

simple forms. 

Old German Tatto (Lombard king), Tado, Daddo, Dadi, 
Datto, Deddo, Tedo, Tazo, 6th cent. Eng. Dadd, Daddy, Dad, Tad. 
Bade, Date, Datt, Daze, Dazey, Tadd, Taddy, Tedd. Father? 
Mod. Germ. Date, Dette, Tade. French Dado, Taze. 

diminutives. 

Old Germ. Tadilo, Tatila, 8th cent. Ang.-Saxon Tatel, 
name of moneyer on a coin of Burgred, king of Mercia, 
found at Southampton. English Tadloo, Tattle, Tetlow. 
Mod. Germ. Taddel. 

compounds. 

{Hard, fortis) Old German Tethard, 9th cent. — French 
Tetard. {Hariy warrior) Old German Tether, 8th cent. — 



292 ANCESTOR AND KINSMAN. 

Eng. Tedder, Teather. (Man) Eng. Dadmun, Tadman, 
Tedman. {Lac, play) Eng. Tatlock. {Wine, friend) Old 
Germ. Daduin, 8tli cent. — Eng. Tatuin. 

It is probable that the stem ing, inc, though 
its etymology is not yet explained, has the 
meaning of son, offspring, and is cognate with 
Eng. " young." As an ending in patronymic 
forms like Dunning and Billing, this is of course 
certain, but in other cases it is apt to mix with 
ang, p. 212. Ingo was one of the three sons of 
Mannus, the mythical founder of the German 
nation, as related by Tacitus. 

simple forms. 
Old Germ. Ingo, Hingo, Hincho, Engo, Tth cent. Ingi, 
ing, Inc. King of Norway. Incge (Beowulf) English Ing, Ingoe, 

Descendant. -j-^^^^ HiNGE, HiNCH, HiNCHEY. Mod. Germ. EnGE, HiNCK. 

French Ing4 Hingue, Hinque, Eng. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old German Ingizo, 9th cent. — Eng. Inches — French 

Ingisch. 

patronymic. 
English Inkson. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Bald, fortis) Old Germ. Ingobald, Incbald, 8th cent. — 
Eng. Inchbald — Fr. Anjubault. {Bert, famous) Old Germ. 
Ingobert, 7th cent. — Eng. Inchboard — French Angibert. 
{Bod, envoy) Old Germ. Ingobod, 7th cent. — Fr. Angibout. 
{Hard) Old German Inghard, 8th cent. — Modern German 
Engert — French Enguehard. {Hari, warrior) Old Germ. 
Inguheri, 7th cent. — Eng. Ingrey — Mod. German Enger — 
French Inger, Ingray. {Ram, ran, raven) Old German 
Ingram, Ingranna, 8th cent. — English Ingram — French 
Ingrain — Ital. Inghirami. {Leof, dear) Eng. Hinchliff, 
HiNCHCLiFF. {Wald, power) Old German Ingold, 7th cent. 
Old Norse Ingvald — Eng. Ingold — Mod. Germ. Engwald 



ANCESTOR AND KINSMAN. 2i>3 

— French Ingold. (Ward, guardian) French Angouard 
(Wis, sapiens) Old Germ. Inguis, 9th cent. — Eng. Anguish.. 
( Wolf) Old Germ. Ingulf, 8th cent. — French Ingouf. 

Then there are some other words of similar 
meaning which are found both in ancient and 
modern names, but which do not appear, like the 
foregoing, to enter into the Teutonic name- 
system. Grimm observes that "in Old Saxon 
records Fadar, Brothar, Modar, Suster, appear 
not unfrequently as simple proper names.'' 
Forstemann has Fader, Fater, Sec, of the 8th 
and following centuries — Mothar, Moder, &c. — 
Brothar, Broter, of the same period — Suester, 
Sustar of the 9 th cent. The origin of these 
names is not, however, always certain — Mothar 
for instance is sometimes a man's name, and other 
words may intermix — see pp. 218, 237. 

We have Father, Mother, Brother, Syster ; 
also Fetter and Fetterman, apparently from 
the Ang.-Sax. form feder. The Germans have 
Vater, Vetter, Feder and Fetter ; Mudder 
and Bruder, also the diminutives Yetterlein, 
Mutterlein, Bruderlein. Pott has not Suestar, 
though according to Outzen Soster or Suster 
is a common name in Friesland. The French 
have Sister, Sester, and Sestier — also Syster- 
MANN, which, however, seems to be of German 
origin, and which means a sister's husband. 
jl We have also Brotherson and Sisterson, 
meaning a nephew respectively by the side of the 
brother and of the sister. 



294 ANCESTOR AND KINSMAN. 

I do not include the name Uncle in this 
place. It seems rather to be the same as an 
Unculus, 8th cent., and a Hunchil in Domesday ; 
Forstemann proposes unc, snake. 

I doubt also the derivation of Cousin from 
consohrinus — first, because such a relationship 
seems scarcely sufficient to mark a name — and 
secondly, because it falls in with a group else- 
where. 



y 



CHAPTER XVI. 



THE NATION AS THE NAME-GIVER. 

Names derived from nationality have probably 
been in many cases originally surnames. A 
stranger coming among men to whom his name 
might have an unfamiliar sound, would be very 
apt to be called instead by the name of his 
nationality. And such names, once established, 
might afterwards come to be used baptismally. 
But it is also probable that names of this class 
might be bestowed baptismally in the first 
instance from a feeling of national pride ; and it 
is not difficult to conceive how even in the present 
day, if the choice of names were open, many a 
father might delight to call his son an English- 
man. Other causes have no doubt combined to 
give names of this sort — causes which though in 
most cases beyond our ken, are sometimes open 
at least to a conjecture. Thus, whereas it might 
seem strange that' the name of the Picts should 
be given to Anglo-Saxons, yet when we find that 
two of the men who bore it, Pehthelm and 
Pehtwine, were bishops in the territory of the 
Picts, it seems natural to suppose that the name 
was assumed, perhaps as auspicious, on the 
occasion. Once become a name, it might be 
adopted by other men, as we find afterwards 
Pectuald, Pectgils, &c. 



296 THE NATION AS THE NAME-GIVER. 

In the sense of advena we may take the 
following, which seem to be from the Goth, and 
Old High German gast, Ang.-Sax. gcest, gest, gist, 
Eng. "guest." 

SIMPLE FOKMS. 

Gast, Gest. Old German Gasto, Cast, 8tli cent. Old Norse Gestr. 
" ^^es*- ' Eng. Gast, Guest, Gist, Keast. Mod. Germ. Gast, Kast. 
Frencli Gaste, Gasty, Casty, Geste. 

diminutives. 
I English Castle, Cassell, Castley, Castello — Frencli 

Gastal, Castel, Gestelli. English Guestling — French 
Gasselin. 

patronymics. 
Eng. Gasting, Castang. French Castaing, Chastaing. 

phonetic ending. 

Old Germ. Gestin, Kestin, Castuna, 8th cent. English 
Gastin, Gastineau, Caston, Kesten. French Gastine, 
Geston, Castan. 

compounds. 

{Hard, fortis) Old Germ. Gastart — Ang.— Sax. Gisteard 
(found in Gisteardeswyl, God. Dip. 5 95 J — French Gassart % 
{Harij warrior) English Gaster, Caster — French Gastier, 
GuESTiER, Castier. (Lind, gentle ?) Old Germ. Gestilind — 
French Gaslonde? (Rat, counsel) Old German Gastrat, 
Castrat, 8th cent. — French Casterat. {Ric, power) Old 
German Castricus, 6th cent. — French Castrique. {Waldy 
power) Old German Cast aid, 9 th cent. — French (or Ital. ?) 
Castaldi. 

From the Goth, quuma, Ang.-Saxon cumma, 
advena, we find some names, which are however, 
apt to mix with gum, man, p. 59. 

simple forms. 
Ang.-Sax. Gumma, name of a serf. Cod. Dip. 971. Eng. 
Advena. CoMBE 1 French Come. 



THE NATION AS THE NAME-GIVER. 297 

PHONETIC ENDING. 

Old German Coman, 8ili cent. Eng. Commin, Quomman 
( Gothic form. ) French Commun, Cumon, Commeny. 

PATRONYMICS. 

Eng. Gumming. French Gusienge. 

The above word occurs more commonly as an 
ending, and in some of the names, particularly 
those compounded with words of affection, we 
may perhaps rather find a reference to the " little 
stranger" for whom an auspicious journey throuo-h 
life is invoked. 

{Ead, happiness) Old German Otoquim, 9 th cent. — 
Eatcume, Lih. Vit. (Old High Germ, zit, Ang. -Saxon tid, Cumma. 
time — in the sense of seasonable ?) Old Germ. Zitcoma, 8th . ^*°*" 

^ ' As an 

cent. — Tidcume, Lib. Vit. — Eng. Titcomb. (JS^ew, novns or Ending, 
juvenis) Neucum (Domesday) — Nequam (Gothic form) 
English monk, 13th cent. — Eng. Newcome. {Will, in the 
sense of desire or pleasure) Old Germ. Williquema, 8th cent- 
— Uilcomae, Lih. Vit. — English Welcome* — Mod. German 
Willcomm. 

In the sense of advena we may also take 
English Newman, German Niemann, French 
Neyman. We find it m England in the 13th 
cent., but I take it to be more ancient. But the 
stem new in general is taken by Grimm and 
Weinhold to have, like the Greek veo^, the mean- 
ing of young, and I have introduced it elsewhere. 

I From the Old High Germ, ivalah, Ang.-Sax. 

I weahl, stranger, foreigner, variously with and 
without the aspirated h, as wallack, ivalk, ivall, 

rti we may take the following. But the Ang.-Sax. 

wcel, strages, seems a very likely word to intermix. 

I __ 

* I have put this, p. 123, but I think wrongly, to gom, man. 

L 2 



298 THE NATION AS THE NAME-GIVER, 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Waiah. Old Genu. Walah, Walacli, Walco, Walcli, Walo, Wal, 

stranger. Qualo, 7 til cent. Ang.-Sax. Wala. Eng. Wallack, Walk, 

Walko, Walkey, Wall, Wale, Waley, Quail, Qualey. 

Mod. German Walke, Wallich, Wahl, Wall. French 

Valci, Valie, Yallee, Oualle, Wal, Guala. 

diminutives. 
Old Germ. Walezo, 11 th cent. — Eng. Walliss, Wj^llace, 
Walls, Yallis — French Yallez, Yalls, Walles, Walz. 
Old German Yalahilo, 8th cent. — Eng. Yallely, Walkley. 
Walchelin, Lib. Vit. — Eng. Walklin. 

PATRONYMICS. 

Old German Walunc, 9th cent. English Walling. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(And, life, spirit) Old German Waland, Yaland, 8th 
cent. — Eng. Waland, Yaliant — French Yalant. (Frid, 
peace) Old Germ. Walahfrid, 8th cent. — Eng. Wallfree — 
French Yalfroy. (Hard, fortis) Old German Walhart, 9th 
cent. — Fr. 1 Wallart — Mod. Germ. Wahlert. (Ilariy 
warrior) Old Germ. Walachar, Walchar, Walaheri, Walhar, 
7th cent. — Ang.-Sax. Walchere, bishop of Lindisfarne — 
Eng. Walliker, Walker, Wallower, Waller, Yaller — 
Mod. Germ. Walcker, Wahler, Waller — Fr. Yallery, 
Yallier, Yalhere. (Had, war ?) Old Germ. Wallod, Yalot, 
7th cent. — Eng. Wallet, Quallet — Fr. Yalet. (Baven, 
ram, ran, corbus) Old German Yalerauans.* (Jornandes) 
Walarammus, Walerannus, 8th cent. — Walrafan, Lib. Vit. — 
Eng. Wallraven (^/S'tt^: Sum.) — French Yalleran. (Man) 
Old Germ. Walaman, 8th cent. — Eng. Walkman — Mod. 
Germ. Wahlman. {Mar, famous) Old German Walahmar, 
(king of the Ostro-Goths,) Walmar, 6th cent. — Mod. Germ. 
Wahlmar — French Yalmer. (Rand, shield) Old German 
Walerand — Walerandus, Lib. Vit. — Eng. Walrond — French 
Yalerand, Yalerant. 

* This Gothic name (=VaIeravan) must be of an older date than the 8th 
cent. 



« 



THE NATION AS THE NAME-GIVER. 299 

From the Goth, alja, ahus, in the sense of 
peregrinus, foreigner, Graff and Grimm derive 
the following stem. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Alj, EIlo, Ella, Tth cent. Ang. -Saxon Ella. Ai, El. 
Eng. Ell, Elley, Ella, Foreigner. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old Germ. Alikin, Elikin, 10th cent. English Allchin, 

Elkin. 

compounds. 
{Brand, sword) Old German Aliprand, 9th cent. — French 
Albrand. (Bud, envoy) Old Germ. Ellebod, 10th cent. — 
English Allbutt. {Gar, spear) Old German Elger, 
5th cent. — English Elgar, Elliker. (Gaud, Goth.) 
Old German Eligaud, 8th cent. — Eng. Allgood, Elgood, 
Ellacott. {Hard, fortis) Old German Eleard, 10th cent. 
— English Ellard — Mod. German Ellert. {Hari, warrior) 
Old German Alier, Elier, 9th cent. — Eng. Ellery. {Mar, H-JiJUy^ 
famous) Old German Alimer, 9th cent. — Eng. Elmore — 
French Elmire. (Man) Eng. Elliman. {Mund, protection) 
Elmund, Domesday — Eng. Element. {Wine, friend) Old 
German Eliwin, 9th cent. — Elwinus, LU>. Vit. — Eng. Elwin 
— French Ellouin. ( Wis, wise) Eluis, Lib. Vit. — French 
Elluis. {Wood) Elwod, Lib. Vit. — Eng. Ellwood. 

From the above root al or el, is formed, in the 
same meaning as I take it, the extended form alis 
or elis. So from Gr. eiXoo comes eXfo-o-w, verso, 
volvo, a word which may indeed have some 
relationship to the one in question. The river- 
names of Germany, Use, Elz, Alass, Elison (now 
the Lise), may compare with the Ilissus and the 
Helisson of Greece. Grimm refers this stem in 
proper names to the German tribe of the Elysii 
(Tac. Germ.) But the tribe may derive from a 
word signifying stranger, wanderer, faintly traced 






300 THE NATION AS THE NAME-GIVER. 

in the Old High Germ, alis, Ang.-Sax. elles, Eng. 
else, aliter. The scriptural name Ehas may, as 
Forstemann remarks, be liable to intermix ; in 
the Liber Vitce, however, it seems invariably to 
be recognized as distinct. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Eliso, Elis, 8th cent. Aluso, Elesa, genealogy 

Peregrinus. of the kings of Norihumhria. Aliz, Alls, Elsi, Lib. Vit. 

Eng. Allies, Alice, Ellis, Ellice, Else, Elsey — French 

Allais, Ellies. 

compounds. 
(Gar, spear) Old German Alsker, 11th cent. — English 
Alsager. (Gaud, Goth.) Eng. Elsegood. 

Probably the same meaning of stranger may 

be found in the following, which seem to be from 

Goth, anthar, alius, but with which, in the simple 

form, the scriptural Andrew is very apt to mix up. 

simple forms. 
Eng. Hender ? Mod. Germ. Ender ? French Andro 1 

AUu3. Andry 1 

compounds. 

(Aud, prosperity) Old German Andriaud, 9th cent. — 

Fr. Andraud. (Berg, protection) Old G^rm. Andreberga, 

8th cent. — Mod. German Anderburg. (Gais, spear) Old 

Germ. Andragais, 4th cent. — Fr. Antra ygues, Entragues. 

Names from the points of the compass, as 
North, South, East, and West, may be included 
in this chapter. The ancient terminations, a, i, o, 
(which it will be seen are in some cases still pre- 
served), would give them the force of " one from 
the north," " one from the south," &c. 

simple forms. 
North. ^1^ Germ. Nordo, Nordi, Nord, 9th cent. Eng. North, 

Boreaiis. NoRTHEY, NoRRiE. Mod. German NoRD, North. French 
Nory, Naury. 



I 



THE NATION AS THE NAME-GIVER. 301 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old German Norlinc, 8th cent. English Norlan. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Bert, famous) Old Germ. Nordbert, Norbei*t, 7th cent. 
— French Norbert. (Gaud, Goth.) Old Germ. Northgaud, 
Norgaud, 9th cent. — Eng. Northcott ? Norgate? NorcottI 
Narrowcoat 1 — French Nourigat. {Gast, guest) Old Germ. 
Norigas, for Norigast, 8th cent. — Eng. Norquest. fRari, 
warrior) Old German Nordheri, Nortier, 8th cent. — French 
Nortier. (Man) Old Germ. Nordeman, Norman, 8th cent. 
— Eng. Norman — Mod. Germ. Nordmann, Normann. (Jfar, 
famous) Old Germ. Nordmar, 9th cent. — Eng. Northmore, 
Norramore — Mod. Germ. Nordmeyer. English N'orfor = 
north-faring 1 Eng. Northeast ? — French Norest ? 

From the Old High Germ, sund, sunt, Ang.- 
Sax. suth, Eng. south, we may take the following. 
The Ang.-Sax. sund, sea, is a word that might 
intermix. 

simple FORIMS. 

Old Germ. Sundo. Ang.-Sax. Sunt or Sunta (found in gund. 
Suntinga gemaero, the boundary/ of the Suntings, Cod. Dip. South. 
445). Ang.-Sax. Siith* (found apparently in Sitthesvnjrth, 
Cod. Dip. 314). English South, Southey, Sunday. French 

SOUDAY, SOUTY. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Hard, fortis) Old German Sunthard, 8th cent. — English 

Southard, t {Hari, warrior) Old German Sunthar, Sum- 

thahar, 7th cent. — English Sunter, Sumpter, Suthery — 

French Soudier. {Ulf wolf) Old Germ. Suntulf, 7th cent. 

— French Soutif. 

phonetic ending. 
Suthen, Lib. Vit. English Southon, Sudden. French 

SOUDEN. 



* There are other traces of this word as a personal name in the Cod. Dip., — 
for instance, Southling, found in Southlingleah, Cod. Dip. 382, and comparing 
with a Mod. German Sundblin — Sdthberht, found in Stlthberhtingeland, Cod. 
Dip. 1,032. 

t May be a corruption of another name Southward. Again — Southward 
may be only a mistaken attempt to rectify Southard. 



302 



THE NATION AS THE NAME-GIVER. 



EXTENDED FOEM IN ev 

English Souther. French Sonder. 

COMPOUND. 

(^Ulf, wolf) Old Germ. Sundarolf, 8th cent. Mod. Germ. 

SUNDREHOFF. 

Names derived from the east were most 
common among the Franks, which, as Forstemann 
observes, is to be accounted for by their being 
the most west-lying of the German peoples, and 
of course having, for the most part, come from 
the east. Among the Saxons, whose course was 
northward, he observes that these names were 
almost entirely wanting. Nevertheless — at pre- 
sent it seems to me that they are more common 
in English than in French. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Ost, East. 01<i German Osta. English Ost, Hoste, Owst, Yost, 
OrientaUs. East, Easty, Easto. Mod. German Ost. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old Germ. Aostilo, 8th cent. — Eng. Ostell, Austell. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Man) Eng. Eastman — Mod. Germ. Ostmann. {Mar 
famous) English Eastmure — Dan. Ostmer. {Rad, counsel) 
Old German Austrad, 8th cent. — Mod. Germ. Osterrath — 
French Ostard {or to hard). 

The extended form oster or easier is more 
common than the simple form ost or east. It is 
possible that in some cases there may be a refer- 
ence to the goddess Ostara or Eastre, but I think 
in general that it is only the same word as ost 
or east. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Oster, Qi(j (jerm. Oster. Eng. Easter, Oyster. Mod. Germ. 

OrientaUs. Oester. French Oustria. 



THE NATION AS THE NAME-GIVER. 303 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Burg, protection) Old German Ostarpurc, 9 th cent. — 
Eng. Easterbrook. {Dag, day) Eng. Easterday* — Mod. 
Germ. Ostertag. {Gos, Goth.) Old Germ. Austrigosa, wife 
of the Lombard king Wacho — French Astorgis. {Mar, 
famous) Old Germ. Austrimir, 9th cent. — Eng. Ostermoor 
— Mod. German Ostermeier. {Man) Old German Austre- 
monius, 6th cent. — English OvsTERMANt — Mod. German 
Ostermann. {Ric, rule) Old German Austoric, 10th cent. — 
English Ostrich. 

Names derived from the west seem to have 
been the least common of all. 

simple forms. 

Occidentalis, 



English West, Yest, Yesty. French Yisto ? 



diminutives. 
English Westall, Yestal. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Man) English Westman". {Rat, counsel) Old German 
Westrat, 9th cent. — French ? Yestraete. Eng. Westfall 
— Mod. Germ. Westphal = Westphalian. 

extended form. 
English "Wester. French Yestier. 

compounds. 
{Dag, day) English Westerday, Yesterday. J {Man) 
Old German Wistremand, 7 th cent. — English Westerman, 
Yesterman — Mod. Germ. Westermajstn. 

We now come to names derived from those 
of ancient German tribes, and of the races which 
bordered upon them. But here an important 
question suggests itself Are the names of men 
derived from those of the nation — or may not 

* Might be supposed to be from the Christian festival, but it rather seems 
to be the same as an Old German Ostdag. Compare also the name Westekday. 

t A New York name, but perhaps only a corruption of the German 
Oitermann. 

t Yesterday might be a corruption either of Easterday or Westerday. 



I 



304 THE NATION AS THE NAME-GIVER, 

both, at least in some cases, be from the same 
ancient origin ^ Thus, if Jute signifies giant — 
if Friese (or Frisian) signifies comatus, curled — 
if Wend signifies wanderer — may not the names 
of men be carried back to the same ancient 
source, and have the same meaning '? This is a 
difficult question to answer, and I think that in 
fact both ways do probably obtain. 

From the ancient tribe of the Suevi, Suavi, 
Suebi, or Suabi (whence the present Swabia), 
may be the following. Zeuss refers the name to 
Old High German suipan, ferri. Mod. German 
schwehen. I also suggest Old Norse sveipr, a 
curl or lock of hair, because the whole of the 
Suevi, who comprehended several tribes, were 
noted, according to Tacitus, by a peculiar way of 
fastening the hair up into a knot. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Swab. ^1^ German Suabo, Suap, Suppo, 8th cent. Swseppa, 

Swabian. Ang.-Sax. geneal. Eng. Swabb, Swabey, Swaap, Sweeby. 

Mod. Germ. Schwabe, Schweppe, Suppe 1 French Soupe, 

Soup4 Soupeau. 

diminutives. 

Old German Suabilo, SuapilOj 8th cent. — Eng. Supple — 
Mod. German Schwable — French Souply, Supply, Sobbel. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Hari, warrior) Old Germ. Suabheri, 9th cent. — English 
Souper — Fr. SouPiR. (Wald, power) Old Germ. Suapold, 
9th cent. — French Soupault. 

From the Yarini, Werini, Warni, or Werns, 

whose name Zeuss derives from Old High Germ. 

warjan, to defend, may be the following. Graff 

places the names to the above Old German stem, 

but Forstemann proposes also the people's name. 



THE NATION AS THE NAME-GIVER. 305 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old German Warin, Guarin, Warno, Weruo, Wem, 7th warin, 

cent. English Warren, Warne, Verney. Mod. German Warn. 

Wahren, Werne. French Warin, Gui^rin, Guerne, Varin, ^®™' 
Varinay, Verney, Vernay, Verneau. 

diminutives. 

Old Germ. Wernicho — Eng. Warnock — Mod. German 
Warnecke — French Varagniac. Old German Werinela, 
9th cent. — Eng. Varnell — French Wernl^, Vernel. Old 
German Werniza, 11th cent. — English Varnish — French 
Vernaz. 

compounds. 

(Aud, prosperity) French Yernaud. (Burg, protection) 
Old German Werinburg, 8th cent. — English Warrenbury. 
(Gaud, Goth.) Old German Warengaud, 7th cent. — French 
Varangot. {Hard) Old Germ. Wernhart, 8th cent. — Mod. 
German Wernert — French Vernert. {Hari, warrior) Old 
German Warenher, Warner, Werner, Guarner, 7th cent. — 
English Warrener, Warner, Werner, Verner — ^Modern 
German Warner, Werner — French Ouarnier, Warinier, 
Varnier, Vernier, Guernier. (Had, war) Old German 
Warnad, 8th cent. — English Warnett — French Warnet, 
Vernet. {Red, counsel) Old Germ. Werinred, 9th cent. — 
French Yerneret. 

From the tribe of the Jutes Forstemann and 

Zeuss derive the following ancient names. 

simple forms. 
Old German Judo, Juto, Judda, Jutta, Yuto, 8th cent, j^,, j^^ 
English JuDD, Jogth, Yett. Mod. German Jude, Jutte. Jute. 
Dutch Jut. French Judeau, Jude, Juteau. 

diminutives. 
French Juttel. English Judkin. French Judlin. 

patronymics. 
Old German Judinga, 8th cent. — Ang.-Saxon* Ytting 
(found in Yttinges hldw. Cod. Dip. 1,114:, and elsewhere. J 
Eng. Jutting. Eng. Judson, Jutson. 

* The Ang.-Sax. form Yta, Iota, Jute. 

M 2 



306 THE NATION AS THE NAME*GIVER, 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Hari, -warrior) French Jutier. (Man) Eng. Yeatman, 
{Rat J counsel) Old Germ. Jtitrad, 8th cent. — French Jotjrat, 
(Wine J friend) Old Germ. Joduin, 11th cent. — Eng. Jodwin, 
Jeudwine — French Jouvin. 

From the name of the Franks may probably 
be derived the following. Though common in its 
simple form, this does not often occur in com- 
pounds, which may perhaps be attributed to the 
more recent origin of the name, it having been 
given to a confederation of different tribes. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

The Franks. Old Germ. Franco, Francio, Frenko, 5th cent. English 
Frank, Franco, France % French 1 Mod. Germ. Francke, 
Frank. French Franc, Franque, Franco, Franche, 
Francia, France, Francey, Franz. 

diminutives. 
Old Gei-m. Francula, 5th cent. — English Frankel. Old 
^^/6 V Germ. Francolin, 8th cent. — Eng. Franklin — Mod. Germ. 
I) Franklin — French Franquelin, Francillon. 

PHONETIC ENDING. 

Old German Franchin, 8th cent. French Franquin. 
Ital. Franconi 1 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Hard) Old Germ. Francard, 6th cent. — Eng. Francourt 
— French ? Frankaert. 

I find no ancient names to throw any light 
upon the following group, which I think may 
perhaps be derived from the tribe of the Chauci 
or Cauci.* The commonness of these names in 
French would be accounted for by this being one 
of the tribes which formed the Francic confedera- 
tion. However, I only bring forward the subject 
as one for further enquiry. 

* There was also another tribe called the Chaulcl. 



THE NATION AS THE NAME-GIVER. 307 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

English Chalk, Chalkey, Caulk. French Chaussy, ""'^ ^^'*"ci, 
Chaussee, Cauche, Cauchy, Choque. ^^ *"^ 

diminutivr patronymics. 

Eng. Chalklen. Eng. Calking, Caulking. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Hard) French Chassard, Cauchard. (Hart, warrior) 
English Chalker, Chaucer — Mod. Germ, Kalker — French 
Chaussier, Choqier. (Man) Eng. Kalkman. 

From the Falii or Falians, (whence the name 
of Westphalia,) Forstemann derives a root fal, 
falohy in ancient German names. 

simple forms. 
Old German Falho, Fal. English Fall, Fallow, Fail, The Faiii, 
Fellow ? Mod. Germ. Fahl. French Faulle, Fauleau, ^^ FaUans. 
Fallou, Faille. 

extended form=falian. 
English Fallon. French Faulon. 

From the name of the Hessians is probably 
the following stem, which is, however, very difficult 
to separate from another, haz, p. 169. Also from 
a?i5, a5, semideus, p. 119. 

simple forms. 
Old Germ. Hasso, Asso, Hessi, 8th cent. English Hass, Hass, Hess. 
Hesse, Hessey. Mod. Germ. Hass, Hess. French Hasse, ^®"^*°- 
Hesse, Hesz. 

extended F0RM=ENG. " HESSIAN." 

Eng. Hassan, Hesson, Hession. French Hassan. 

There is a stem, sal, set, rather common in 
ancient names, for which Forstemann proposes 
salOy dark, (Eng. " sallow"), sal, hall, or Goth. 
sels, benignus. I think it probable, however, 
that at least a portion may be placed to the name 
of the Salii, a tribe of Franks (whence the Salic 
law in France). 



308 THE NATION AS THE NAME-GIVER. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Sal Sei ^^^ German Salo, Sallo, Salla, Sella, 5th cent. Salla, 

Saiian. Lib. Vit. Eng. Sale, Sal a, Sell, Selley. Mod. German 

Sahl, Selle, Sello. French Salle, Sall^ Sala, Sailly, 

Selle. 

diminutives. 

Old German Salaco, 6th cent. — English Sellick — Mod. 
German Selke. Old German Saliso, 9th cent. — English 
Salles, Sellis — French Salesse, Celesse, Cels. 

PATRONYMICS. 

Old Germ. Salinga, wife of the Lombard king Wacho, 6th 
cent. English Selling. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Bald, bold) Old German Salabald, Otli cent. — -French 

Selabelle. {Fridj peace) Old German Salafrid, 9th cent. — 

French Salfray. {Fast, firm) French Saillofest ?* {Got 

Goth.) Salgot (Saxo.) — French Saligot. {Hari, warrior) 

Old German Salaher, 8th cent. — English Sellar, Sailor — 

Fr. Sallier, Sellier, Cellier. {Hard) French Saillard, 

Salard, Cellard. (Man) Old German Salaman, Saleman, 

Seliman, 8th cent. — Eng. Salamon (apparently not Jewish), 

Salmon, Saleman, Selman — Modern German Sallmann — 

French Salmon. {Ram, ran, raven) Old German Salaram, 

9th cent. — French Salleron, Sellerin, Cellerin. {Wigy 

wi, war) Old German Selwich — English Sallaway, Selway. 

{Dio, thiu, servant) Old German Saladio, 8th cent. — French 

Salathe. 

extended F0RM="SALIAN." 

Ang.- Saxon Salenn. English Sellon. French Salin, 

Saligny, Selin. 

compound 

{Fast, firm) French Saillenfest. 
It is probable that there are many names from 
the Goths, but the root is a very difficult one to 
deal with, mixing up with good, bonus, and 
perhaps with got^ deus. Goth itself (a Yorkshire 
name), might be supposed to be most certainly 

* We have no sure instance of this word as an ending. Compare Ariovistus, 
p. 95. 



THE NATION AS THE NAME-GIVER. 309 

from the nation. Yet Forstemann refers the Old 
German names Gotho and Goth, 8th cent., to the 
other stem, while at the same time — not quite 
consistently, as it seems to me — he derives the 
Mod. Germ, names Gothe and Goethe from the 
nation. I will not attempt to divide the two 
stems, but I bring in here the form goz^ which 
Grimm, Graff, and Forstemann concur in making 
another form of gaud, Goth. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Gozo, Gauso, Gauz, Gossa, Jozo, Cozo, Cauzo, 
8th cent. Goza, Lib. Vit. EngKsli Goss, Goose, Goosey, Goth. 
GoozE, Cause, Causey, Cose, Cossey, Cooze. Mod. Germ. 
Gause, Gose, Goss, Koss. French Gauzey, Gosse, Gousse, 

JOSSE, JOSSEAU, JOSSU, JOZEAU, JOUSSE, CoSSE, COSS^ CoZE 

Cozzi, Coussy, Causse. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old German Gozekin, 11th cent. — Eng. Joskyn — Mod, 
Germ. Goseken, Goschex — French CosQUix. Old German 
Gauzilin, Gozlin, Joscelin, 8th cent. — Gozelin {Domesday) — 
English GosLiN, Gosling, Joslin — Mod. German Gosling — 
French Gosselin, Jousselin, Josselin. Old Germ. Gaozaich, 
8th cent. — Eng. Cossack — French Cauzique, Cozic. 

phonetic ending. 
Old German Cozzuni, 8th cent. Cosin (Hund. Rolls)- 
Eng. Gaussen, Cosson, Cousin. French Gossin, Gaussen, 
JozAN, CossiN, Causin, Cousin, Couzineau. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Bald, bold) Old German Gauzebald, 8th cent. — English 
Gosbell, Gospell. (Held, state, condition) Old German 
Caosheid, 9th cent. — English Gosset ? — French Caussade, 
Caussat, Gosset 1 Josset 1 (Hard) Old German Gozhart, 
Gozart, Cozhart, 8th cent. — Eng. Gozzard, Cossart — French 
GossARD, Gossart, Cauzard. {Hari, warrior) Old German 
Gauzer, Cozhere, 8th cent. — Eng. Gozar, Cosier, Causer — 
French Goussery, Jossier. {Helm) Old German Goshelm, 



The 
Danduti ? 



310 THE NATION AS THE NAME-GIVEB. 

Jozzelm, 8th cent. — French Gossiome, Josseaume. (Ram, 
ran, raven) Old Germ. Cozram, 8th cent. — Eng. Gosheron — 
French Gaussiran. (Leih, carmen) Old Germ. Gosleih, 8th 
cent. — Eng. Goslee. (Lind, gentle) Old German Gauzlind, 
8th cent. — English Gosland, Josland (or from land, terra). 
(Man) Eng. Gooseman — Mod. German Gossman — French 
CosMENE. (Mar, famous) Old Germ. Gozmar, 8th cent. — 
English GosMER — Mod. Germ. Cosmar. {Niw, young) Old 
German Cozniw, Cozni — French Cosne, Cosnuau. {Rat, 
counsel) Old Germ. Cozzarat, 9 th cent. — French Cosseret. 
{Rand, shield) French Josserand, Jousserand. {Wealh, 
stranger) Old German Coswalh, 9th cent. — Eng. Goswell. 
{Wald, power) Old German Gausoald, 8th cent. — English 

GOSWOLD. 

Zeuss refers the following stem to the name 

of the Danduti, in which Graff and Forstemann 

also seem to agree. 

simple forms. 

Old German Dando, Dendi, Tando, Tanto, 9 th cent. ; 

Danzo, Tanzo. 8th cent. Ang.-Sax. Daunt (found perhaps, 

in Dauntesbourn, Cod. Dip. 384). Dando, Dandi {Hund 

Rolls). English Dand, Dakdo, Dandy, Dendy, Dainty, 

Daunt, Tant, Tent, Tandy, Dance, Dancey, Tansey. 

French Dandou, Danty, Dentu, Tandou, Danse, Tenc£ 

Ital. Dante ? 

diminutives. 

Old Germ. Tantulo, 8th cent. — Eng. Tendall, Tansell 

French Danzel — Ital. Dandolo. Old German Dantlin, 

Dentlin, 10th cent. — Eng. Dandelyon — French Denullein, 
Tenaillon. ^ '1.^,4^ At ^U 

phonetic ending. ' ^t-wvifv ^ ^ 

English Tanton, Danson. French Danton, Tandon, 

Tanton. 

compounds. 

{Hard, fortis) French Dansard. {Hari, warrior) Dauntre 
( = Dauntherl 1) Roll BatU Abb. — English Dancer 1 — French 
Dantier. {Wine, friend) Tanduini, Lib. Vit. — Fr. Danvin 
Tennevin. 






I 



THE NATION AS THE NAME-GIVER. 311 

Then there is a stem dan, which Forstemann 
thinks may be, at least in part, from the name 
of the Danes. It seems, probable, however, that 
it is sometimes only a degenerate form of dand, 
and in one or two instances I have so classed it. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old German Dano, Danno, Denno, Tanno, Tenno, 8tli^j^ j^^^^ 
cent. Dene, Lib. Vit. English Dane, Dana, Dann, Denn 
Denny, Dean, Tann, Ten. Mod. German Dann, Dehn, 
Tanne. French Dan, Danne, Daney, Tainne. 



diminutives. 
Old Germ. Tanucho, 9th cent, — Eng. Tannock — French 
Denechau. Old Germ. Danila, Tenil, 7th cent. — English 
Dannell, Dennell, Tennelly — French Danel, Danelle, 
Tanlay. 

pathonymics. 
Old German Daning, Dening — Eng. Denning. Eng. 
Denson,* Denison, Tennyson — French Tenneson. 

phonetic ending. 
English Dannan. French Danin, Denin. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{And, life, spirit) English Tennant — French Denant. 
(Burg, protection) Old German Danaburg, 10th cent. — 
French 1 Danneberg. {Frid, peace) Old German Danafrid, 
8th cent. — English Danford ? {Gaud, Goth.) Old German 
Danegaud, 8th cent. — Mod. German Dankegott ? — French 
Den^chaud. {Hard, fortis) Old Germ. Denihart, 8th cent. 
^Ang.-Sax. Dseneheard (found in Doeneheardes hegercewe,f 
Cod. Dip, 272) — Eng. Denhard — French Denard, Denert, 
Tenard. {Gar, spear) Old Germ. Thanger, 9th cent, — Eng. 
Danger — Modern German Dannecker — French Denecher, 
Dencre, Denaigre, Tangre. {Hari, warrior) Eng. Denyer, 
Danner, Tanner — French Denier, Dennery, Taniere, Tan- 



* I do not feel sure of these names. They might be the same as Tanton, &c., 
in the previous group. See also Benson, Bunsen, <fcc., p. 236. 
t ' ' Daeneheard's hedgerow. " 



312 THE NATION AS THE NAME-GIVER. 

NEUR. (Man) Eng. Denman, Tenneman. (Red, counsel) 
Old Germ. Tennared, 6th cent. — French Tanrade, Tenret. 
{Ulf,wo\i) Old German Thanolf, 10th cent. — Ang.-Saxon 
Denewulf — Eng. Denolf — French Deneff, Denaiffe. 

From the tribe of the Ambrones Zeuss and 
Forstemann derive the word amber in proper 
names — the latter also suggesting that the h may- 
be only euphonic and the proper form amar, in 
which case it might be an allied word to amaly 
p. 143. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

The Ang.-Saxon Amber (found in Amhresbyrigi now Ames- 

' hury, Amhixsledh, now Ombersly.) Eng. Amber, Hamper, 
Ember, Imber.* French Ampaire, Empaire, Embry. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

J: Old German Ambricho, Embricho, Imbrico, 5th cent. — 

>;J' ^ Eng. Ambridge ? 

^ . The Frisian or Friese (Ang.-Saxon Frysa,) 

^ \>; appears to give the name to the following. Accord- 

[^ ing to Kichthoven this people's name is allied to 

So ^ French friser, Eng. frizzle, and signifies comatus, 

>^ "^ curled — the wearing of the hair long or curled 

being considered among the German tribes as a 

badge of the freeman and the hero. According to 

Zeuss it is derived from Goth, fraisan, tentare, 

Ang.-Sax. frdsa, periculum, in the sense of valour 

or courage. In this case, and perhaps in any 

case, we may include the form fras. 

simple forms. 
Friese, Old Germ. Friaso, Friso, Yras, 8th cent. Eng. Freeze, 

Frasi. Mod. German Friess. French Frise, Fraysse, 
Frasey. 

* Might be referred to the Ymbras of the Traveller's Song, whom Lappen- 
berg supposes to be the Imbers of the isle of Femern. Thorpe suggests that these 
Imbers might be a remnant of the Ambrones. 



Frisian. 



THE NATION AS THE NAME-GIVER. 313 

EXTENDED FORM=ENG FRISIAN* 

French Frison, Fresson. 

Then there are several names which may be 
derived from peoples not themselves Teutonic, 
yet who bordered upon, or might be partially 
intermixed with, the German tribes. Thus we 
find that the Anglo-Saxons had several names 
compounded with Peht or Pict ;t I have sug- 
gested a possible reason at p. 295 ; I do not 
think, with Mr. Kemble, that an intermixture of 
blood is necessarily to be assumed. 

From the Boii, a Celtic tribe who gave the 

name to Boioaria, now Bavaria, Forstemann 

j derives the stem hoi in proper names. There 

appear to be three forms — first, the simple form 

I found in the name of the Boii — secondly, the 

' extended form found in German Baviar — and 

thirdly, the further extended form found in Eng. 

Bavarian. 

SIAIPLE FORMS. 

Old German Boio, Beio, Peio, 7tli cent. A ng. -Saxon The Boit 
Boia. Eng. Boy, Bye, Pye. Mod. Germ. Boye. French 
Boy, Boy4 Boy, Poy^. 

compounds. 
(Hard, fortis) Eng. Byard — French Bo yard, Poyard, 
I Poyart. (Man) Eng. Boyman, Pyman. 

extended form=germ. baviar. 
Old Germ. Baior, Peior, 9th cent. Eng. Boyer, Byer. 
French Boyer, Boyreau, Poyer. 

COMPOUND. 

(Man) English Beyerman. 



* Possibly another extended form may be found in Eng. Frasir, Frkezok 
French Frasier, Frezier. 

t Our name Picture (Registrar-General's return) seems rather probably to 
be from this origin, representing an Ang.-Sax. Pecthere or Peh there. 

N 2 



314 THE NATION AS THE NAME-GIVER. 

EXTENDED FORM=ENa BAVARIAN. 

Old Germ. Beiarin, 8tli cent. French Boikon, Botron, 
From the name of the Huns Forstemann 
derives the following stem, observing however 
that the root un [unna, dare, or un, negative), is 
very liable to intermix. It is further to be 
observed that if Hun, as Grimm suggests, sig- 
nifies giant, this may also be the meaning in 
proper names. 

SIMPLE FORMS 

The Huns. ^-^^ German Huno, Huni, Hun, 8tli cent. Hun, a king 
of the Hetware (Traveller s song). Honey (Hund. Rolls). 
Eng. HuNN, Honey. Mod. Germ. Huhn, Hunn, 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old German Hunico, 10th cent. — Honoc, Lib. Vit. — 
English HuNNEX — Modern German Honicke, Honke — 
French Honache. Old German Hunichin, 10th cent. — - 
English H UNKING — Mod. Germ. Hunecken. Old German 
Hunzo, 9th cent. — Eng. Honiss, Hunns. 

compounds. 
(Bert, bright) Old German Hunbert, Humbert, 8th cent. 
— Ang.-Sax. Hunberht, bishop of Lichfield — Mod. German 
Humbert — French Humbert. (Bald, bold) Old German 
Hunibald, 8th cent., Humbold, 9th cent. — Eng. Honeyball, 
Hunibal — Modern German Humboldt — French Humblot. 
(Frid, peace) Old German Hunfrid, Humfrid, 8th cent. — 
Ang.-Sax. Hunfrith, bishop of Winchester — Eng. Humphrey 
— French Honfray. (Ger, spear) Old Germ. Hunger, 8th 
cent. — English Hunger — Mod. German Hunger — French 
HoNGRE, HoNACKER. (Gaut, goz, Goth.) Old Germ. Hungoz, 
9th cent. — Eng. Hungate. (Hard) Old Germ. Hunard, 8th 
cent. — English Hunnard— Mod. Germ. Huhnert- — French 
HoNNAKD. (Hari, warrior) Old Germ. Honlier, 8th cent.— 
English Honner — Mod. German Honer. (Man) Honiman 
(Hund. Rolls). — English Honeyman — Mod. Germ. Honig- 
MANN, HuNNEMANN. {Rat, counsel) Old Germ. Honrad, 9th 



THE NATION AS THE NAME-GIVER. 315 

cent. — French HoNOKAT. (Wald, power) Old Germ. Hun- 
wald, Ilunoald, 8th cent. — Hunewald, Lib. Vit. — English 
IIuNHOLD — Mod. Germ. Hunold — French Hunault 

From the name of the Fins Forstemann 
derives the following stem, found in five Old 
German names, observing that as the Fins have 
been neighbours of the Germans ever since the 
time of Tacitus, it would be surprising if no names 
had been derived from them. The same remark 
applies to the Northmen, among whom the name 
was more common than among the Germans. 
The word however requires further investigation ; 
Miss Yonge explams it as " white," and referring 
to Finn as a title of Odin, thinks that it was " an 
idea borrowed from the Gael by the Norsemen." 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Fina. Finn, ancestor of Woden, Ang.-Sax. 
geneal. Fin, a prince of the North Frisians (Beowulf). Old 
Norse Finnr, Finni. Eng. Finn, Finney. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Bert, bright) French Finbert. {Bog, bow) Old Norse 
Finbogi — Eng. Fined w. {Gar, spear) Old Norse Finngeir — 
Ang.-Sax. Finger (found in Fingringalw,'^ Cod. Dip. 685) — 
Eng. Finger. {Mar, famous) Eng. Finnimore ? 

From the Venedi, Veneti, Winidse, or Wends 
may be the following. According to Grimm 
(Gesch. d. Deutsch. Spr.J this people's name, as 
well as that of the Vandals, is to be referred to 
Germ, wenden, Eng. wend, wander, &c. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Winid, Windo, Wenda, Wento, Wenso, 9th The Wends. 
cent. Winta, son of Woden, in the genealogy of the kings 

* The mound of the Fingerings, "descendents of Finger," now Fingringhoe 
in Essex. 



316 THE NATION AS THE NAME-GIVER. 

of the Lindisfari. English Wind, Window, Went, Wint, 
Vent, Vint, Quint. Mod. German Wind, Wend, Went. 
French Vinit, Vient, Vintz, Quint y. 

phonetic ending. 
Old Germ. Vinidin, 9th cent. Eng. Wendon, Vindin, 
QuiNTiN. French Vintin, Quentin. 

compounds. 
{Hari, warrior) Old German Winidhari, Winidhar, 
Winithar, 5th cent. — Eng. Winder, Winter,* Vinter — 
Mod. Germ. Winder, Winter — French Ventre, Guindre. 
(Rarriy ran, raven) Old Germ. Winidram, Winedrannus, 8th 
cent. — Eng. Windram — French Vendrin. 

Then there is a form ivand, which may be, at 
least in some cases, the same as the preceding. 

simple forms. 
Wand, Old Germ. Wando, Wandi, Wanzo, 8th cent. English 

Wend? Wand, Want, Vant, Vandy, Wansey, Vance. Mod. 
Germ. Wande, Wandt. French Vancy. 

diminutives. 
Old Germ. Wendico, 9th cent. — Eng. Quantock — Mod. 
Germ. Wandtke. 

patronymics. 
Old Germ. Wanding, 8th cent. — Eng. Wanding. 

PHONETIC ending. 

Old Germ. Wanzino. Eng. Wanton, Vension. French 
Vanden, Quantin. 

compounds. 

{Hari, warrior) Old Germ. Wanther, 8th cent. — English 
Wander — French Vantier, Quantier. (Man) English 
Wantman. 

Then there is a third form from the same 
root, which may probably be referred to the 
name of the Vandals. 



>•. 



Might also be from another origin— see p. 141 



The 
Vandalsr. 



THE MATION AS THE NAME-GIVER. 317 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old German Wandilo, Wandil, Wendil, Wyndele, 6th 
cent. Ang. -Saxon Windel (found in Windlesora, novo 
Windsor, d:c.,). English Windle, Wintle. Modern 
German Wandel, Wendel. French Vandale, Vanutelle, 

quandelle. 

diminutives. 
Old German Wandalin (bishop of Chartres), "Wantelin, 
Wendelin, 6th cent. — Modern German Wendling — French 
Vanthielen. Eng. Wendelken. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Hard, fortis) French Vantillard. (Hari, warrior) 
Old Germ. Wandalarius, 6th cent., BavSaXaptos, Procopius 
— Eng. Yandeleur, Windeler, Vanzller — Mod. German 
Wendeler. 

Though we cannot doubt that the very 
common name of Scott has been in most cases 
a surname derived from nation ah ty, yet we find 
it also in ancient use as a single or baptismal 
name. Whether in this case also it may, like 
other names of the same sort, be derived from 
the nation, or whether, as appears to be the case 
in the name Scottsmith, we may think of Old 
Norse shot, dart, spear, there are scarcely suflScient 
grounds for deciding. 

simple forms. 

Old Germ. Scot, 9th cent. Ang. -Sax. Scott (found in scot. 
Scottes healh, Cod. Dip. 1,218.) Scott, Lib. Vit. 
diminutive. patronymic. 

English ScoTTOCK. English Scotting. 

COMPOUNDS.* 

(Bald, fortis) Eng. Shotbolt ? (Land) Scotland, Zi6. 
Vit — Scotland, a Norman in the Acta Sanctorui/i — English 
Scotland, {Mar famous) Old Germ. Ecotmar (for Scotmar, 
according to Forstemann) — Eng. Scotchmer. 

* Besides the names here quoted, Scothard occurs twiee as a Frankish nam« 
in th* Pol. Irm. 



318 THE NATION AS THE NAME-GIVER. 

I do not think that Spain is from the country ; 
it seems rather to be the same name as Spegen 
which occurs two or three times in the Liber 
Yitse, and which is probably from Aug.- Saxon 
spanan, allicere. So also Sweden, which com- 
pares with an Old German Swedin, referred by 
Fdrstemann to Old High Germ, swedan, to burn. 

SwEETSUR evidently means a Sweitser or 
Swiss. But I do not think that Pickard, p. 178, 
means a native of Picardy. And though Jane- 
way may be, as Mr. Lower suggests, from an old 
word for a Genoese, yet I should rather take it 
to be the same as Gannaway, from the stem 
gan, elsewhere noticed. English and Inglis 
may be the same as the Ang.-Saxon name Ingils 
(for Ingisil). Ireland may be, like the Old 
Germ, names Erland, Airland, &c., the same as 
Harland, p. 232. EoMAN also may be from 
Podman, as Pobert, Poger, and Poland, from 
Eodbert, Podger, and Podland. 

Lastly, there are one or two names which 
seem to refer to a mixture of race. Such is an 
Old Germ. Halbthuring, 9th cent., which seems 
to mean a Thuringian on one side. Also an Old 
Germ. Halbwalah, 8th cent., which may mean 
half foreigner or half Welsh. So likewise the 
Danish Halfdane, whence the Scottish Haldane. 
But I doubt very much whether Mr. Kemble is 
right in thinking that the Anglo-Saxon name 
Mul signifies half-breed ; Miss Yonge at any rate 
is certainly wrong in thinking that Ceadwalha, 



THE NATION AS THE NAME-GIVER. 319 

his brother,had a Cymbric name ; for, as elsewhere 
shown, it is clearly Teutonic. At the same time 
it is very probable that the similarity of the 
name to the Celtic Cadwallader might be the 
cause of a mutual confusion of the two names. 



CHAPTER XVII. 



THE SEA AND THE SEA LIFE. 

While the Gothic tribes were wanderers in 
the great Northern Forests, they took their 
names from the objects that were famiHar to 
them there. The nobler of the savage brutes — 
the bear, the wolf, the boar — were among the 
Teuton's favourite types ; — the war-game that 
he loved, and the sword that " was to him as a 
daughter.'' 

But it was a new life when they came to the 
water s edge. A new horizon opened to their 
view — new visions stirred their minds — their 
destiny took them by the hand — and the bold 
hunter became the daring viking. Short flights 
of piracy trained their wings — and the narrow 
British sea was bridged ; — a thousand years to 
gather head — for it was the wide Atlantic that 
came next. 

On all the German sea-board there were fierce 
pirates and bold seamen — but the Northmen 
were the fiercest and the boldest. They harried 
all shores, and crossed swords with all races. 
They brought back the gold of Caliphs, and the 
dark-eyed daughters of Italy. They launched 
forth into the frozen deep, and saw the whale at 
his solemn gambols, and met the sea-bear — hoary 



THE SEA AND THE SEA LIFE. 321 

and gnm — drifting on his solitary raft of ice, like 
an ancient warrior on his way to Odin's Hall. 
And — ere yet the fuUness of time was come — 
they lifted up a corner of the veil, and peeped 
into the grand New World. 

Even in death the Viking loved to have his 
grave overlooking the sea, that his spirit might 
listen to its old familiar voice. Sometimes he 
was even buried sitting inside his trusty ship, 
with his good sword by his side. More frequently 
his barrow was made in the shape of a ship 
turned upside down. And sometimes — with a 
feeling of poetry not always found in the pro- 
ductions of Scalds — that the old sea-rover might 
sleep the sounder, they made his bed of the salt 
sea- weed. ^^ 

From the Goth, saivs. Old Sax. and Old High 
Germ, seo^ Ang.-Sax. sae, Eng. "sea," Forstemann 
derives the following stem, which is however 
liable to intermix with sig, victory, p. 172. It 
is as might be expected, a stem especially Saxon. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Ber, bear) Sibar, Lib. Vit. — Eng. Seaber, Shebeare — ' Sea, Sew. 
Fr. Seeber, Sebire. {Bern, bear) Old Germ. Sebern, 9th cent. ^^*" 
— Old Norse Ssebiorn — Sberne, Domesday — Eng. Seaborn, xj<tfl»-^-»-u*v L»- 
Seyburn, Sporne — French Sebron. {Bert, bright) Old Germ. Z^^-^uv^ ^ 
Sebert, 11th cent. — Ang.-Sax. Sseberht — Eng. Seabright — 
Mod. German Sebert — French Sibert. (Burg, protection) 

* Graves of this sort — evidently Teutonic — have been discovered in the 
Crimea. See the " Antiquities of Kertch and Researches in the Cimmerian Bos- 
phorus," by Dr. Duncan M'Pherson. In the course of a discussion on the subject 
at a meeting of the Archaeological Institute, Mr. Kemble remarked "The layer 
of sea-weed in the tomb is a remarkable fact ; a similar usage has been noticed in 
interments on the shores of the Baltic, and it might have originated in some tradi- 
tion of water-worship, of which traces occur in the superstitions of Scan<linavia." 

o 2 



322 THE SEA AND THE SEA LIFE, 

Old German Seburg, Seopurc, 9th cent. — Seaburch, Lih. 
Vit. — English Seabury, Seabrook — Mod. Germ, Seeburg — • 
French Sibourc. {Fugel, fowl) Ang.-Sax. Ssefugel— English 
Sefowl. (Man) Old German Seman, 9th cent. — English 
Seaman — Mod German Seemann. (Bit, ride) Old Germ. 
Seuerit, 9th cent. — English Searight — French Seuriot. 
(Waldf power) Old Germ. Sewald, 11th cent. — Eng. Sea- 
wall, Sewell? — Mod. Germ. Seewald — French Soualle ? 
(Ward, guardian) Old Germ. Seward, 6th cent. — Ang.-Sax. 
Sseward — Eng. Seaward, Seward, Saward — French Suard. 

Another stem of similar meaning may be und, 
which Forstemann refers to Old High German 
unda, fluctus, unda. Hence Old German Undo, 
8th cent., and Eng. Undey, though hund, dog, 
is liable to intermix. 

The only ancient name from ship, navis, 
seems to be a Gothic Scipuar of the 6th cent, 
in Procopius, and which answers to our Skipper 
and Shipman. 

The Ang.-Saxon ceol, appears to be found in 

the names of several Anglo-Saxons, but it is 

not easy to say whether it is intended for that 

word or for col, helmet, p. 226. The only name 

from this source among the continental Germans 

seems to be a CheHng (Goldast, rerum Alaman- 

nicarum scriptores). 

simple forms. 
Keel. Ang.-Saxon Ceol, royal line of Wessex. English Keel, 

^^'^' Keely. Mod. Germ. Kiehl. French Chely ? 

PATRONYMICS. 

Old German Cheling. English Keeling. 
We find in Anglo-Saxon several poetical or 
periphrastic expressions for a ship, some of which 
seem to occur in English names. Thus we have 



THE SEA AND THE SEA LIFE. 323 

Seamark, which appears to be from Ang.-Saxon 
scemearhy a sea-horse, a ship. And the name 
Seahorse itself, of EngHsh origin, occurs, as Mr. 
Lower informs us, in New Brunswick. Another 
Anglo-Saxon expression for a ship was scewudic, 
"sea- wood," whence seems to be the name Sea.- 
WOOD, found in New York. 

From the Old Norse fara, Ang.-Sax. faran, 
to fare, sail, travel ; Old Norse ^aW, Ang.-Saxon 
fara^ voyager, we may take the following, which 
are however rather apt in some cases to intermix 
with fair, pulcher. A large proportion of the 
ancient names are Frankish. 

SIIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Fara, Faro, Pharo, 7th cent. English Fair, 
Phair, Fairey, Farra, Pharaoh, Farrow, Ferry. Mod. 
Germ. Fahr, Fehr. French Fare, Faey, Farau, Feray, 
Ferry. 

diminutives. 
EngHsh Farrell, Ferrell — French Faral. Old Germ. 
Farlenus, 8th cent. — Ang.-Sax. Ferling (found in Ferling- 
amere. Cod. Dip. 73) — EngHsh Fairlan, Furlong — Mod. 
Germ. Fehrlen. Old German Farago, 9th cent. — English 
Fargo — Modern German Ferrach. French Farachon — 
English Firkin ? 

patronymics. 
French Farenc. English Firing ? 

PHONETIC ending. 

Old Germ. Parana, 8th cent. English Farren, Fearon. 
French Farran, Farine, Feron. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(And, life, spirit) Old Germ. Ferrand, 11th cent. — Eng. 
Farrand, Ferrand — French Ferrand, Ferant. {Bert^ 
famous) Old Germ. Farabert, 8th cent. — Eng. Fairbeard ? 
(Foot, pedes) Eng. Fairfoot — Fr. Fj^rafiat. (Gaud, Goth.) 



Fare. 
Travel 



Farn. 
Travel. 



324 THE SEA AND THE SEA LIFE. 

Old Germ. Faregaud, 8th cent. — Eng. Farragat, Forget — ■ 
French Faraguet, Farcot, Feragut, Forget. (Gis, hostage^ 
companion 1) Old Germ. Ferigis, 9th cent, — French Farcis. 
{Hari, warrior) Old Germ. Feriher, 9th cent. — Eng. Farrier, 
Farrer, Ferrier — French Ferrier, Ferrer. (Lind, gentle) 
Old Germ. Ferlind, 9th cent. — Eng. Forland. (Man) Old 
German Faraman, 9th cent. — Fareman, Hund. Rolls — Eng. 
Fairman, Ferriman — Modern German Fehrmann — French 
FiRMiN? (Mund, protection) Old Germ. Faramund, Frankish 
king, 5th cent. — English Farrimond, Farmont — French 
Fermond, Ferment. (Ward, guardian) Old Germ. Faroard, 
8th cent. — English Forward. (Weal, peregrinus) English 
Farewell — French Ferouelle. 

From the above stem fa7\ as an extended 

form comes fmm ; the Goth, fairni, Ang.-Saxon 

Jirn, old, might be suggested, but I should rather 

prefer to keep to the same sense as found in the 

previous group, and which is found in the Mod. 

German fern. 

simple forms. 
Old Germ. Farnus, 7th cent. Forne, (Domesday). Eng. 
Fairne, Fern, Fernie, Forney. French Fahne, Fernie, 

lORNEY, FOURNY. 

diminutives. 
Old German Fernucus, 8th cent. — French Fernique. 
French Fornachon. Eng. Farnell, Furnell, Fernilow — 
French Fernil, Fournel. 

patronymics. 
Ang.-Saxon Fearning (found in Fearninga broc, Cod. 
Dip. 450). French Ferning. 

compounds. 
(Hari, warrior) Eng. Feriner, Ferner — French Fernier. 
( Ulf, wolf) Old Germ. Farnulf, 9th cent.— Eng. Fernyough ? 
( Wald, power) Eng. Fernald. (Heit, state, condition) Mod. 
Germ, Faueniieit ? 



Fard. 



THE SEA AND THE SEA LIFE. 3!f?5 

As another extended form from the same 
root far we may take fard, which corresponds 
with Old Norse faerd. Old High German fart, 
Old Sa:Xon farth, voyage, expedition. 

SI.MPLK FORMS. 

Old Germ. Forti. English Fardo, Fairday,* Faraday, Travel. 
Ford, Fort, Forty. French Fert, Fert4 Fort, Forteau. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

English FARDELLt — French Fortel. 
phonetic ending. 
Fardan (Domesday). Eng. Farden, Fortin, Fortune 1 

French Fortin, Fortune 1 Fortune ? 

patronymics. 
Old Germ. Ferting, 8th cent. English Farthing. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Hari, warrior) Ang.-Sax. Forthere, bishop of Sherborne 
— English FoRDER — French Fortier. (Man) Old German 
Fartmann, 8th cent. — English Fort ym an — Mod. German 
FoRTMANN — French Ferdman. {Nand, daring) Old Germ. 
Ferdinand, king of Castile, 11th cent. — Eng. Ferdinand — 
French Ferdinand — Ital. Ferdinandi — Spanish Fernando? 
Fernandez. J {Red, counsel) Forthred, Lib. Vit. — English 
Fordred. 

From the Ang.-Sax. loorian, vagari, Forste- 
mann derives the following stem. 

simple forms. Wor. 

Old German Woro. English Worrow, Worry, Wurr. Vagan. 

French Yoiry, Vaury. 

diminutives. 
English Worrell, Whorlow — Mod. German Worle — 

French Werle. 

compounds. 

(Wald, power) Old German Worald, 8th cent. — English 
World. 

* i.e.=Faird-ay. Otherwise Fairday, Faraday may be from the stem 
far, with the suffix dag, day. 

t Might be from the Old German name Farthilt {hild, war). 

t The ending ez, in Spanish and Portuguese family names, is a patronymic 
form, and is supposed by Schmeller (ueher die enduing ez, Spanischer and Portu- 
gieiischer faniilisenamenj, to be of Gothic origin. 

9 



326 THE SEA AND THE SEA LIFE. 

I have before observed that no animal was 
held in such high reverence among the Scan- 
dinavian races as the bear. And when the 
Norsemen, penetrating into the depths of the icy 
sea, found him there before them, in a solitude 
sublimer than that of the forest— yet grimmer 
and hardier than before, and a sailor too hke 
themselves— all their old reverence would come 
on them with increased force. Hence we find 
as Scandinavian names Ssebiorn (sea-bear), and 
Snsebiorn (snow-bear). The former I have already 
referred to— the latter I do not find in Enghsh, 
though the Germans have both Schnebern and 
ScHNAUBER. But we have the name Isborn, 
which, as I take it, has just the same meaning, 
viz., " ice-bear,'' and which corresponds with the 
names Iseburn and Isebur in the Liber Vitse. 



i 



I 



CHAPTER XVIII. 



THE RULER AND THE PRINCE. 

There are several words having the meaning 
of birth, race, family, &c., in which is contained 
the sense of nobility. A manner of expression 
precisely similar we still use when we speak of a 
man of birth or a man of family. 

A word of the above character is Old High 
German cliunni, Ang.-Saxon cyrut, race, lineage. 
Hence, in the sense of nobility, is formed Old 
High German chuning, Ang.-Saxon cyning, con- 
tracted cyng^ English " king." A word liable to 
intermix in the following group is Old High 
German cliuoni, kuoni, Ang.-Saxon cene, English 
" keen," in the sense of boldness. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Chuno, Cuno, Cono, Couno, Cunni, Stli cent. ^.^ \^ 
Cyni, Lib. Vit. Eng. Chunn, Cunio, Coxj7e, Cone, Conny, Race. 
Kenna, Kenny, Kine, Kinney, Chine. Modern German 
Cuno, Kone, Kuhn. French Chon, Chonneaux, Cuny, 
Coune, Conneau, Cinna. 

diminutives. 

Old Germ. Chunulo, 9tli cent. — Eng. Connell, Cunnell, 
CuNLEY, KiNNELL, Kennell — Modern German Kohnle, 
KuHNEL — French Conil, Conilleau. Old Germ. Cinelin, 
11th cent. — Eng, Conlan. Old German Chunico — English 
Kinkee, Kinch, Kench — Mod. Germ. Kunicke, Kuhnke, 
Konicke. Old Germ. Chunzo, Cuniza, llfch cent. — Ang.-Sax. 
Cynsy, Archbishop of York — Eng. Kinsey, Kinns, Kenish 
— French Chonez, Conn^s. Cynicin, Lib. Vit. — English 
Kinchin — French Cinquin, Conchan. 



328 THE RULER AND THE PRINCE. 

COMPOUNDS. 

[Bald, bold) Ang.-Sax. Cynebald, royal line of Wessex — 
English KiNiPPLE ? {Ber^ bear) English Conybear 1 {Bertj 
bright) Old German Chunibert, 7th cent. — Anglo-Saxon 
Cynebert, bishop of Winchester — Fr. Kennebert. (Burg, 
protection) Old Germ. Chunibuirga, 11th cent, — Ang.-Sax. 
Cyneberga, royal line of Northumbria — Eng. Kinniburgh. 
Probably the same as the last is Old German Chunibruch — • 
Eng. KiNNEBROOK. (Drucl, thryth, woman 1) Old German 
Chunidrud. 7th cent. — Ang.-Sax. Cynethryth or Cynedryd, 
wife of Offa, king of Mercia — Eng. Kindred — Fr. Coindret. 
(Ger, spear) Old German Chuneger — Eng. Conger, Conker. 
(Gest, hospes) Old German Cunigast, Conigastus, 6th cent. — 
Eng. Conquest ? (Hard) Old German Chunihard, 8th cent. 
— Anglo-Saxon Cyneheard, bishop of Winchester — English 
KiNNAiRD, Kennard, Cunard — Modern German Kohnert, 
Kuhnhardt, Kuhnert — French Conard, Conord, Conort. 
(Hari, warrior) Old German Chunihari, 8th cent — English 
Conyer, Connery, Kinnear, Kinner, Chinnery — Modern 
German Koner, Kuner — French Connier. (Man) English 
KiNMAN — Mod. Germ. Konemann — French 1 Kunem ann. 
(Laf, superstes) Ang.-Sax. Cynlaf (found in Cynldfes stdn, 
Cod. Dip. 714) — English Cunliffe. (Mund, protection) Old 
Germ..Chunimund, king of the Gepidse, 6th cent. — Ang.- 
Sax. Cynemund, bishop of the Magessetas — Eng. Kinmonth 
s^V — Modern German Kunemund. (Z«c, play) Old German 

ft )V> Chunileihc, 9th cent. — Eng. Kinloch, Kinglake ? (Niwy 
j4*^ ^^^ jo\m.g) Old Germ. Cunnia, 8th cent. — Eng. Cunnew. (Rad, 

counsel) Old German Chunrad, Cunrad, Conrad, 8th cent. 
Coenred, Lib. Vit. — Eng. Conrath — Mod. Germ. Conrad — 
French Connerat, Conrad, Kunrath. (Bic, power) Ang.- 
Sax. Cynric, son of Cerdic — English Kenrick — Mod. Germ. 
KiNREiCH. (Wald, power) Old Germ. Kuniald, Conald, 8th 
cent. — Ang.-Sax. Cynewald, bishop of Worcester — English 
CuNNOLD — Modern German KiJHNHOLD — French Cunault. 
(Wul/J Old Germ. Chonulf, 7th cent. — Ang. -Saxon Cyne- 
wulf, king of Wessex — English Conoff, Cuniffe. (Ward, 
guardian) Ang. -Saxon Cyneward, bishop of Wells — English 



THE RULER AND THE PRINCE. 329 

Kenward. (W^g, war) Keiiewi, Hund. Rolls — English 
Kennaway. 

From the above root cliun, ciin, con, cyn, is 
formed variously the Old High German chuning, 
Old Sax. cuning, Old Fries, kening, Ang.-Saxon 
cyii ing, king. Whether our Cunnings, Kenning, 
Chenning, and the French Coninx have this 
meaning, or whether they are the simple patro- 
nymic is uncertain. In the contracted form we 
find an Old Germ. Kung, 9 th cent., Eng. King 
and Ching, French Congs and Congy. The 
commonness of the Eng. King is not accounted 
for by anything we find in Old German names. 
It is probable that a Celtic word may intermix, 
VLz., the Irish cing, cingeadh, fortis, Gael, cingeadh, 
fortitudo. Hence Old Celtic names Cingius and 
Cingetius. Also the Cingetorix and Vercingetorix 
" most valiant ruler" of Caesar. "^^ 

A similar sense of nobility to that found in 
the above word signifying " race" is probably con- 
tained in the olio wing, which Stark derives from 
Old Norse hurdi\ Ang.-Sax. hyrde, " birth." A 
word liable to intermix is hert, bright, illustrious. 

I SIMPLE FORMS. 

" Old Germ. Burdo. English Burd, Bird. Mod. Germ. ^"''^ 
_, Burde, Burth. Fr. Burde, Bourdeau, Burthe, Burthi^. 

I diminutives. 

I English Burdock. English Burdell — French Bourdel. 
French Bourdelon. 

I PHONETIC ending. 

i Old German Burdin, 11th cent. Eng, Burden. French 

BuRDIN, BOURDIN. 

* Gluck, Die bei C. Julius Caesar vorkommenden Keltischen namen. 

P 2 



Birth. 



330 THE RULER AND THE PRINCE. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Heit, state, condition) Eng. Burdett* — French Burdet, 
BouRDET. {Har% warrior) Eng. Burder — French Bourdier. 
(Land) French Bourdelande. 

It is rather probable that the sense of nobility 

may be contained also in the words signifying 

" people," such as ledd, ihedd, folc. Bosworth 

renders ledd as " countryman, man, prince/^ But 

in compounds the ordinary sense of " people'' 

may, at least in some cases, obtain. Thus, for 

instance, in the compounds with mund, ward, 

and gardy the idea may be that of " protector of 

the people." Stil], the sense being akin to that 

of sovereignty, the names would be introduced 

appropriately here. The Ang.-Sax. ledd. Old 

High German Hut, was a very common word in 

ancient names. It is apt to mix with some 

others, as laith, p. 194. 

simple forms 
Leod. ^^^ Germ. Liudo, Liut, Lutto, Luith, 4th cent. English 

People. Leuty, Lutto, Lyde, Lyth, Leddy, Litt. Mod. German 
Lude, Luth. French Liot, Luyt, Luthe, Litteau. 

diminutives. 
Old Germ. Liudila, 8th cent. — English Liddelow. Old 
Germ. Leodechin, Ludechin, 8th cent. — English Ludkin — 
Mod. Germ. LDdecking. 

PHONETIC ending. 

Old German Liiidin, Liu tin, 7 th cent. English Luden, 
Luton. French Ludon, Luton. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Burg, protection) Old Germ. Luitburc, 9th cent, — Eng. 
LuDBROOK. {Ger, spear) Old German Liudiger, Leodegar, 
Ludger, Luger, 6th cent. — Eng. Lydekker, Ledger, Lugar, 

♦ The termination et may, as stated at p. 189, be variously derived, but the 
above name seems to be like the Old German Adelheid, or Adelheit, English 
Adelaide, "noblehood." 



THE RULER AND THE PRINCE. 331 

LucAR, Lucre — Mod. Germ. Leutiger — French? Ludger. 
{Gard, protection) Old German Liudgard, Liucard — English 
Ledgard — French Lucard. {Goz, Goth.) Old German 
Luitgoz, Luikoz, 8th cent. — Lucas, Lib. Vit. — Eng. Lucas* — 
Mod. Germ. Luttkus — French Lucas. (Hard J Old Germ. 
Luidhard, Leotard, 6th cent. — Eng. Liddard — Mod. Germ. 
LuTHARDT — French Liotard, Leotard, Leutert. (Hari, 
warrior) Old German Liuthari, prince of the Alamanni, 6th 
cent., Luilinr — English Luther — Mod. German Luther — 
Flench Liottier. (Heit, state, condition) Old Germ. Liut- 
heit, 8th cent. — English Lethe ad — French Liottet, Ludet. 
(Hrod, glory) Old German Liutrod, 8th cent. — French 
Lutteroth. (Man) Old Germ. Liudman, 8th cent. — Eng. 
LuTMAN, Lyteman — Modcm German Ludtmann. {Ward, 
guardian) Old Germ. Liudward, 8th cent. — Eng. Ledward. 
(Wig^ wic, war) Old German Liudwig, Liutwic, 6th cent. — 
Eng. LuTWiDGE, Lutwyche — Mod. Germ. Ludwig — French 
LuDOVic, LuDwiGjt Louis — Ital. Luigi. {Ulf, wolf) Old 
Germ. Liudulf, Litulf, 6th cent. — English Litolff — Mod. 
Germ. Ludolf. (Wald, power) Old German Liutolt, 7th 
cent. — Mod. Germ. Leuthold — French Lieutaut. (With, 
wood) Old Germ. Leudoidis, 9th cent. — Eng. Ledwith. 

As a High German form of the above, the 

following may come in here. 

simple forms. 
Old Germ. Liuzo, Liuz, Liutzo, Liuce, Liuzi, lOth cent. J"^^ 
Luse, Lucy (jRoll Batt. Abb.). English Luce, Loose, Lucy. 
Mod. Germ. Leuze, Lutz, Luz. French Luce, Lucy, Lussy, 
Luez, Lutz. 

diminutives. 
Old Germ. Liuzila, 8th cent. — Eng. Loosely. French 

LUSQUIN. 

compounds. 
[Hari, warrior) Fi-ench Luzier. {Mar, famous) English 

LOOSEMORE. 

* Hitherto considered to be a Greek or Latin form of Luke. 

t " Ludwig dit Louis"— perhaps may be a German, from the alias. 



People. 



Theod, 

Deot. 

People. 



332 THE RULER AND THE PRINCE. 

A still more common word in ancient names 
was Goth, thiuda, Ang.-Sax. theod, Low German 
deot, people. Several names compounded with 
it occur in the genealogy of the Kings of North- 
umbria. Its forms are widely spread, and it is 
therefore liable to intermix with some other 
words, as dod, p. 273. 

SIMPLE FOKMS. 

Old Germ. Theudes, king of the West Goths, 6th cent., 
Teuto, Tutto, Thiedo, Tito, Tydi, Diedo, Dido, Dudo, Deot. 
Ang.-Sax. Dudda, Tudda. Tydi, Lib. Vit. English Tuita, 

TUTT, TUTTY, TiTE, TiDD, TiDY, ThODY, ThEED, DuDDY, 

DuTT, DuTHiE, Deed, Deedy, Dyte, Dyett. Mod. German 
Thiedt, Tiede, Tiedt, Diede, Ditt. French Theot, Thiedy, 
Tudey, Dute, Duthy, Diette, Ditte, Dida. 

diminutives. 
Old German Theudila, Tutilo, Dudel, 6th cent. — English 
Tuttle, Duddle — Modern German Tutel, Titel — French 
DuTiL, Tittel, Didelle. Old Germ. Dudecho, 8th cent. — 
Modern German Duttke — French Dutacq. Old German 
Dudechin, 11th cent. — Eng. Tutching, Titchen — Modern 
Germ. Didtchen — French Thi^con. Old Germ. Teodisma, 
8th cent, — Fries. Diudesma — French Doussarry. 

PHONETIC ENDINCr. 

Old Germ. Theodan, Thiotuni, Dudan, Tutan, 7th cent. 
Eng. Thoden, DuDiN, Teuten. French Thiodon, Tutuny. 

TATRONYMICS. 

Old German Tending, Dioting, 8th cent. Eng. Tuting. 
French Detuncg, Detang. 

compounds. 

{Bald, bold) Old German Theudobald, Frankish king, 6th 
cent., Theobald, Dietbold, Dibald — Ang.-Sax. Theodbald — 
Tidbald, Lib. Vit. — Eng. Theobald, Tidball — Mod. Germ. 
Theobald, Diebold — Fr. Thibault, Thibaut, Thi^blot 
DiEBOLT. {Bert, bright) Old Germ. Theudobert, Frankish 
king, 6th cent., Theobert — French Thibert. {Berg, pro- 
tection) Old Germ. Theutberg, Teuberga, 8th cent. — French 



THE RULER AND THE PRINCE. 3.S.'3 

Thiberoe. (Gard, protection) Old German Teutgardis, 8th 
cent. — French Dieutegakd. (Gaud, Cotli) Old German 
Teodgot, 8th cent. — French Tytgat, Diegot. (Hard) Old 
Germ. Theodhard, Diethart, Dithard, 8th cent. — Mod. Germ. 
DiETERT — French Didard, Dutard, Titard. {Ilari, warrior) 
Old German Theodahar, Tudhari, 5th cent. — Ang.-Saxon 
Theodhere — Eng. Theodore, Tudor — Mod. Germ. Dieter — 
French Theodor, Tudor, Didier — Ital. Teodori. (Ram, 
ran, raven) Old Germ. Dietrammns, Teutrannus, 7th cent. — 
Eng. Teuthorn — French Didron, Dedron. (Man) Old 
German Tiddman, Dietman, 8th cent. — English Tiddeman, 
Tidmajn, Dietman, Dettman, Dedmak — Modern German 
Tiedemann, Detmann. (Mar, famous) Old Germ. Thiudemer, 
king of the East Goths, 5th cent., king of the Suevi in Spain, 
6th cent., Dietmar, Ditmar, 8th cent. — English Dettmer, 
Tidemore — Modern German Dettjier, Dittmer — French 1 
Dittmer, (Ric, power) Old Germ. Theodoricus, a Sigamber, 
1st cent., king of the East Goths, 5th cent., Deoderich, 
Diderich, Dietrich — Ang.-Saxon Theodric — English Todrig, 
Doddridge, Dottridge, Dederick, Dedridge — Mod. Germ. 
Dederich, Dettrich — French Dietrich, Di^ricks ? ( Wulf) 
Old Germ. Theudulf, Diudolf, 7th cent. — French Dedouve? 

A third word having the meaning of " people" 

is folk or fulk, in which may be contained the 

same sense as in the preceding. 

simple forms. 
Old German Folco, Fulco, Yolko, 9th cent. Fulco, ^^^^' ^''"'• 

' ' ' People. 

Domesday. English Folk, Fulke, Fouke, Yoak. Mod. 
Germ. Folke, Yolk. French Fouque, Fouche, Fouche, 
FoucHY, Fauque, Fauche. 

diminutives. 
Old Germ. Folchili, 9th cent. — Mod. German Folkel — 
French Fauchille, Faucille. French Faucillon. English 
Fowkes — French Fouchez. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Bert, famous) Folcberaht, 8th cent. — Eng. Fallbright — 
French Faubert. (Haid, state, condition) Old German 



334 THE RULER AND THE PRINCE. 

Folchaid, 8th cent. — English Folkitt — French Fouquet, 
FoucHET. {Hard, fortis) Old Germ. Folchard, 8th cent. — 
Fulcardus, Domesday — English Folkard — Modern German 
"VoLKHARDT — French Foucart. (Hari, warrior) Old Germ. 
Fulchar, Folcheri, 6 th cent. — Ang.-Sax. Folchere — English 
FoLKER, FuLCHER — Mod. Germ. Volker — French Fouquier, 
FouQUER^ Foucher. (Man) Old German Folkman, 8th 
cent. — Eng. Volckman* — Mod. Germ. Yolkmann— French 
Falcimaigne. {Ram, ran, raven) Old German Fulcranus, 
7th cent. — French 1 ulcran, Fulchiron, Foucron. {Rod, 
counsel) Old German Folcrat, 8th cent. — French Faucrot. 
{Wald, power) Old German Fulcuald, 7th cent. — French 

FOUCAULT. 

Perhaps a similar sense may be found in the 
word odal, udal, which Forstemann refers to Old 
High German uodal, patria. It was a very 
common word in ancient names, but I can only 
trace very few at present. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Odai. Old German Odilo, duke in Bavaria, 8th cent., Odilo, 

surnamed the Holy, Abbot of Clugny, 10th cent., Odal, 
Udal, (fee. English Odell, Udall. Mod. Germ. Oettel. 
French Odoul. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old Germ, Odelina, Odeling, 9th cent. Odelin, Lib. Vit, 
Otelinus, Domesday. English Odlin, Odling. French 
Odelin, Houdelin, Odilon (Barrot). 

compounds. 
(^arc?, fortis) Odalhard, 7 th cent. — French Odillard. 
{Helm, helmet) Old Germ. Odilelm, 8th cent. — Eng. Odlam ? 

Upon the whole I think that the words sig- 
nifying " land," " country," will also be introduced 
most appropriately here. The idea seems to be 
something akin to sovereignty. The most common 

* Perhaps of German extraction 



Patria. 



THE RULER AND THE PRINCE. 335 

word with this meaning is Ang.-Sax. land. Old 
High German lant, terra ; which is found as 
early as the 5th cent., and seems to have been 
especially common in the 7th. Most of the forms 
in Ian, and some of those in lam probably belong 
to this stem. 

SIMPLE FORMS. - , 

Land. 

Old German Lando, Lauda, Lanto, Lant, Lanno, Lanzo, Terra. 
Lenzi, 8tli cent. Eng. Land, Landy, Lant, Lance, Lancey. 
Mod. Germ. Land, Landt, Lanz. French Landa, Lante, 
Lanty, Lanne, Lanneau, Lance, Lanzl 

diminutives. 
Fng. Landell — French Landelle, Lancel. Old Germ. 
Lancelin, 11th cent. — French Lancelin. French Lantiez, 
Laniesse. Old Germ. Lanzico, 10th cent. — French Lanzac. 
Old Germ. Landechina, 11th cent. — Eng. Lankin. 
phonetic ending. 
Old Germ. Landina, 8th cent. Eng. Landen, Landon. 
French Landon, Lantin. 

patronymics. 
Old Germ. Landing, 8th cent. English Lanning. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Bert, bright) Old German Landbert, Lambert, 7th cent. 
-Ang.-Sax. Lambert, Archbishop of Canterbury, a.d. 764 — 
Eng. Lambert — Mod. Germ. Lambert — French Lambert, 
Lambret. {Burg, protection) Old German Landburg, 8th 
cent. — English Lambrook — Mod. Germ. Lamberg — French 
Lanzberg. (Frid, peace) Old Germ. Landfrid, Lanfrid, 8th 
[cent. — Lanfrei, Lib. Vit. — Eng. Landfear, Lanfear — Mod. 
Germ. Lanfried — French Lanfray. (Hard) Old German 
Landohard 8th cent, — French Laxdard, Lansard. (Hari, 
warrior) Old German Lanthar, Landar, 6th cent. — English 
Lander, Lender — Mod. Germ. Landherr — French Landier, 
Lantier, Lanier. (Helm) Old Germ. Lanthelm, 9th cent. — 
French Lantheaume. (Had, war) Old Germ. Lanthad, 9th 
cent. — French Lantat. (i?am, ran, raven) Old German 
Lantrannus, 9 th cent. — Frenck Landron. (Mar, famous) 



336 THE KULER AMD THE PRINCE. 

Old Germ, Landamar, 8th cent. — French Landemar. {Rig, 
power) Old Germ. Landerich, Lantrih, 7th cent. — Landric, 
Domesday Yorks — English Landridge — French Landry, 
Lanzarick. {Wine, friend) Old German Lantwin, 7th 
cent. — French Lanvin. {Wig, wi, war) Old Germ. Lantwih, 
9th cent. — Eng. Lanaway — Mod. Germ Landwig. {War, 
defence) Old Germ. Landoar, 8th cent. — English Lanwer — 
Mod. German Landwehr. {Ward, guardian) Old German 
Landward, 8th cent. — English Landlord ? 

Another stem of similar meaning is gow (Old 

High German gawi. Mod. German gau, country, 

district). 

simple forms. 
^^'.^7" Old Germ. Gawo, Cawo, 8th cent. Caua, Lih. Vit Eng. 

JL)istnct. 

Gow, GowA, Cow, Cowie, Goe, Coe. Mod. German Gau. 
French Gouay, Goue, Gouy, Cou^. To this stem Forste- 
mann also places the Old German names Geio, Keio, Keyo, 
8th cent., and hence might come in English Gye, Guy, Goy, 
Kay, Key — Mod. Germ. Geu, Gey — French Guy, Goy. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old Germ. Cauwila, 9th cent. — Eng. Cowell — French 
GouEL, Gouilly, French Gouellain, Gouillon. Old Germ. 
Gawiso, 8th cent.— Eng. CoisiL 

PHONETIC ENDING. 

Old Germ. Gawin, 8th cent. English Gowan, Cowan — 
French Gouin, Goyon, Guyon, Couenne. 

PATRONYMIC. 

English GowiNG, Going, Cowing. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Bald, fortis) Old German Gawipald, 8th cent. — French 
GoiBAULT. {Bert, bright) Old Germ. Gawibert, Gaipert, 8th 
cent. — Mod. Germ. Kaupert — French Guybert, Coubart. 
{Hard) Eng. Goward, Coward — French Guyard, Goyard, 
CouARD, CouARDEAU. {M, p. 189) Eng. GuYATT — French 
Gouet, Goyet. {Hari, warrior) English Gower, Guyer — 
French Gouhier, Gouerre, Goyer. (Land) Eng. Gowland, 
CowLAND. (Man) Old Germ. Gawiman, 8th cent. — Eng. 



THE RULER AND THE PRINCE. 337 

Cowman — Modern German Goemann, Kaumann — French 
GouMAiN, CouMox. (lUc, power) Old German Gawirich, 
Goerich, 7tli cent. — Eng. Courridge, Courage. 

One of the most widely-spread stems in ancient 
names was athel, add, etliel, cdel, noble. It is 
singular that though it was common both among 
the Franks and the Anglo-Saxons, it is uncommon 
at present both in French and English. Forste- 
mann and other German writers suppose a 
frequent contraction in Modern German names 
of adal into at — thus Albert for Adalbert, Allard 
for Adelhard, Allmer for Adalmer, &c. But this 
seems too uncertain a rule to follow, otherwise 
many names might be added to the Hst. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Atliala, Athal, Adilo, Ethil, Edilo, 5tli cent. 
English Edell, Edlow, Ethel. Mod. Germ. Adal, Edel. Noble, 
French Adoul, Edel, Hadol. 

diminutives. 

Old German Adilin, Edelen, 7th cent. English Adlan. 
French Adelon, Adeline, Edelin. 

PATRONYMICS. 

Old Germ. Adalung, Ediling, 8th cent. Mod. German 
Adelung, Ediling. French Ettlixg. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Ger, spear) Old Germ. Adalger, 8th cent. — Ital. Ali- 
GHiERi.* {Hard) Old German Adalhard, 8th cent. — Aug.- 
Saxon Ethelhard, king of Wessex — Adelardus, Domesday — 
Eng. Adlard — Mod. Germ. Adelhaet. {Helm) Old Germ. 
Adalhalm, 8th cent. — A.ng.-Sax. Ethelhelm — Eng. Adlam, 
Headlam ? {Haidj state, condition) Old German Adalhaid, 
9th cent. — English Addlehead (and the Christian name 
Adelaide). {Hari, warrior) Old Germ. Adalhar, 8th cent. 

* The name of the poet is so derived by Diez ; there were, however, also 
Old German names Alager and Aliger. His other name Dante is a contraction of 
Durante, p. 197, which I ought to have remembered at p. 310. 

Q 2 



Athel, 

EtheL 



338 THE RULER AND THE MINCE, 

— Ethilheri, Lib. Vit. — Eng. Edlery — Mod. Germ. Abler, 
Edeler. (Funs, fiis, eager) Old Germ. Adalfuns, Adalfus, 
8th cent. — Eng. Adolphus'^ — French Alphonse — Spanish 
Alphonso. (Stan, stone) Old Germ. Adelstein, 9th cent. — 
Ang.-Sax. Athelstan — English Edelsten, Edlesten. 

From the above word etkel, signifying noble, 
was derived the title of Etheling, given in Anglo- 
Saxon times to the son of the king. Next to him 
in ra.nk was the Ealdorman, who had the highest 
title that could be given to a subject. And our 
name Alderman, found in Domesday as Aldre- 
man, may not improbably be referable to this 
more ancient and higher sense. 

A rank of nobility below the Ealdormen were 
the Thanes, who were divided into two classes, 
simple Thanes and King's Thanes — a main quali- 
fication being the possession of land. This word 
is found in many ancient names, but as the 
Ang.-Sax. thegen is contracted into thane, so the 
Old High German form degan being contracted 
into dane, is apt to mix with another stem, p. 311. 

simple forms. 
Thegan, Qld German Thegan, Thahan, Tegeno, Degan, 8th cent. 

English Teggin, Thain, Thane, Deighen, Degan, Dane. 
Mod. Germ. Degen, Dein, Tegen, Thein. French Dagin, 
Dagneau, Teigne, Teigny, Tainne. 

diminutives. 
Old Germ. Theginzo, 10th cent.- — Eng. Danes — French 
Tains. English Dagnall. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Dio, servant) French Thenadey. {Ger, spear) Old Germ. 
Theganger, 9th cent. — English Danger — French Denaigre, 
Dencre. (Hard) Old Germ. Theganhard, 8th cent. — Mod. 

* Or, as generally sujiposed, the Latin form of Adolph. 



Thane. 



THE RULER AND THE PRINCE. 339 

Germ. Theinert — French Tiii^nard. (Ilari, warrior) Old 
Germ. Thegauher, 8th cent. — Mod. Germ. Theiner — French 
Thenier, 

The Anglo-Saxon heretog or heretoch was the Heretog, 
leader of an army, and the word corresponds with Gen^to^ 
the High Germ, herzog. I find Hertocks as an 
EngHsh name of the l7th cent. ; the Germans 
have Herzog ; and Herczegy, apparently French, 
occurs in the directory of Paris. 

A word of similar meaning is Old High Germ. 
heroti, Old Norse lierradr, leader, general, which 
is found in some ancient names, though another 
word harud, referred by Zeuss to the tribe of the 
Harudes, is difficult to separate. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Herot. 

Old German Harud, Herido, 8th cent., Charietto ? 4th General, 
cent., Cariatto ? a Frank, 6th cent. Eng. Harrod, Herod, 
Harritt, Charrott, Charity ? Garrett. French Herod y, 
Herot, Charot, Carrette, 

phonetic ending 

Old Germ. Aniduni, 9th cent, (with variations). Eng, 
Haradon, Harridan. 

There is a stem erZ, found in many ancient 
names, wliich is referred by Grimm, Graff, and 
Forstemann to Old Norse jarl, Ang.-Sax. eorl^ 
Ang.-Sax. erZ, English earl. I may also mention, 
however, the Old Norse e7^la, assidue laborare, 
whence Haldorsen derives the Scandinavian name 

Erlingr. 

SIMPLE forms. 
Old Germ. Erie, 9th cent. English Earl, Early, Arle. comes. 
Mod. Germ. Erle, Herl. French Irle. 



340 THE RULER AND THE PRINCE. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old Germ. Eiiicho, 8tli cent. — English Hurlock — Mod. 
Germ. Erlecke — French Horliac. Ensjlish Arliss — Mod. 
Germ. Harless — French Harlez. 

PATRONYMICS. 

Old Germ. Erlunc, 8th cent. Old Norse Erlingi-. Eng. 
Urling. Mod. Germ. Orling. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Bad, war) Old German Erlebad, 9th cent. — English 
Hurlbat. [Bert, famous) Old Germ. Erlebert, 8th cent. — 
Eoglish HuRLBURT. (Hari, warrior) Old German Erleher, 
Herler, 8th cent. — English Hurler — Mod. Germ. Erler — 
French Hourlier. {Wine, friend) Old German Erliwin, 
bishop of Constance, 8th cent. — English Urlwin — French 
Arlouin. 

From the Old High Germ, hoh, Mod. Germ. 
hoch, high, in the sense of " exalted,'^ Forstemann 
derives a stem Jioh, hoc, in proper names. To 
this I place the following, including one or two 
names in which the Ang.-Sax. form Jiih, English 
"hip'h," seems to be found. The Old Frankish 
ch for h occurs in some of the French names. A 
word very hable to intermix is hig, hog, Anglo- 
Saxon hyge, hog, prudent, thoughtful. 

simple forms. 
Hoch. Q^^ Germ. Hocca, 9th cent. Hoce {Beovmlf). English 

Hockey, Hoey, Hoe, High. Mod. German Hock, Hoch. 
French HocQ, Hoche, Choque. 

diminutives. 
Old German Hohilo, Hoilo, 8th cent. English Hoyle. 
Mod. Germ. Hockel. 

PHONETIC ENDING. 

English Hocken. French Hocquigny, Chochon. 

patronymic. 

English Hocking. 



High. 



THE RULER AND THE PRINCE. 341 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Berty bright) Old Germ. Hoclibei-t, Hobert, 8th cent. — 
English HoBART — Mod. Germ. Hobreciit. (J^ag, day) Old 
Germ. Hodag, 9tli cent. — Eng. Hockaday — French Hocede, 
HocDJi. (Hard) French Hocart, Hochard, Hochart, 
Chocart. (Hari, warrior) Mod. German Hocker — French 
Hocher, Choquier. (Ileid, state, condition) Eng. Hockett, 
High ATT — French Hocquet, Hocheid, Chocquet. (Man J 
Old German Homan, 9th cent. — English Hockman, Homan, 
Oman — Mod. German Hohmann, Homann. (i/a?-, famous) 
Old Germ. Hiemar 1 — English Highmore. (Bic. power) Old .^^ 

German Hohrich, Horich, 11th cent. — English Horrocks, 
Orrock, Orridge. ( Ward, guardian) Old Germ. Hohowart, 
8th cent. — Old Norse Havardr — EngKsh Howard — French 
Hocquart, Houard, Choquart. 

From the Ang.-Saxon math, honor, reverence, 
Forstemann derives a stem raad, mat, math, which 
also appears in an Old Frankish form as med. 
In the names of women the sense might be that 
of the Anglo-Saxon mcBth, a maiden, mcethie, 
modest. A word very liable to intermix is Old 
High German maht, might. Also in some of the 
simple forms the scriptural name Matthew is 

difficult to separate. 

simple forms. 
Old Germ. Matto, Mato, Math, 8th cent. Eng. Maddy, ^**''' ^'^• 

' ' ' & J Honour, 

Matthie, Medd, Mead, Mettee. Mod. German Mette, Reverence. 
Metto. French Matte, Maty, Mady, Math4 Mathi^ 
Mathey, Metay. 

diminutives. 

Old German Madacho, 9th cent. — English Maddock, 
Mattock — Modern German Madicke, Matticke, Metre — 
French Metge. Old Germ. Matuas, 8th cent. — Eng. Matts. 
Metz — French Mathis, Matisse, Mats. English Matkin, 
Matchin — Mod. Germ. Madchen. Old German Matheliu, 
11th cent. — French Mathlin, Mattel ain. 



342 THE RULER AND THE PRINCE. 

PHONETIC ENDING. 

Old Germ. Medana, 9th cent. Eng. Madden, Medden, 
Maiden, Meaden. Fr. Madin, Maton, Mathan, Metton. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Hard) Old Germ. Medard, 6 th cent. — French M^dard. 
(Hari, warrior) Old German Mather, 9th cent. — English 
Mather, Mader, Meader, Medary — Mod. Germ. Mader> 
Mather, Meeder — French Matre, Mattar, Meder. {Grim, 
fierce) Old Germ. Mathgrim, 9th cent. — French Matagrin. 
{Helm) Old German Madelm, 8th cent. — English M add am, 
Mathams, Mattam, Mettam. {Lac, play) Old German 
Mathlec, 9th cent. — Eng. Medlock. {Land) Old German 
Madoland, 7th cent. — Eng. Matland, Medland. (Man) 
Old Germ. Medeman, 9th cent. — Eng. Maidman, Meddiman, 
Metman, Meatman, Matthewman ? — Swiss Mattmann — 
French Madamon, Metman. {Rie, power) Old German 
Madericus, Matrih, 4th cent. — French Matry, Methorie. 
{Rat^ counsel) French Mattrat. {Rid, ride) Old German 
Medarid, 6th cent. — French Matheret. {Hrod, glory) 
French Matrod, Matraud. {Ron, raven) French Madron, 
Matheron, Maturin. {Wald, power) Old Germ. Meduald, 
Madolt, 7th cent. — English Methold. {Wine, friend) 
English Medwin, Methuin. {Wig, wi, war) Old German 
Medoveus, 6 th cent. — Eng. Mead way — Mod. Dan. Mad via. 
uncertain names. 
English Maddern. French Materne. 

The names Matarn and Materni (both of course masculine) 
appear in the book of the brotherhood of St. Peter at Salz- 
burg in the 8th cent. Forstemann seems to doubt whether 
they are German : they might, however, be from am, eagle, 
found as a termination in some other names. 

In this chapter will be introduced most appro- 
priately the words having the meaning of power, 
rule, and authority. The most common word 
with this meaning is rick, rich, ridge, Ang.-Sax. 
rice, power, rule, dominion, or the adjective rice^ 



THE RULER AND THE PRINCE. 343 

Old High Germ, riclii, rihiy powerful. This is a 
very ancient word in proper names, being found 
in the 1st cent, in the names of Cruptorix, a 
Frisian in Tacitus ; Baitorix, a Sigamber in 
Strabo ; and Theudoricus, also a Sigamber. The 
ending rix, in many Old Celtic names, contains a 
corresponding and equivalent word. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Rico, Ricco, Richo, Riho, 8tli cent. English i^^ck. Rich. 
Rich, Ridge, Riekie, Ritchie, Rye. Mod. Germ. Reich, 
Rick, Rieck. French Ricque, Riche, Richy, Riche, Ricci. 

diminutives. 

Old Germ. Ricilas, prince of the Suevi, 5th cent., Ricilla, 
Richilo — Eng. Richley, Riggall — Mod. German Riegel — 
French Rigal. Old German Richizo, Rikizo, 10th cent. — 
English Riches, Ridges, Ricks — French Richez, Riquiez. 
Old Germ. Richinzo — English Ritchings. 

phonetic ending. 

Old Germ. Richini, Richin, 8th cent. English RiCHAN. 
Mod. Germ. Reichen. French Richin. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Bald, bold) Old German Richbold, Rihbold, 8th cent. — 
Eng. RiCHBELL, Rybauld. {Bert, bright) Old Germ. Rich- 
bert, Rigobert, Rihbert, Rihbret, 7th cent. — Eng. Ribread, 
17 th cent. — French Rigaubert. {Berg, protection) Old 
Germ. Rigal^erga, Richbirg, 8tli cent. — French Richebourg. 
{Gard, protection) Old Germ. Richgarda, 8th cent. — Eng. 
Ridgyard. {Held, state, condition) Old Germ. Richeit, 8th 
cent. — Eng. Rickett — French Riquet. {Hard) Old Germ. 
Ricohard, Frankish prince, 6th cent., Riccard, Richard — 
Eng. Richard, Rickard, Record — Mod. Germ. Reichardt, 
Richard, Rickert — French Richard, Ricard. {Hari, 
warrior) Old Germ. Richari, prince of the Suevi, 5th cent., 
Richer, Riker — Richer us, Domesday — Eng. Richer — Mod. 
German Rickher — French Richer, Richier, Ricquier. 
{Helm) Old Germ. Richelm, 8th cent. — Mod. Germ. Reich- 
HELM — French Richeme, Richomme ? {LeoZj people V) Old 



344 THE KULER AND THE PRINCE. 

German Richloz, 10th ceut. — English Reckless — French 
Reclus. (Man) Old German Ricman, Richman, Rihman, 
9th cent. — Eng. Rickman, Richman, Ryman — Mod. Germ. 
Reichmann, Rickman, Riemann. (Mar, famous) Old Germ. 
Ricmar, Recomir, Rihmar, 4th cent. — Eng. Rymer — Mod. 
German Riemar — French Recamier. (Mund, protection) 
Old Germ. Rihrnund, Richmund, 7th cent. — English Rich- 
mond — French Richemont. (Rat, counsel) Old German 
Reccared, West Gothic king, 6th cent. — French Recurat. 
(Wald, power) Old German Ricoald, Richold, Rigald, 7th 
cent. — English Richold — Mod. German Riekelt — French 
RiCHAULT, RiGAULT. (Wealh, stranger) Old Germ. Ricwal, 
9th cent. — English Ridgwell. (Wig, wi, war) Old German 
Rihwih, Ricwi, 9tli cent. — English Ridgeway. 

Another very common word with this meaning 
is wald ; Goth, ivaldaii, Ang.-Saxon wealdan, to 
rule, govern, command, Ang.-Sax. weald, power, 
wealda, a ruler. This is also a very ancient 
stem, being found in the 1st cent, in the names of 
Cariovalda, a prince of the Batavi, and Catualda, 
a prince of the Catti. It is very liable, par- 
ticularly as a prefix, to mix with the stem wal, 
p. 298. 

Wald Walt. " SIMPLE FORMS. 

Power ^^^ German Waldo, Waldi, Welto, Guelto, 6th cent. 

Ang.-Saxon Wald (found in Waldes weg, Cod. Dip. 1,077 J. 
Old Norse Yaldi. Eng. Waldo, Waldie, Waud, Weld, 
GwiLT 1 Mod. German Wald, Welde, Welte. French 
Vald, Vaude, Vaute, Weld. 

diminutives. 
Old German Waldiko, 8th cent. — Eng. Walduck. Old 
Germ. Waldila, Weltila, 8th cent. — French Weldell. Old 
German Waldelin, 7th cent. — Eng. Vaudelin. 
phonetic ending. 
Old German Waldin, 8th cent. Anglo-Saxon Wealden 
(found in Wealdenes weg. Cod. Dip. 1,117). Waldinus, 



THE RULER AND THE PRINCE. 345 

Domesday. English Walden, Weldon, "Welton — Modern 

Germ. Welden, VVeltex — Fr. Valdin, Valton, Vaudin, 

"Weldon. 

patronymics. 

Old Germ. Waldiug, Welting, 8th cent. Eng. Welding. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Hari, warrior) Old Germ. Waldhar, Lombard king 6th 
cent., Walter, Gualter, Qualter — A ng. -Saxon Wealdhere — 
Old Norse Yalthar — English Walter, Welder, Yalder 
GwALTER, QuiLTER ? — Modem German Walther — French 
Walder, Walter, Wauthier, Vauthier, Vaultier, Vel- 
TER. (Had, war) Old German Walthad, 8th cent. — French 
Valtat. (Man) Old Germ. Waldman, 8th cent. — English 
Waldman — Mod. German Waldmann — French Veltman. 
(Ram, ran, raven) Old German Walderannus, 7th cent. — 
Walteranus, Domesday — Eng. Waldron — Fr. Valdeiron, 
"Vaudron (or from an Old Germ. Waldrun, 11th cent., run, 
companion). (Rat, counsel) Old Germ. Waltrat, 7th cent. — 
French Yautrot. (Ric, power) Old German Waldirih, 7th 
cent. — French Yaudry. (Rand, shield) French Yaudrand. 
(Schalk, servant) French Yaudescal. (Wine, friend) Old 
Germ. Walduin, 8th cent. — Eng. Waldwin (christian name). 

A third word of similar meaning is stoVy stur^ 

Ang.-Sax. and Old Norse stor, Old High Germ. 

stiuri, great. 

simple forms. 

Old Germ. Stur, 9th cent. Old Norse Stori (surname). 

Stori, Domesday Yorks. English Storr, Store, Story, .7' " ' 

Storah, Storrow. 

dimtnutives. 

Old Germ. Sturilio, 7 th cent. — French Storelll (Old 
Norse Sturla, Eng. Sturla, Haldorsen derives from sturla, 
angere, in the sense of terrens). English Sturrock. English 
Storrs — French Storez, Stourza. 

compounds. 
(Bald, bold) French Sturbaut. (Hari, warrior) En^. 
Storer — French Stohrer. 

phonetic ending. 
Eng. Storron. 

R 2 



346 THE RULER AND THE PRIKCIl 

Some other names having the meaning of 
great, as Grose, Mic~kle, &c., must be understood 
rather in the sense of large stature. 

There is a word scdv, found in some ancient 
names, for which Forstemann proposes Old High 
Germ, salo, dark, or the Latin salvus. And there 
is another word selh, self, for which he proposes 
Old High Germ, selho, self, ipse. I am inclined 
to refer both these words, and with more certainty 
the former, to Old High Germ, salba, Ang.-Sax. 
salfy sielf, salve, Ang.-Saxon sealvian, to anoint. 
The sense mio^ht be either that of healingf, or it 
might be that of conferring regal dignity, of 
which anointing has been from the most ancient 
times the symbol. In the latter sense I include 
them in this chapter. 

SniPLE FORMS. 



Salve, Selve, 

SiLVE. 



Old Germ. Selbo, Selpo, 8th cent. Enoflish Salve, Self, 

To anoint? ^ r j o } f 

Selves, Selvey, Silve, Silva. French Salvy, Silvy, Silva, 



PATEO>'yMIC. 

French Salvadtg. 

COMPOU>T)S. 

(Hard J Old Germ. Salvard, Selphard, 9th cent. — French 

Salverte, Sylvert. 

phonetic ending. 
Old Germ. Salvan, 9th cent. English Salvin. French 
Salvan. 



CHAPTER XIX. 



WISDOM AND KNOWLEDGE. 

Names derived from wisdom or learning in 
the abstract we might fairly presume not to be 
of the highest antiquity. And there is to a 
certain extent an evidence in the names them- 
selves that they are not. The oldest sense in 
which any word of this class was used was pro- 
bably that of counsel in war. And yet even this 
carries us forward to a time when contact with 
powerful neighbours had taught the rude German 
tribes that something more than brute force and 
a headlong rush were necessary to contend against 
disciplined troops. 

The most common stem with this meaning is 
rady rat, red. Old High German rat, Ang.-Saxon 
red. Mod. Germ, rath, counsel, which occurs, as 
a prefix and termination, since the 5 th cent. A 
word which might intermix is rad, rceth, swift, 
eager — also Ang.-Sax. read, red. 

SIMPLE FOKMS. 

Old Germ. Rado, Radi, Rada, Rato, 6tli cent. EugHsh Kad, Rat, 
Rat, Ratty, Reed, Reidy, Ready. Mod. German Rade, ^ * , 

' ^ ' ' ' CounseL 

Rath, Ratti, Redde, Reede. French Rad^, Radi, Ratte, 
Rat, Rateau, Ratheau, Ratie, Read, Rety. 

diminutives. 
Old Germ. Radacho, Rathago, 9th cent. — Eng. Raddick 
— Mod. German Radicke — French Radigue. Old German 
Ratilo, Radila, 8th cent. — English Rattle, Raddall, Red- 



348 WISDOM AND KNOWLEDGE. 

DALL — Mod. Germ. Kadel, Radel — Frencli Radel, Ratel. 
Eng. Reddish, Radish — French Radez, Ratisseau. Eng. 
Reddelein, Redline. 

PHONETIC ending. 

Old German Raduni, Ratin, Redun, 8tli cent. English 
Radden, Ratton, Redden. Mod. Germ. Rathen, Reden. 
Frencli Radanne, Raton, Redon. 

PATRONYMICS. 

Old German Rading, Reding, 8th cent. — Eng. Redding, 
Reading — Mod. Germ. Ratting. 

compounds. 
{Bald, bold) Old German Ratbold, 8th cent. — French 
Rataboul. (Brand, sword) Old German Radbrand, 8th 
cent. — EDg Redband ? (Geil, elatus) Old Germ. Ratgeil, 
8th cent. — English Redgell, Rattical. {Gaud, Goth) Old 
Germ. Ratgaud, 8th cent. — Eng. Retgate 1 {Hari, warrior) 
Old Germ. Rathere, Rateri, Rater, Rethere, 6th cent. — Eng. 
Ratter, Rather, Rattray, Reader, Red year — Modern 
Germ. Rader, Ratter, Reder — French Rather y, Rathier, 
Rattier, Ratter, Redier, Reder. (Held, state condition) 
Old Germ. Radheit, Ratheid, 8th cent. — Eng. Redhead — 
French Radet, Ratott, Redet. (Helm) Old Germ. Rat- 
helm, 8th cent.— Eng. Rattham. (Leib, leif, superstes) Old 
Germ. Ratleib, 8th cent. — English Ratliffe, Radcliffe ? — 
Modern German Radleff. (Man) Old German Radman, 
Redman, 9th cent. — Eng. Redman, Redmayne, Readman — 
Mod. German Rademann, Redmann. {Mar, famous) Old 
German Radmar, Redmer, 8th cent. — English Radmore, 
Redmore — Mod. Germ. Redmer — French Redmer. {Mund, 
protection) Old German Radmund, Redemund, 7th cent. — 
Eng. Radmond, Redmond. {Ram, ran, raven) Old German 
Ratramnus, 8th cent. — English Ratheram. {Wald, power) 
Old Germ. Radoald, 8th cent. — French Radoult. (War, 
defence) Old German Ratwar, 8th cent. — English Red war. 
( Wig, wi, war) Old German Ratwig, Ratwih, Redwi, 9th 
cent. — English Radway, Reddaway. {Wine, friend) Old 
Germ. Radowin, Redoin, Retwin, 8th cent. — Eng. Readwin 



WISDOM AND KNOWLEDGE. 349 

— French Ratouin, Radouax. (Wis, wise) Old German 
Ratwis, Radius, Sth cent. — French Ratouis. (C7/* wolf) 
Old German Radulf, Thuringian duke, 7th cent. — French 
Radulphe. ( Wid, wood) Old Germ. Radoidis, 9th cent. — 
English Redwood. 

Another common stem with this meaninor is 
ragin (Goth, ragin, counsel), which, in accordance 
with the principle referred to, p. 48, frequently 
becomes rain. A word which miofht intermix 
with the latter form is Old Norse hreinn, rein 
deer, whence, according to Haldorsen, the Scan- 
dinavian name Hreinn. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old German Ragan, Ragno, Resjin, Raino, Sth cent. Eagin, 
Eng. Ragls-, Ragon, Regan, Rain, Rein, Rainey. Mod.K«8^°^f^*i^ 
(rerm. Rein, Reyne. French Ragan, Ragon, Ragonneau, ^-^^'^^^^ 
Ragneau, Regnie, Raine, Reine, Rayna. 

diminutives. 

Old Gemu Reinco, 11th cent. — Mod. G^rm. Reincke — 
French Raingo. Old German Reginzo, Reinzo, 9th cent. — 
Eng. Regans, Rains — Mod. Germ. Renz. Eng. Recknell, 
Reynal — French Rainal. 

compounds. 

{Bert, bright) Old Germ. Raganbert, Reinbert, 7th cent. — 
Eng. Rainbird. {Bidd, fortis) Old G^rm. Raganbold, Rain- 
bald, 8th cent. — English Rainbold — French Raymbault. 
(Frid, frith, peace) Old German Raganfrid, Rainfiid, 7th 
cent. — English Rainford, Rainforth — French Rainfray. 
{Ger, spear) Old German Ragingar, Raingar, Reginker, 8th 
cent. — English Ranger, Ranaker* — Mod. Germ. Reiniger. 
{Hard) Old German Raginhart, Regnard, Raynhard, Sth 
cent. — English Regx.art, Renard, Reynard — Mod. German 
Reinhard, Reinhart — French Regnard, Regnart, Ray- 
NARD, Renard, Reinert. {££ari, warrior) Old German 
Raganhar, Frankish king, 6th cent., Rainher, Riiiner — Old 

* Or to ran, npiii«, p 180. 



350 WISDOM AND KNOWLEDGE. 

Noi"se Kagnar — English Rayner — Mod. German Begneb, 
Reiner — Fr. Regnter, Regner, Rayner, Reynier. {Hadf 
-war) Old German Reginhad, Rainhad, 8tli cent. — English 
Renaud — French Rainaud, Rainot. {Helm) Old German 
Raganhelm, Rainelm, 8th cent. — Eng. Raynham — French 
Reneaume, Renom. (Man) Old Germ. Raynman, 9th cent. 
— Eng. Reinman — Mod. Germ. Reinmann. ( IFea7iZ,stranger) 
Old Germ. Rainuwalo — Eng. Rein well — French Reyneval. 
( Wald. power) Old Ger. Raginald, Reginold, Rainold, Renald, 
6th cent. — Eng. Rignault, Reynolds (and the christian name 
Reginald) — Modern German Reinhold, Reynold — French 
Regnauld, Regnault, Renauld, Renault — Ital. Renaldi. 
{Ward, guardian) Old German Raginward, Rainoard, 8th 
cent. — French Renouard. ( Ulf, wolf) Old Germ. Raginolf , 
Rainulf, 8th cent. — French Renouf. 

In an age when experience was the only 
teacher, the man who Hved the longest might 
generally be presumed to know the most. And 
thus we find that the Aag.-Saxon frod signified 
both "advanced in years/' and also " wise, pru- 
dent." This was a common word in ancient 
names, but is rather scarce at present. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Frodo, Frnda, Fruoto, 8th cent. Ang.-Sax. 

Wise. Froda. Old Norse Frodi. Frodo, Domesday. Eng. Frood, 

Froude, Frowd, Frudd. French Frioud, Froid, Frot, 

Fruit. 

diminutive. 

Old German Frutilo, 8th cent. — English (or Germ, ?) 
Freutel. 

PHONETIC ending. 

Old Germ. Frodin, Fruatin, 8th cent. — French Frottin. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Gar, spear) Old German Frodger, Froger, 8th cent. — 
Eng. Froger — French Froger. (Hari, warrior) Old Germ, 
Frothar, Frotar, Fruther, 8th cent.— Fr. Frotter, Fruitier, 
Froidure. ( Wealh, stranger) Old German Fruduwalh, 9th 
cent. — French Froideval. 



Fr6d 



WISDOM AND KNOWLEDGE. 351 

From the Aug.- Saxon wiSy wise, wtsa, a wise 
man, leader, ivisiariy to instruct, lead, govern, are 
probably the following. 

The Old High Germ, wiz. Mod. Germ, weiss, 
white, might intermix. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old German Wiso, Wis, Wizo, Vizo, 7th cent. English ^^®' 

Sapiens 

Wise, Wiss, Vize, Vyse, Vice. Modern German Weise. 
French Weisse, Yisse. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old Germ. Wisili, AVisla, 8th cent— Eng. Whistle?— 
Mod. Germ. Wiesel. Old Germ. Wiziko, 10th cent. — Eng. 
YisiCK — French WissocQ, VissAC. Old German Wizikin, 
10th cent. — English Whiskin. 

PHONETIC ending. 

Old German Wisun, 9 th cent. French Visonneau. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Gard, protection) Old German Wisigard, wife of the 
Fi'ankish king Theodebert, 6th cent., Wisucai-t — English 
ViscoRD, Whiskered 1 (Man) Old German Wisman, 8th 
cent. — English Wiseman — Mod. Germ. Wissman — French 1 
Wizemann. (Hard) Eng. Vizard. {Hari, warrior) Eng. 
VizER — French Visser, Visier, Vissier. (Wold, power) 
English Wise WOULD — Mod. German Weiswald. Here also 
Eng. Wisdom, a name of an uncommon class, like Friend- 
ship, p. 263. 

Another word of the same meaning may be 

disy tisy for which Forstemann proposes Goth. 

deiSy wise. It is not, certain, however, that the 

Old Norse disy Ang.-Sax. ideSy woman, goddess, 

may not come in for part. 

simple forms. 
Old Germ. Diso, Disso, Disa, Tiso, Tisi, 8th cent. Eng. _^ ' 
Dyce, Dicey, Diss, Dias, Tyas, Tisoe. Modern German 
Thies. French Diz^ DizT, This, Thisse. 



352 WISDOM AND KNOWLEDGE. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

English Tysack. French Tisselin. 

PHONETIC ENDING. 

English Dyson, Tyson. French Dizain, Tison. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(And, life, spirit) French Disand, Disant. (Hard) 
English Tizard — French Dissard. (Hari, wariior) English 
Tyser — French Tissier, Tissaire. {Mar, famous) English 
DiSMORE. {Rand, shield) French Tisserand. 

Another word with the meaning of wisdom 
or prudence is Old High Germ, glau, cIom, Ang.- 
Saxon gledw, which takes the guttural in the 
Gothic glaggvus, Old Norse hlokr, Danish and 
Swedish klog. Mod. German Tdug, Dutch kloek, 
¥orstemann has only three ancient names, which 
are all in the Old High German form glaUy and 
none of which correspond with the following. 

simple forms. 
Glow, Clow. Q-ieii^ Domesday Line. English Gloag, Glock, Gleio, 

Glew, Clogg, Cloak, Clow, Clack, Clegg 1 Clay 1 Mod. 
German Kluge, Kluck, Klocke. French Gluck, Gloux, 

Clech % Claye % 

compounds. 
{Heit, state, condition) English Claggett, Cleggett, 
Clewett — French Glochet, Cloquet, Clouet, Clayette. 
(ffari, warrior) English Gluer, Cluer. {Man) Mod. Germ. 
Klockmann — French Cloquemin. 

From the Old High Germ, lezan. Mod. Germ. 
lesen, to read, Gothic leisan, Old Norse lesa, to 
study, Old Norse Ices, lesinn, learned, I derive a 
stem las, les, Us, in proper names. The above is, 
however, only a derived or secondary meaning, 
the original sense being that of pursuing or col- 
lecting, which may be in part that which is found 
in the following names. 



WISDOM AND KNOWLEDGE. 353 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old German Lezzio, 8th cent. Lacy, Roll Batt. Abb. ^*'' ^*'' 
Lessi, Domesday Line. English Lacy, Lessy, Lys. Mod. 
German Lesse. French Leys, Lez4 Laze, Lassay, Las, 
Lisse, Liza, Liz^. 

diminutives. 

French Lesacq, Lesaec, Laseque. English Layzell, 
Lassel — French Lassalle, Loysel. 

phonetic ending. 

Old Germ, Lisinia, 9th cent. — Eng. Leason, Lisney — 
French Lassenay, Lasne, Lesexne, Lesne, Lizon. 

patronymics. 

Leising, Lib. Vit. Modern German Lessing. French 
Lassaigne. 

compounds. 

(Hard) Old German Lisiard, 11th cent. — Eng. Lezard, 
Lazard — Fr. Lezard, Lazard, Leysard. (Hari, warrior) 
Lessere, Lib. Vit. — Eng. Leyser, Lesser, Leasure — French 
Lassier, Lasseray, Lezer, Lizeray. (Man) French Lassi- 
monne. (Mar, famous) English Lissimore. (jRat, counsel) 
French Lassarat, Lezeret. ( Ulf, wolf) Old Germ. Lisolf — 
Eng. Le Souef — French Lassel ve. (War, defence) English 
Lessware — French Lassuere. 

As a termination lets occurs in five German 
names of the 8th cent., and Forstemann proposes, 
though doubtingly, the above derivation. These 
names are Bertleis (bert, illustrious), Guntleis 
(gund, war), Hildeieis (hild, war), Witleis (wit, 
wisdom), Vulfleis {wulf, wolf). We have a list 
of names in English with a similar termination 
which I think tend to confirm this derivation 
These are Lawless, Legless, Eeckless, Sharp- 
less, Bookless, Fairless, Loveless, Barlass, 
Landless, and Ungless. Of these, Lawless 
has been explained as " regardless of law" — Beck- 
less as " void of prudence" — Legless as "wanting 

s 2 



354 WISDOM AND KNOWLEDGE. 

legs" — and Bookless as "destitute of books/^ 
A much better and more natural meaning is 
given to almost all of these by the derivation 
proposed above. Lawless, then, I take it, means 
" learned in the law ;" and Legless has nothing 
to do with Miss Biffin, but is only another form 
of the same. Fairless, as "travel-learned," 
expresses a most natural idea, for so much was 
travel regarded as the best means of getting 
knowledge, that in the idiom of the German and 
Danish languages, "travelled" has become synony- 
mous with '* experienced." Landless may have 
the same meaning as Fairless, or it may, though 
less probably, be restricted to a knowledge of 
one's own country. Beckless,*^'^ from Ang.-Sax. 
reccan, to explain, interpret ; and Sharpless, 
from Ang.-Sax. scearp, sharp, quick, skilful, are 
also most natural compounds. Bookless is not 
so called from the scantiness of his Hbrary, but 
from the good use made of what he had. The 
Old Norse has the very word, hohlces, "book- 
learned," also " able to read," a much more notable 
circumstance in his day than that of being without 
books. Loveless, alias Lovelace, is not quite 
so obvious. We know that in the Bomance days 
the lore of love became so intricate as to require 
a special court for its adjustment, but this seems 
to involve rather too modern a sentiment. Lastly, 
Barlas and UNGLESS,t {heVy bear, and ung or 



* Another derivation is also proposed for Keckless, at p. 344. But we 
have also Rao less, vi^hich seems to come in here. 

t With Unoless we may perhaps put Uncles. 



WISDOM AND KNOWLEDGE. 355 

unCy serpent), referring to the two animals most 
noted in ancient times for their wisdom, and the 
former being synonymous with Barwise, have 
as natural a meaning as could be desired. I do 
not include with the above Wanless, for it seems 
to be from Ang.-Saxon wceii, a blemish, with the 
negative termination, which would make it the 
same as another name Faultless. Some of 
the other names may be open to doubt, indeed 
I bring forward the subject rather as a question 
for enquiry. 

Such names then as the above, which seem to 
have more of a direct meaning than is usually 
found, are among those to which I referred at the 
beginning of this chapter as indicative of a more 
recent origin. 

From the above word lis is formed Ang.-Sax., 
Old Norse, and Old High Germ, listy art, science, 
from which are derived the following names. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Lista, 9th cent. English List, Lesty, Last. Lis* 
Mod. Germ. List. ^'^"°*^"' 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old German Listillo, 8th cent. French Lestelle. 

PHONETIC ENDING. 

Old Germ. Listin, Eng. Liston. French Lestienne. 

PATRONYMICS. 

Mod. German Listing. French Lestoing. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Ran, warrior) Old German Listhar, 8th cent. — English 
Lister, Lester — French Lister, Lesteur, Lasteyrie. (Bad, 
rat, counsel) French Lestrade, Lastret. 

From the Old Norse Iwra, Ang.-Saxon leer an ^ 
to teach, to know ; Old High Germ, lera^ Ang .- 



356 WISDOM AND KNOWLEDGE. 

Sax. Mr, leer, Eng. " lore," learning ; Ang.-Saxon 
lareow, Old Norse Iwrari, teacher, I derive the 
following. It will be observed that there are 
very few ancient names from this root, though it 
is common at present ; and this may perhaps be 
taken as an additional illustration of the remark 
which I made at the beginning of this chapter as 
to the comparatively recent origin of this class of 
names. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

1^0^®- Old Germ. Lira, Loria, 8tli cent. English Lara, Larey, 

'^"^»- Lareey, Leak, Leary, Lerra, Lorev, Laurie. French 
Larra, Larr]^, Lerr4 Lir4 Laur, Laurey, Laureau, Lora, 
LoR]^, Lory, Loreau. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

English Laurel — French Loreal, Loreille. English 
Lerigo — French Laroque, Lorique. Eng. Larkin, Lorkin 
— French Lorichon. French Lorez, Lorsa, Lars. French 

LOREMY. 

compounds. 
Eng. Laroux, Lerew — French Larrieu, Larue, Lereux 
= Ang.-Sax. lareow, a teacher ? (Hard) English Larard. 
(Man) English Larman, Lorriman. {Mar, famous) Lori- 
marius, Domesday — Eng. Larmer, Lorimer — French Lori- 
MiER, Lormier, Larmier. (Muth, courage) Eng. Larmuth, 
Learmouth. {Wealh, stranger) English Larwill — French 
Laruelle. {Wig, wi, war) English Lerway — French Lar- 
ROUY, Larivay. 

From the Ang.-Sax. scearp. Old High Germ. 

scarf. Mod. German scharf, sharp, quick, acute, 

there are a few names. Forstemann finds seven 

from this root in the 8th and 9th cents., but only 

one corresponding with ours. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

A cuius. English Sharp, Sharpey, Sharpus, Scarfe, Soharb, 

Modern German Scharpff, Scharf. French Charpy, 
Charfe. 



WISDOM AND KNOWLEDGE. 357 

DIMINUTIVE. 

English Sharpley. 

PHONETIC ENDING. 

Old Germ. Scherfin, 9th cent. Eng. Sharpin. French 
Charpin. 

compound. 
(Leis, learned) Eng. Sharpless, Surplice ? 

A common word is hig, hog, hug, from Ang.- 
Sax. hyge. Old High Germ, hugu, mind, thought, 
Anglo-Saxon hygian, hogian, to study, meditate. 
The Saxon form, it will be seen, is common in 
English but not in French. A root very liable 
to intermix is hoh, hoch, high, p. 340. 

simple forms. 

Old German Hugo, Hug, Hue, Huga, Hughi, Hogo, 
Chugo, 8th cent. Eng. Hugo, Hug, Hugh, Huie, Huck, 
Hogg, Hodge, Hick, Chick, Cheek, Chuck. Mod. Germ. 
Huge, Hugo, Hucke, Hoge. French Hugo, Hug^ Hug, 
Hug, Hue, Hu, Hua. 

diminutives. 

Old Germ. Hugila, Hukili, 9th cent. — English Hugall, 
HucKELL, Whewell, Higley, Hickley — Modern German 
HtJGEL — French Hugla, Huel, Hickell. Old German 
Hugizo, 10th cent. — Eng, Hughes, Hewish, Hucks, Hicks, 
Hodges — French Hugues. Hogcin, Lib. Fit. — English 
HoDGKiN. Hugelinus, Domesday — Hueline, Lib. Fit. — 
Eng. Huelins, Hicklin, Hicklinq — Fr. Huguelin, Higlin. 

phonetic ending. 

Hygine, Lib. Fit. English Hugoun, Hucken, Hogan, 
HiGGiN, Chicken. French Hugon, Hogan, Huan, Hoin, 
Hienne, 

compounds. 

(Bald, bold) Old German Hugibald, Hubald, 8th cent. — 
Eng. Hubble 1 — French Hubault — Ital. Ubaldo. (Bert, 
bright) Old German Hugubert, Hubert, 7th cent. — English 
IJubert — Mod. Germ. Hubert — French Hubert. (Hard) 
Old Germ. Hugihart, Hugard, 9th cent. — Eng. Huggard, 
Heward — French Hugard, Huchard, Huard, Huart, 



358 WISDOM AND KNOWLEDGE. 

Chicard. {Hari, warrior) Eng. Hewer, Hewry, Chequer 1 
— French Huchery. {Lac, play) Old Germ. Hugilaih, 8th 
cent. — Old Norse Hugleikr — Ang.-Saxon Hygelac — English 
Hillock ? Hullock ? Ullock'? — French Hulek ? (Lindf 
mild) Old German Hugilind, 8th cent. — English Hewland. 
(Man) Ang.-Sax. Hiccemann (found in Riccemannesstdn, 
Cod. Dip. 643) — English Hugman, Hughman, Human, 

HODGMAN, HiGMAN, HiCKMAN French HUMANN, HlECK- 

MANN. {Gisj kis, hostage) Eng. Hodgkiss. (Mot, courage) 
Old Germ. Hugimot, 9th cent. — English Hickmott. (Mar, 
famous) Old Ger. Hugimar, 10th cent. — Eng. Hogmire, High- 
more. (JVot, bold) French Hugnot,* Hognet. ( Wald, power) 
Old Germ. Hugold, 9th cent. — French Huault. {Beit, state, 
condition) Hueta, Domesday — English Huggett, Huckett, 
Hewit — French Hugot, Huet, Huchette, Chiquet. 

Another stem of similar meaning I take to be 
mun, Old Norse muni, the mind, Goth, munan, 
to think. Grimm, however, refers to Old Norse 
munr, pleasure. The names of Odin s two ravens, 
Hugin and Munin, whose office it was to bring 
him intelligence of all that passed in the world, 
are derived respectively from this and the former 
root. Mr. Blackwell, in the edition of Mallet's 
Northern Antiquities edited by him, has an 
amusing speculation upon our two comic in- 
separables Huggins and Muggins, which he sug- 
gests may possibly be alliteratively corrupted 
from the names of Odin's two ravens. This root 
is liable to intermix with man, mon, p. 5^, and 
with mund, p. 276. Also with Moon, which I 
think may be from a mythological origin. 

* Hence the name of the Huguenots, the origin of which is not yet settled ? 
The above name Huonot is evidently not from the sect, but the sect might very 
naturally derive, as indeed most sects have done, from the name of a man. The 
only other derivation I have seen is a lame one. 



Thank. 
Thaught. 



WISDOM AND KNOWLEDGE. 359 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old German Muno, Munio, 8th cent. English MuNN, ^^^^^ 
Money. French Mounie, Muni£ 

PATKONYMICS. 

Old Germ. Muning, 8th cent. Eng. Munnings. 

compounds. 

(Here, army) Old German Munihaii, 6th cent. — French 

MuNiER, MouNiER, (li^ew, young) Eng. Munnew. {Mund, 

protection) Old German Munimund, 7th cent. — English 

Monument. 

From the Old High German danJcjan, Ang.- 

Sax. thencan, to think, may be the following. 

Or it may be from the derived sense of German 

danJcen, Enghsh thank. 

simple forms. 
Old German Thanco, Dance, Thenka, Tenca, 6th cent. 
English Danks, Dench, Tank, Tench. Mod. Germ. Dank, 

Denk. French Tanc. 

diminutives. 
Old German Tancila, a Goth, 5th cent., Danchilo — Mod. 

Oerm. Danckel — French Dancla, Dangla. Eng. Tanklin. 

compounds. 
(Hard) Old Germ. Tanchard, 9th cent. — Eng. Tankard 
— Modern German Dankert — French Dancourt. (Hari, 
warrior) Old Germ. Thancheri, 9th cent. — English Tanker, 
Tanqueray, Thackeray — Mod. Germ. Dencker. {Rat, 
red, counsel) Old Germ. Thancharat, Tancrad, 8th cent. — 
Old Norse Thackradr — Eng. Tancred. {Wealh, stranger) 
Old Germ. Thangwil, 9th cent. — Eng. Thackwell — French 
Dangouelle. {Wine, friend) Old Germ. Tanquin, 8th cent. 
— French Danquin, Dancoine. {Wis, sapiens) French 
Danguis. 

Another word having the meaning of thought 
or meditation may be chud, chutf which Forste- 
mann refers, though doubt ingly, to Old High 
German cluiton, meditari. It might only be 
another form of Imd or hut. 



360 WISDOM AND KNOWLEDGE. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Chut. Old Germ. Chudo, 8th cent. English Choote, Choat. 

Meditari. j^^ench Chotteau. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Hard) French Chottard. {Har% warrior) English 
Chuter, Chutter. 

From the Old High Germ., Mod. Germ., Old 
Norse hunst, Mod. German kust, art, science, may 
be the following. Perhaps the German gunsty 
favor, may intermix. 

^ ^ „ SIMPLE FORMS. 

Const, Cust. 

Scientia. Eng. CoNST, CosT, CusT. Mod. Grerm. KosT. French 
Coste, Costa, Costey, Cousteau, Gosteau. 

diminutives. 
Old Germ. Costila, 6th cent. — English Costello, Cost- 
low, CosTALL, Costly, Gostelow— Fr. Costille, Costel. 
English GosTLiNG. Mod. German CosTis — French Costaz, 
CosTES. Old German Custanzo, 9th cent. — Ciistance, Lih. 
Vit. — English Custance. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Gei% spear) Eng. Costeker. (Hard) Old Germ. Custard, 
9th cent. — English Custard, Gustard — French Costard, 
Coustard. (ZTari, warrior) English Coster ? (i7{/^ wolf) 
Old Germ. Custulf, 9th cent. — Eng. Costiff. 

From the Old Norse skilia, to understand, 
discriminate, apprehend, I take to be the follow- 
ing. An intermixture with shield, p. 227, is easy, 
but I think there is a separate stem, though only 
one ancient name comes before us. 

simple forms. 
g^..gjjy^ English Skill. Mod. Germ. Schill. 

patronymics. 
Ang. -Saxon Scilling, a poet in the Scop or Bard's song. 
Eng. Shilling. Mod. Germ. Schilling. 



MadaJ, 
Mathal. 



WISDOM AND KNOWLEDGE. 3G1 

COMPOUNDS. 

(BeVf bear) English Shillibeer ? (Ileit, state, condition) 
Eng. Skillett ? Shtllito 1 {Ilari, warrior) Eng. Skiller — 
Mod. Germ. Schiller — French Scellier. 

From the Goth, mathl, concio, sermo ; Ang.- 
Sax. mathelia?!, to discourse, harangue, are pro- 
bably the following. The stem math, p. 341, is 
however liable in some cases to intermix. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Madalo, 9th cent. Msedle, Lib. Yit. English 
Madle, Medal, Medley, Methley. Mod. Germ. Madel. Discourse 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Eng. Madlin, Medlen. French Mathlin, Methlin. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Haid, state condition) Old Germ. Madalhaid, 8th cent. 
— French Madoulaud. (Hari, warrior) Old Germ. Madal- 
har, 8th cent. — English Medlar — Modern German Madler 
Midler, {Gaud, Goth) Old Germ. Madalgaud, 8th cent. — 
English Medlicott. 

In accordance with the principle of optimism 
which prevails in proper names, we may presume 
that names derived from the various members of 
the body are to be invested with the highest 
qualities which pertain to these members. Thus 
the hand may be taken to mean dexterity, and 
the foot activity. In like manner tongue may 
be taken to have the meaning of eloquence, 
wisdom, or persuasion. There is only one Old 
German name in which it appears, but it enters 
into some Old Norse names, as Tungu-Kari, 
Tungu-Oddr, &c. Here, though a prefix, it is of 
the nature of a surname, as in our Apple-John. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old German Tungo. English Tongue, Tonge, Tung ay Tongue, 

DUNGEY. Lingua. 

T 2 



362 WISDOM AND KNOWLEDGE. 

COMPOUNDS, 

(Mem) English Tongman. (Nandy daring) French 

TUNGNAND. 

In this chapter may be included the names 
having the meaning of vigilance or watchfulness. 
From the Ang.-Saxon wcecan, wceccan, to watch, 
Old High German wak, vigil, are probably the 
following. A Tvord liable to intermix is wag, way^ 
which I think has the meaning of waving or 
brandishing. 

Wake. SIMPLE FORMS. 

Watchful. Old German Vaco, Lombard king, 6th cent., Wacho, 
Wacco. Uach, Lib. Vit. Eng. Wake, Wack. Mod. Germ. 
Wach. French Ouach^e, Vachy. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old German Wachilo, 8th cent. — English Wakley, 
Weakley, Weekly. Old Germ. Wakis, 6th cent. — Eng. 
Weeks — French Vaquez. Eng. Wakelin, Weaklin. Old 
Germ. Wakimus, Gothic leader, 6th cent. — Eng. Wakem. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Man) Old Germ. Wachmun, 8th cent. — Eng. Wake- 
man, Wageman. 

extended F0RM=ANG.-SAX. waCOTf WATCHFUL. 

Old Germ. Wacar, Waccar, 7 th cent. English Waker. 
Mod. Germ. Wacker. French Yaquier. 

As a simple form of the stem ragin, p. 349, 
I bring in here the stem rag. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

^*2- Old Germ. Ragio, Eacco, <fec., 8th cent. English Ragg, 

Counsel, j^^^^^ ^^^ jyj-^^j q^^^ j^^^.^^^ j^^^^j^ French Ray. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old German Ragilo, Regilo, 7 th cent. English Regal. 
Mod. Germ. Regel. French Racle. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Bold, andax) Old German Ragibald, 9th cent. — English 
Raybauld — French Raybaud. (Hard, fortis) Old German 
Regiihart, Rehhart, 11th cent. — Mod. German Rahardt — 



WISDOM AND KNOWLEDUK. 3G3 

French Raccurt, Rayard. fllariy warrior) Old German 
Raghar, Racheri, 6th cent. — English Rarey — Mod. German 
Reyger, Reyher — Frencli Rager, Ragarie, Rayer. (Had, 
war ?) Old German Rachot, 8th cent. — Eng. Racket, Rag- 
gett — French Ragot. (Hdm) Old German Rachelm, 8th 
cent. — English Rackham. [Mund, protection) Old German 
Ragimund, Raimund, 8th cent. — Eng. Raymond, Rayment 
— Mod. Germ. Raimund — French Raymond. ( Wine, friend) 
Old Germ. Racoin, 8th cent. — French Ragoin. (Ulf, wolf) 
Old Germ. Ragolf, Raholf, Raulf, 8th cent. — Eng. Ralph,* 
Relph — Mod. Germ. Ralfs. 

In this chapter may be included the words 
in which is contained the meaning of law or judg- 
ment. It is rather remarkable that the principal 
word with this meaning occurs more especially 
in the names of women, and we can hardly help 
thinking of that ancient state of society when 
fatidical women, like Deborah among the Jews, 
and Albruna among the Germans, seem to have 
been the real law-givers and judges of the nation. 
The word in question is the Old High German 
tuoniy thiiom, thum,-\ Ang.-Sax. dom, Old English 
doom, judgment. 

simple forms. 

Old Germ. Tumo. Tummi, apparently a Dane, in Saxo. 

, 1 • T -« Judgmen> 

Ang. -Saxon Diuma, bishop of Mercia. Ang.- Saxon Toma, 
found perhaps in Tomanworthig, now Tamworth, Cod. Dip. 
141, <i;c. Tumma, Lih. Vit. Tomy, Roll Batt. Abb. Eng. 
ToMEY, Tomb, Thumm, Dumb, Tom 1 Mod. Germ. Thoma, 
T)uMM, Dohm. Fr. Thom^, Tombe, Thom, Dome, Dommey, 

DOMBEY, DUHOMME, DuMAY. 

* Derived by Pott, Lower, and others from Radxilph. But unless a reason 
of a dififerent sort can be given, the natural etymological derivation is from Ragolf- 

t May not this be the origin of the name of ThumeUcus, son of Arminius, 
Istcent., for which Grimm proposes Old Norse thumlungr, thumb ? The second 
part of the name might also be from a word of similar meaning, viz., lag, law. 



Doom. 



Dam. 
Judgment 



364 WISDOM AND KNOWLEDGE. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old Germ. Duomelo, Tomila, Tumila, 9th cent. — English 

DuMMELOW, DuMBELL, ToMMELL — Modern German Dummel, 

TiJMMEL — French Dommel, Thomel, Tombel, Old German 

Domlin, 7th cent. — Eng. Tomlin, Dumlin, Dumplin — Mod. 

German Daumlix, Dumling — French Dumolin, Dumoulin ? 

Anglo-Saxon Domec, (found 'perhaps in Domeccesigey now 

Dauntsey, God. Dip. 271, <&;c.) — Modern German Domich — 

French Domecq, Doumic. English Tomkin — Mod. German 

DiJMicHEN. Eng. ToMSEY, Tombs — French Domez, Dumez, 

Dumas ? 

compounds. 

(Gis, hostage 1 companion ?) Old Germ. Domigis, Tomi- 

chis, 8th cent. — Eng. Tomkies. (Gisal, same as gis) Old 

German Domigisil, 6th cent. — French "Domicile ? (Heidy 

state, condition) Old German Tomaheid, 9th cent. — English 

DoMMETT — French Doumet, Thomet. {Hard, fortis) Old 

Germ. Domard, 6th cent. — Eng. Dummert — Fr. Domard, 

Domart. [Hari, warrior) Old German Domarius, 7th cent. 

— Old Norse Domar — Domheri, Lib. Vit. — Eng. Dummer, 

Toomer — Mod. Germ. Dohmeyer — Fr. Domer, Dumaire, 

DuMERY. (Bit, ride) Old Germ. Dumerit, 6th cent. — French 

Thommeret. {Run, wisdom, mystery) Old Germ. Dommo- 

runa,* 7 th cent. — French Domairon. 

Varying forms of the same stem I take to be 

the following, as found in Anglo-Saxon dcerna, 

dSma, a judge. Hence the " dempsters," judges 

of the Isle of Man. 

simple forms. 
Old Germ. Tammo, Temmo, Dimo, Diemo, Timo, Temo, 
8th cent. Tymmo, a Dane or Northman in Saxo. Demma, 
Lib. Vit. English Damm, Tame, Tim. Mod. Germ. Damm, 
Demme, Thamm, Temm, Dieme, Thimm, Timm. Fr. Dame, 
Damm, Dame, Damay, Demay, Demey, Dimi^, Dimey, Tami, 
Tama. 

* The termination run in female names I have generally taken to be, as 
iiriium makes it, .socia, arnica. But in such a name as the above it seems to me 
that it should rather have the meaning of mysterious, perhaps cabalistic know- 
ledge. So in the case of the wis* woman of the Old Germans, Aibruna, p. 136. 



WISDOM AND KNOWLEDGE. 3(^5 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old Germ. Tiemich, lltli cent. — Eng. Dimmick, Dim- 
mock, Tammage — Mod. Germ. Tiiiemkk— French Demoque. 
French Damel, Demolle, Tiiimel, Timel. Eng. Tamlyn, 
Tamplin, Timlin — French Damelon, Demolin, Demelun, 
Demoulin {quasi De Moulin). English Dames, Dempsey, 
Dimes, Times, Tims — French Damez, Damas, Damazy, 
Demoisy. 

compounds. 

{Hard) Old German Tamard, 9th cent. — Mod. German 
Dammert — French Demart. {Heid, state, condition) Eng. 
Tamiet, Dimmett — Fr. Damet, Damotte, Demotte. {Hari, 
warrior) Eng. Damer, Damory — Mod. Germ. Dammer — Fr. 
Damer, Damour {quasi " d'amour"), Demar, Demier, 
Demory, Dimier. {Itun, wisdom) English Timperon, Tam- 
BORiNE ? — French Dameron. 

Another word of similar meaning may be stow 
which Forstemann refers to the Gothic staua, a 
judge. There are only two ancient names in 
which it is found. 

simple form. diminutive. 

English Stow. English Stowell. 

compounds. 
{Hari, wanior) Old Germ. Stauher, 8th cent. — English 
Stower. {Wald, power) English Stovold. 

The Ang.-Sax. lag, lah, leak, law, is found in 
a few ancient names, and in a still greater num- 
ber of modern ones. There are however some 
other words hable to intermix : as lake, Anglo- 
Saxon lacaUy to play ; laug. Old Norse laug^ 
lavacrum ; perhaps also Ang.-Sax. leg, flame. 

simple forms. 
Old Germ. Lago, Lacco, Leggi,* 9th cent. Eng. Lack, 
Lackey, Lackay, Law, Lay, Lahee, Leah, Legg, Leggy, 

* Forstemann thinks this name may perhaps be a mistake for Seggi. I do 
not see any reason for the supposition, and bring it in here. 



Stow. 
Judge. 



Lag. 
Law. 



366 WISDOM AND KNOWLEDGE. 

Lee. Mod. German Lege, French Lague, Lac, Lack, 

Leg^j Leqay. 

diminutives. 

Old German Lagile, 11th cent. — Eng. Lawley, Lowly 

— French Legal, Legeley. French Lachelin. Old Germ. 

Lagoz, 9 th cent. — Eng. Lawes — French Lagesse. 

PHONETIC ENDING. 

English Laggon, Lane. Mod. German Lehn. French 
Lagny, Lagneau, Lain4 Laine. 

compounds. 

(Hard) English La yard. (Hari, warrior) Old German 
Lager, 8th cent. — English Lawyer — Mod. Germ. Lacher — 
French Lagier, Laguerre, Legier. (Or the above may all 
be simply the same as English " lawyer" ; perhaps, however, 
in an old meaning of judge). (Bt, p. 189) English Legett — 
' Fr. Laget, Lacquet, Legat. (Leis, learned, experienced) 

Eng. Lawless, Lowless, Legless. (Man)* Eng. Lackman, 
Lawman, Lowman, Layman — Mod. Germ. Lachman — Fr. 
Laumain, Lehman. (Wald, power) French Legault. 

As a termination lag is difficult to separate 
from other words. The name Wihtlseg in the 
genealogy of the Mercian kings from Wo 'en, Eng. 
Whitelegg, Whitelaw, seems to belong to it. 

The following stem seems to be from Gothic 

aivs. Old High German eiva^ Anglo-Saxon jd, 

lex, statutum. 

simple forms. 
^^^^ Old Germ. Euo, Jo, Evo, 9th cent. English Yeo, Yea, 

statutum. Ewe, Eve. Mod. Germ. Iwe. French Eve, Yve. 

diminutives. 
Old German Ewuli, 9 th cent. — English Ewell, Evill % 
Old Germ. Eveco, 11th cent. — Mod. Germ. Ewich — French 
EvEQUE*? Old German Evizo, 10th cent. — English Eaves. 

French Yvose, 

patronymics. 
Euing {Domesday). English EwiNG. 

* Ang.-Sax. lahman, judge. 



f 



WISDOM AND KNOWLEDGE. 367 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Hard, fortis) English Ewart — Mod. German Ewert — 
French Yvert. {Hari, warrior) Old Germ. Euhar, 9th cent. 
— Eng. Ewer — French Auer. (Man) Old Germ. Eoman, 
Joman, 9th cent. — Eng. Yeoman, Yeaman. (Ric, power) 
Old Germ. Euarix (West Gothic king, 6th cent.), Eoricus — 
Eng. YoRicK. ( Waldj power) Old Germ. Ewald, 8th cent. — 
English EwALD — Mod. German Ewaldt — French Jouaxt. 
{Wardy guardian) Old German Euvart, 6th cent. — English 
Yeoward. (Ulf, wolf) Old Germ. Eolf, 8th cent.— Eng. 
Yealfe — French Youf. 

The following stern may be referred to Old 
Norse thinga, to deliberate, Old High German 
ding on, to judge. The Old Norse thing, corres- 
ponding with the Ang.-Sax. genidt, was a council 
both judicial and deliberative. 

81MPLE FORMS. Thing, 

English Ding, Dingy, Tingey, Tink. French Tingay. Forum, 

diminutives. Conrentus. 

Anglo-Saxon Dengel, Cod. Dip. 981. — English Dingle, 
DiNGLEY, Tingle. English Tinkling. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Ha/ri, warrior) Old Germ. Thincheri, 8th cent. — English 
Tinker — Mod. Germ. Dinger. (Man) English Dingman. 
{Wealh, stranger) Eng. Ding well — French Dinguel. 



CHAPTER XX. 



THE TRUMPET OF FAME. 

One of the most ancient stems in Teutonic 
names is mar, (Old High German mdri, illus- 
trious), which is found in five names of the 1st 
cent., two of the 2nd, one of the 3rd, and nine of 
the 4th. Hence it was widely spread, as Forste- 
mann remarks, over all the German tribes. It 
does not seem, however, to be found in Old Norse 
names, or to have been common among the Anglo- 
Saxons. It is most frequent as a termination, 
and in English names generally takes the Saxon 
form TTiore. As a prefix there are other words 
liable to intermix, as Anglo-Saxon mcere, horse, 
p. 79. Grimm also refers (Deutsch. Granim.) to 
mart, the sea. 

Mar, Mer. SIMPLE FORMS. 

Illustrious. Old Germ. Maro, Mar, Mer, Merio, 9th cent. Ang.-Sax. 
Mar, {Cod. Dip. 981). English Mark, Marry, Marrow, 
Merry. Mod. Germ. Mahr, Marr, Meer. French Mereau, 
M^ra, Merey. 

diminutives. 
Old German Maricus, Merica, 9th cent. — Eng. Mariga, 
Merrick — Mod. Germ. Miercke, Mirich — French Meriq. 
Old Germ Merila, 6th cent. — Eng. Merrell, Merle — Mod. 
Germ. Marell, Mehrle — French Merelle, Merly, Marl^ 
Marolla, Marielle, Old German Merling, 9th cent. — 
English Marling, Marlin — French Marlin. Old German 
Mariza, Meriza, 9th cent. — Eng. Maris, Marrs, Mercy ? — 
French Maris, Marizy. 



THE TRUMPET OF FAME. 369 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Bod, envoy) Old German Maroboduus, prince of the 
Marcomanni, 1st cent. — Mod. German Meerbott — French 
Marbot. {Gar, spear) French Maroger, Merger. {Gaud, 
GoZf Goth) Old German Merigoz, 9th cent,— Merigeat, Lib. 
Vit. — Eng. Margot — French Merigout, M^rigot, Margot, 
Maricot. {Gild, companion ?) Old German Margildus^ 8th 
cent. — Eng. Marigold. (Hard) Old Germ. Merhart, 9th 
cent. — French Merard. {Lind, gentle) Old Germ. Merlind, 
9th cent. — French Marland, Merland. {Man) English 
Marman, Merriman — French Merman, Miramon. {Mund, 
protection) English Marmont, Merryment 1 { Wold, power) 
Old German Maroald, Merolt, 6th cent. — Modern German 
Mehrwald — French Merault. {Wig, war) Old German 
Merovecus, Maroveus, 5th cent. — Eng. Marwick, Marvy — 
French Marvy. {Wine, friend) Old German Maruin, 9th 
cent. — Mervinus, Lib. Vit. — English Marvin — Mod. Germ. 

Meerwein. 

phonetic ending. 
English Marrian, Marine, Merrin — French Marin, 
Marion, Marini^, Marne. 

PHONETIC intrusion OF n, P. 29- 

{Bald, bold) French Mirambaut. {Hari, warrior) Old 
Germ. Marnehar, 7th cent. — English Mariner, Marner — 
French Marinier, Marnier. {Ulf, wolf) French Marneuf. 

A still more common word is hert, pert, bright, 
illustrious, corresponding with the Latin claries. 
It is derived from the Gothic hairlits. Old High 
German peraht, Anglo-Saxon heort, briht. It 
was scarce among the Old Saxons, but common 
among the Anglo-Saxons, Lombards, Franks, and 
Bavarians. It is not of the same antiquity as 
the former word, not making its appearance in 
names before the 6th century. The form hnht 
is common in Anglo-Saxon names, as bright in 
Enghsh. 

u 2 



370 THE TRUMPET Ot FAME, 

Bert, Bright. SIMPLE FORMS. 

ciarus. Old German Berto, Perhto, 7th cent. Bertha or Bercta, 

daughter of the Frankish king Charibert, and wife of Ethel- 
bert, king of Kent. Ang.-Saxon Berht or Beort, 7th cent. 
English BiRT, Burt, Bertie, Bright, Brighty, Pert, Purt, 
Mod. Germ. Bert, Berth, Buecht. French Berte, Bertey, 
Berteau, Berta, Burt, Burty, Breht. 

diminutives. 
Old Germ. Bertilo, Pertilo, 8th cent. — English Birtle, 
Brightly, Purtell — Mod. German Brechtel, Prechtel — 
French Bertel, Bert all. Old Germ. Bertelin, 7 th cent. — - 
French Bertelon, Berthelin. Anglo-Saxon Byrtsie, Cod. 
Dip. 981 — English Birdseye 1 

phonetic ending. 
Old German Bertin, 7th cent. English Bertin, Perton. 

Mod. Germ. Bertin. French Bertin. 

patronymics. 
Old Germ. Berting, 8th cent. Eng. Brighting. Mod. 
Germ. Bertong. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Hard) Old Germ. Berthart, 8th cent. — French Burtard. 
(Helm) Old Germ. Berth elm, 8th cent. — English Bertham 
— French Berth eaume. {Hari, warrior) Old Germ. Berht- 
hari, Berther, Berter, 7th cent. — French Berthier, Bertier. 
(Ram, ran, raven) Old Germ. Berahtram, Bertram, Bertran, 
6th cent. — Eng. Bertram — Mod. Germ. Bertram — French 
Bertron. (Land, terra) Old Germ. Bertland, 8th cent. — 
Eng. Brightland. (Had, war) Old German Berthad, 8th 
cent. — French Pertat. {Man) English Brightman. {Mar, 
famous) Old Germ. Bertemar — Ang.-Sax. Brihtmar, bishop 
of Licliiield — Eng. Brightmore, Birdmore — French Bert- 
OMIER. {Leis, learned) Old Germ. Bertleis, 8th cent. — Eng. 
BiRTLES. {Lac, play) Old Germ. Bertlaicus — Eng. Birdlock. 
{Rand, shield) Old Germ. Bertrand, 9th cent. — Eng. Bert- 
rand — Mod. German Bertrand — French Bertrand, Bert- 
rant. {Rio power) Old Germ. Perhtrick, Pertrih, 8th cent. 
— Partriche, Hund. Rolls — Eng. Partrick ? Partridge 1 
Peartree ? — French Bertray. ( Wald, power) Old Germ. 
Berahtold, 7 th cent. — French Bertault. 



THE TRUMPET OF FAME. 371 

A third stem of similar meaning is bram, 
hrem, (Anglo-Saxon 6r^»ie, renowned, Suio-Goth. 
hram, splendor). 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Bram, Brem 

Old Germ. Brimo, 11th cent. Bram, a Dane or North- Renovrn. 
man in Saxo. Eng. Brame, Bramah, Breem, Brim, Pram, 
Prime. Modern German Brehm, Preim. French Brame, 
Bramma, Premy. 

diminutives. 

Eng. Brammell, Bramble, Bramley, Brimiley, Brime- 
Low, Brimble. 

compounds. 

(Hard) French Bremard, Prima rd. (Hari, warrior) 
Eng. Bramer, Bremer, Primmer — Mod. German Braaier — 
Swed. Bremer — French Brimeur, Premier ? {Mund, pro- 
tection) English Bremond — French Bremond, Bremont, 
Brimont. {Ric, power) English Bremridge. {Wald, power) 
French Primault. 

A very common stem is rody rot, which 
appears since the 5 th cent. It was very frequent 
among the Hessians, Alamanni, and Bavarians, 
but not so much so among the Saxons. Forste- 
mann refers it to Old Norse lirodhr, glory, and 
a supposed corresponding Gothic hrdths. The 
aspirated h in some cases forms a c, as noticed at 
p. 46. It is probable that rdd, rot, red, also 

intermixes. 

simple forms. 
Old German Hrodo, Boado, Chrodo, Rodi, Rudda, Rot, q[q^ 
Roth, Ruth, 8th cent. Rudda, Lib. Vit. English Rodd, 
Roth, Wroth, Rout, Routh, Root, Rooth, Rudd, Rutt, 
Rutty, Ruth, Croad, Crotty, Crowdy. Modern German 
Rhode, Rodde, Roth, Rott, Rutte, Ruth. French Rode, 
Rodde, Rota, Roth, Rotta, Rott^, Rotti, Rude, Rudeau, 
Ruteau, Crott^ 



372 THE TRUMPET OF FAME. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old German Hruodiclio, 8tli cent. — English Rodick, 
E-UDDICK — Mod. German Rodeck, Old German Kutechin, 
llth cent. — Eng. Rudkin — French Rouchon. Old Germ. 
Hrodelus, Rodil, Chrodila, 8th cent. — English Ruddell, 
RouTLEY, RuTLEY— Mod. German Rodel, Rudel — French 
RoDEL, RouDiL, Rudelle, Croutelle. Old Germ. Rodelin 
— French Roudillon, Roullin, Rollin. English Roddis, 
Rhodes, Roots, Rootsey — Fr. Rodiez, Grouts, Croutsch. 
Old Germ. Hrodemia, 9th cent. — Eng. Roddam. 

phonetic ending. 
Old Germ. Hrodin, Ruathin, Chrodin, 6th cent. Eng. 
Roden, Rothon, Rotton, Croton, Crowden. Mod. Germ. 
RiJDON. French Rodin, Rutten. 

PATRONYMICS. 

Old Germ. Rodinga, 8th cent. English Rudding. Mod. 
Germ. Roding. 

COMPOUNDS. 

[Bald, bold) Old German Hrodbald, Robald, 7th cent. — 
French Roubaud. (Ber, bear) Old Germ. Hruadbero, 9th 
cent. — English Rodber. (Birin, hern, bear) Old German 
Roudbirn, 8th cent. — Old Norse Hrothbiorn — English Rod- 
bourn. {Bert, bright) Old German Hrodebert, Duke of the 
Alamanni, 7th cent., Rodbert, Robert, 8th cent. — English 
Robert — Modern German Robert, Rupprecht — French 
Robert. (Berg, protection) Old Germ. Hrotberga, Rodbirg, 
6th cent. — French Roberge. {Gar, spear) Old German 
Hrodgar, Crodeger, 7th cent. — Anglo- Saxon Ilrothgar {Beo- 
wulf) — Old Norse Hrothgeir — Roeger, Lib. Vit. — Roger, 
Domesday — English Rodger, Croager — Modern German 
Rodger, Roger — French Roger. {Gard, protection) Old 
Germ. Hrodgart, Rutgard, 8th cent. — English Rodgard, 
RuDGARD. {Hard) Old Germ. Hrodhard, Rohard, 7th cent. 
— English Rod YARD — Modern German Rothardt — French 
Rohard, Rohart. {Hari, warrior) Old German Hrodhari, 
Lombard king, 7th cent., Rotheri, Crother, Rudher — Eng. 
Rothery, Rudder, Rutter, Crothers — Modern German 



THE TRUMPET OF FAME. 373 

RoDER, Ruder — Fr. Rodier, Roudiere, Rudder, Rutter. 
{Land J terra) Old Germau Rodland, Rolland, 8th cent. — 
Rolond, Lib. Vit. — Eng. Rolland — Mod. Germ, Rolland 
— French Roland. (Laic, play) Old German Ruodleich, 
Rutleich, 8th cent. — Eng. Rutledge, Routledge. (Rarrif 
raven) Old Germ. Rothram, Rodrannus, 8th cent. — English 
Rotheram — French Rodron. (Man) Old German Hrod- 
man, Ruodman, 8th cent. — English Rodman, Ruddiman, 
RuDMAN — Modern German Rodemann. {Mar^ famous) Old 
Germ. Ruadmar, 7th cent. — Old Norse Hrothmar — French 
RuDEMARE. {Niw, joung) Old Germ. Hrodni, 8th cent. — 
Old Norse Hrodny — Eng. Rodney, Rothney. {Ric, power) 
Old German Hrodric, last of the West Gothic Kings, 8th 
cent. — English Rodrick — Mod. German Rudrich — Spanish 
RoDRiGO. {Wealh, stranger) Old German Ruadwalah, 8th 
cent. — English Rodwell, Rothwell, Crutwell — French 
Rotival. {Wald, power) Old Germ. Hrodowald, Lombard 
king, 7th cent. — Mod. Germ. Rodwald — French Roualt. 
{Ward, guardian) Old Germ. Hrodoward, 8th cent. — French 
RoDUWART. {Wig, wi, war) Old Germ. Hrodwig, Ruodwih, 
8th cent. — English Rudwick, Rodaway, Rodway — Mod. 
Germ. Rode wig. ( Ulf, wolf) Old Germ. Hrodulf, king of 
the Heruli, 5th cent. ; king of Burgundy, 9th cent. — Ang.- 
Sax. Hrothwulf — Eng. Rudolph — Mod. German Rudolph, 
RuDELOFF — French Rodolphe. 

A fifth stem of similar meaning is rom, rum, 
which Forstemann refers to hrom, hruam, glory. 
The aspirated h forms c in a few English names. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Rom, Rom. 

Old German Hruam, Ruomo, Rumo, 8th cent. Rum, Glory, 
name of a female serf. Cod. Dip. 981. Eng. Rome, Room, 
Rum, Rummey, Crome, Cromey, Groom, Crum.* Modern 
German Rohm, Rohm, Rom. French Rommy, Rom^o, 
Romieu. 

* This might be from an Old Norse name ELrumr, which seems to be from 
Dan. krum, bent or crooked. 



374 THE TRUMPET OF FAME. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old German Rumali. English Romilly, Rumley, Rum- 
BELOW, Cromley. Mod. Germ. Rommel, Rummel. French 
Rommel, Roumilly, Rummel. 

compounds. 

{Bald hold) Old German Rumbold, 10th cent. — English 
Rumbold. (Hari, warrior) Old Germ. Hrumheri, Rumhar, 
6th cent. — Eng. Romer, Rummer — Mod. German Raumer, 
Reaumur, Romer — French Roumier. {Ulf, wolf) Old Germ. 
Romulf, 6th cent. — French Romeuf. 

The following stem, found in three ancient 

names, all in German forms, Forstemann refers 

to Lat. clarus, Mid. High Germ, cldr, illustrious. 

Some of the following are certainly of German 

origin, but others may be doubtful. 

simple forms. 
ciar, cier, EnsHsh Clare, Clary, Clear, Cleary. French Clair, 

lUustrious. o ' ' ' 

Clarey, Cler, Clerf. 

diminutives. 
Eng. Claridge. Eng. Claris — French Cli^risse. 

PATRONYMIC. 

French Clarenc. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Et, p. 189) English Claret — French Clariat, Cleret. 
{Mund, protection) Old Germ. Clarmunt, 9th cent. — English 
Claremont — French Clermont (or local 1). ( Vis, wise) Eng. 
Clarvis, Clarvise. 

PHONETIC ending. • 

French Clairin, Cl:^in. 
phonetic intrusion of n. 
{Bald, bold) Old German Clarembald, 11th cent. — Eng. 
Claringbold, Claringbull— French Clerambault. {Burg, 
protection) French Clerambourg. 

There is a stem dot, tal, which Forstemann 
refers to Ang.-Sax. dealy illustrious. Another 
stem dale he separates doubtingly, mentioning 
the Goth, dails, Ang.-Sax. dael, part (better the 



THE TRUMPET OF FAME. 375 

verb delaUy to dispense, distribute). A third 
word which would suit very well for the sense of 
some of the compounds is Old Norse tola, Ang.- 
Sax. talian, to relate, recount. However, I will 
not attempt the separation, but introduce the 
whole group here. 

SIMPLE FORMS. j,^j ^^^ 

Old Germ. Tallo, Dal, Tello, Telo, 8tli cent., Daila, Deil, lunstrious. 
Tail, 5tli cent. Telia, Lib. Vit. Delee, Roll Bait, Abb. Eng. 
Tall, Dally, Dallow, Dell, Dellow, Dale, Delay, Teale. 
Modern German Dahl, Thal, Tell. Swiss Tell. French 
Dall4 Dally, Talle, Tel, Delle, Delay, Deleau. 
a ■ diminutives. 

T Eng. Dallas, Talliss — French Dalloz, Delesse. Eng. 
Tallage — French Dellac. Fries. Tialma — Fr. Talma. 

phonetic ending. 
S Old Germ. Thailina, 11th cent. Eng. Dallen, Tallon. 
French Dalon, Delan, Delanneau, Tallon. 

PATEONYMICS. 

^' English Dalling, Telling, Teelinq. Modern German 
' ' Dahling. French Delinge. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Bert, bright) Old German Dalbert, 8th cent. — Talberct, 
Lib. Fit. — English 1'albert — French Dalbert, Talbert. 
(Bot, envoy) English Talbot — French Talabot, Talbot, 
Delabaud 1 {Bon, slayer) Eng. Telbin, — French Dalibon. 
(Dio, servant) Eng. Daldy ? (Fer, travel) Old Germ. Dal- 
feri* — Eng. Telfer — Fr. Tailfer, Taillefer, Deloffre. 
(Fard, travel) English Talfourd ? Telford ? (Ge?-, spear) 
Eng. Talker ? — Fr. Dalger, Deloger, Delocre. (ffari, 
warrior) Old German Dealher, Delheri, 9th cent. — English 
Dallor, Delhier, Deller, Teller — Mod. Germ. Thaler, ySkMt/t 

DoLER, TiELER — Fr. Dallery, Del aire, Delery, Tellier. ^ 

(Hard) Fr. Dalliard, Tallard, Teillart. (Man) Old 

* This name FOrstemann does not seem to be certain about ; Daiferi, Dauferi 
and Daiferi occur nearly together, and he appears to think that one may be put for 
the other. Of course I do not put out of question the ordinary derivation of 
Taillefer, ' ' iron-cleaver. " 



V - 



376 THE TRUMPET OF FAME. 

German Dalman, 8th cent. — English Dalman, Tallman— - 
Mod. Germ. Dahlmann, Thalmann — French Delmon, Dal- 
LEMAGNE ? Talleman. {Mar, famous) English Dallimore, 
Dellamore, Delmar — Mod. Germ. Thalmeier, Thalham- 
MER ? — French Delamarre, Delemer, Delimier, Delmer. 
(Mag, mac, might) Eng. Tallemach ? Talmage 1 {Mot, 
courage) Old Germ. Talamot, 8th cent. — French Delamotte, 
Delmotte, Delamothe. {Rig, power) Old Germ. Delricus, 
9th cent. — French Dalerac, Delrocq. {Rand, shield) Fr. 
^ Talleyrand? (TFarc?, guardian) French Delouard. {Wig, 
wi, war) Daliwey, Hund. Rolls — Eng. Dalloway — French 
Dalvl 

There is a stem hlad, blat, which Forstemann, 
supposing a metathesis, places to the root haldt 
p. 240, but which Stark, as I think, more judi- 
ciously, refers to Anglo-Saxon hlwd, glory. The 
Ang.-Saxon bleed, a blade, leaf, metaphorically a 
sword (as in English), seems however equally 
probable. A name Blatspiel, apparently German, 
in the London directory, seems more naturally 
referable to the latter, in the sense of " sword- 
play." 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

^lory English Blade, Blate, Platt. French Blad, Blatte, 

Bled, Blet, Platte, Plateau, Plait, Plet. 

diminutives. 
French Plattel, Platel, Bletel. 
phonetic ending. 
Old Germ. Bladin, 8th cent. English Platon, Platten. 
French Blatin, Bleton. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Hard) Old Germ. Bladard, 7th cent. — French Platard. 
{Hari, warrior) Old Germ. Blathar — Eng. Plater — French 
Bladier, Blatter, Bletery, Plaideur ? {Rat, counsel) 
French Platret. 



THE TRUMPET OF FAME. 377 

In this place may come in the stem load, lote, 
loud, which Forstemann refers to Old High Germ. 
liMt, loud, which, as in the Greek, had also the 
sense of illustrious. In support of the latter 
derivation Abel quotes a Hne from Ermold Nigel 
in his poem in praise of Saint Louis. 

' * Nempe sonat Hluto prseclarum, Wicgch quoque Mars est. " 

Forstemann observes that there is no more 
difficult root than this in the compass of German 
names, from its liability to mix with liitd. Hut, 
people. The initial h forms c in many names of 
the Merovingian period, as also in several French 
and EngHsh. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Chlodio, Frankish kins:, 5th cent. : Chludius, ,°* > °* • 

° ' ' Illustnous. 

Lotto. English Laud, Loat, Lote, Lott, Clode, Cloud, 
Clout. Mod. German Lode, Loth, Lott, Klode, Kloth. 
French Laude, Laudy, Lodde, Claude. 

diminutives. 
Old German Luotheco, 11th cent. — Eng. Lotcho. Eng. 
LowDELL — French Claudel. 

phonetic ending. 
English LoADEN, Loton, Loudon, Glutton. French 
Laudon, Loudun, Lautten, Claudin. 

patronymic. 
English Clowting. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Sari, warrior) Old Germ. Hlodhar, Clothar, 6th cent. — . 
Loth ere. King of Kent, a.d. 673, called also Clotherius, Cod. 
Dip. 981 — Eng. Loader, Lowder, Clothier — Mod. German 
LoTHER, LoTTER — Fr. LoEDER, Laudier, Lautier. {HUd, 
war) Old German Chloticliilda or Clothilda, daughter of the 
Burgundian king, Chilperic, 5th cent. — French Clotilde 
(christian name), {Mar, famous) Old German Chlodomir, 
son of Chlodwig 1st, 6th cent. — French Clodomir. (Man) 

V 2 



378 THE TRUMPET OF FAME. 

English LoADMAN, Cloudman, Cloutman — French? Laute- 
MANN. (Wig, wi, war) Old German Lodewig, Chlodowich, 
Clodoveus, Clovis, 6th cent. — French Clovis. 

Another word having the meaning of glory is 
Ang.-Sax. and Old High German wuldar. This, 
in its simple form, is apt to intermix with Walter, 
p. 345. 

Wulder. SIMPLE FOEMS. 

Qiory. English WoLTER. French Yoltier, Wolter. Or all 

the above may perhaps only be the same as Walter. 

COMPOUNDS. 

Old German XJulderich, Vulderich, 8th cent. English 

WOOLDRIDGE. 

In this chapter may be included the names 
having the meaning of crown, bracelet, or orna- 
ment, in the probable sense of a badge or dis- 
tinction, as the reward of valour. There is a stem 
howk, houch, which I take to be from Goth, bangs. 
Old High Germ, banc, bracelet. And the forms 
bug, buck, I also take to be most probably from 
the same, on account of the constant tendency to 
change the more ancient form ou into the simpler 
u. A third form is found in the Ang.-Sax. bedg, 
bedh, bSh, whence I take to be the Eng. " badge.'' 
A word very liable to intermix is bog, bow, arcus, 
p. 224, from the same general root signifying to 
bend. 

_ , SIMPLE FORMS. 

Bouch ^^^ German Banco, Paugo, 6th cent. Bucco, Buggo, 

Bracelet. Pucco, 8th cent. Ang.-Saxon Bucge, Buga, Beage. Buge, 
(Domesday Notts.). Eng. Bouch, Bouciiey, Beugo, Bugg, 
Bew, Buck, Buckie, Badge, Bee, (the two latter the Ang.- 
Saxon form). Mod. Germ. Bauch, Baucke, Pauck, Buck, 
Bugge, Puche. French Bouch^ Poucha. 



THE TRUMPET OF FAME. 379 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old Germ. Buccelin, General of the Alamanni, 6th cent. 
— Eng. BucKLiN, BuGGELN — French Bouquillon, Bouglon. 
English BucKSEY — Fi-ench Boucasse, Bouchez. English 
Buglea, Bewly, Buckley, Buckle, Buckle — Fr. Boucly, 
Buckle, Bucaille, Bougle. 

phonetic ending. 

Old Germ. Buchinus, 7th cent. Eng. Buckney, Buggin, 
PuGiN. French BoucoN, Bouchon, Boucheny, Bougon, 
Pougin, Pougny. 

compounds. 

(Hard) French Boucard, Boucart, Bouchard, Pou- 
ch ard. (Rari, warrior) Old German IIavKapL<s (Procop) — 
English BowKER, Boucher — French Boucher, Boucherie, 
Bucker, BouHiER. (Ety^. 189) Eng. Bowkett, Bucket, 
Bucket — Fr. Bouquet, Bouchet, Pouchet. {Rat, counsel) 
Old German Bougrat, 10th cent. — English Boucherett* — 
French Bougueret, Bouquerot, Boucherot. {Ron, raven) 
French Bougrain, Boucheron. {Ric, power) Eng. Buck- 
eidge, Puckridge — French Boucry. {Wald, power) Old 
Germ. Buciowald, 6th cent. — French Bougault, Pougeault 
(Ulf, wolf) Old German Baugulf, 8th cent. — Anglo-Saxon 
Beownlf ?— English Balfe ? 

From the Gothic mizdo, Anglo-Saxon med^ 
Old High German niieta, reward, Eng. " meedy' 
Forstemann derives a stem mid, miz, which may 
come in here. 

simple forms. 

Meed. 

Old German Mieto, Mizo, 8th cent. Mede, Lib. Vit. Reward. 
English MEADjt Miette. French Midi, Miette. 

diminutives. 

Old Germ. Mitola, 7th cent. — Eng. Middle, Mittell — 
French Midol. French Midocq. 

* Of French origin, 
t Or to the stem nmth, med, p. 341. 



380 THE TRUMPET OF FAME. 

PHONETIC ENDING. 

English MiTTON, Mizon. French Miton, Milton. 

PATRONYMIC. ^ 

English Missing. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Hard) French Misard. {Hari, warrior) French Midi^ke, 

MiSSIER, MiZERY. 



CHAPTER XXI. 



WEALTH AND PROSPERITY. 

Among the words having the meaning of 
wealth, prosperity, success, the most common 
root is Old Norse audr, Ang.-Saxon edd, whence 
the Gothic audags, Ang.-Saxon eddig, eadg. Old 
Norse audgr, wealthy or prosperous. Forste- 
mann extends this root rather widely, taking in 
all the forms in od and ot, for which I think that 
two other derivations may perhaps in certain 
cases be proposed, see pp. 194, 217. Most of the 
Enghsh names, it will be seen, are in the Saxon 
form ed, and most of the French in the Gothic 
form aud. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old German Audo, Oudo, Outo, 7th cent. Old Norse ^''^' ^^• 

Prosperity. 
Audr. Ang.-Sax. Edda, Eddi, Eata. Auti, Outi, Domesday. 

Eng. Aught, Aughtie, Ought, Auth, Eade, Eadie, Eddy, 

Eat. Modern German Ott. French Aude, Audy, Auti]^, 

Outi, Ode. 

diminutives. 
Old Germ. Audila, 6th cent. — Eng. Outlaw ? — French 
Audille. Old Germ. Audac, 6th cent. — French Audiquet 
(double dimin.J. English Edkins. English Eddis — French 
AuDis. Old German Odemia, 8th cent. — Eng. Odam. 

phonetic ending. 
Old Germ. Audin, 7th cent. English Auton, Oughton, 
Eadon. French Audin, Autin, Oudin. 

patronymics. 

Old German Auding, 8th cent. English Outing. 

compounds. 

(Bert, bright) Old German Audebert, 7 th cent. — Modern 

German Odebrecht — French Audibert. (Brand, sword) 



382 WEALTH AND PROSPERITY. 

Old German Autprand, 9th cent. — French Audebrand. 
{Burg, protection) Old German Autburg, 8th cent. — Anglo- 
Saxon Eadburh — Eng. Edbrook ? {Am, Orn, eagle ?) Old 
German Autorn, 8th cent. — Odierna, Lib. Vit. — Hodierna, 
temp. William the Conqueror — Eng. Odierne. {Fred, peace) 
Old Germ. Autfrid, 8th cent. — French Audiffred, Audif- 
FRET. {Gan, magic) Old German Audiganus, 9th cent. — 
French Audiganne. {Ger, spear) Old German Audagar, 
Augar, 8th cent. — Ang.-Sax. Edgar — Eng. Edgar, Ediker, 
Auger — French Audiguier, Odigier, Auger. {Hard) Old 
German Authard, 7th cent. — French Oudard. (Hari, 
warrior) Old German Autharis, Lombard king, 6th cent , 
Authar — Eng. Auther — French Authier, Autier, Audier- 
(Romiy ran, raven) Old German Andram, Autrannus, 7th 
cent. — Eng. Autram, Outram — French Audran, Autran. 
{Land) Old Germ. Aotlund, 8th cent. — French Autheland. 
{Mad, med, reverence) Old German Automad, 8th cent. — 
Eng. Edmead, Edmett. (Man) Old German Autman, 8th 
cent. — English Edmans — Modern German Odemann. {Mar, 
famous) Old Germ. Audomar, 7th cent. — French Audemars. 
{Mund, protection) Old Germ. Audemnnd, 7th cent. — Ang.- 
Sax. Eadmund — English Edmond — French Edmond. {Rad, 
red, counsel) Old Germ. Auderat, Autrad, 8th cent. — Ang.- 
Sax. Eadred, Uhtred — Eng. Audritt, Outred. {Ric, power) 
Old German Audricus, Autricus, 7th cent. — Anglo-Saxon 
Eadric — English Outridge, Edridge — French Autrique, 
AuTEROCHE. {Weahl, stranger) Otuel, Lib. Vit. — English 
Ed WELL, Eatwell, Ottiwell. {Ward, guardian) Old Germ. 
Audoard, 8th cent. — Ang.-Sax. Eadweard — Eng. Edward — 
French Audevard, Audouard, Edouard. {Wig, war) Ang.- 
Sax. Eadwig — English Ed wick — French Audouy. (Wine, 
friend) Old Germ. Audowin, Audoin, 6th cent. — Ang.-Sax. 
Eadwine — English Edwin — French Audoin. ( Wulf) Ang.- 
Sax. Eadwulf, Eadulf— Eng. Edolph. 

A word of similar meaning is Anglo-Saxon 
wela, weola, weal, wealth, prosperity. Forste- 
mann separates this stem from another, which he 



WEALTH AND PROSPERITY. 383 

derives from ivel, bene, but I think the distinc- 
tion is scarcely to be made, and class them 
together. 

SrMPLE FORMS. 

Old German Wialo, Weak, Welo, 8th cent. EngHsh WeaL 
Weale, Wellow, Veale, Wheeley. Mod. Germ. Wiehl. "^^^p®"^ ^• 
French Weil, Wel, Veil, Yiel, Velly, Violleau. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old German Weliga. English Wheelock, Whellock, 
Wellock. French Velic. 

phonetic ending. 
English Wheelan. French Yeillon. 

PATRONYMICS. 

Old German Wellunc, 9th cent. English Welling, 
Wheeling. Mod. Germ. Wehling. French Welling. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Hard) English Wellard — Modem German Weilert — 
French Ouellard, Yellard, Yeillard, Yiolard. {Ha/ri, 
warrior) Old Germ. Wielher, 8th cent. — English Wheeler, 
Weller — Mod. Germ. Weiller — Fr. Veiller, Yiollier, 
{Land) Old Germ. Wiolant, Weland,* 8th cent. — Ang.-Sax. 
Weland — Old Norse Yolundr — Eng. Wayland, Weland, 
Welland — Mod. Gei-m. Weyland, Wieland. (Man) Old 
Germ. Weliman, 8th cent. — Eng. Wellman — Mod. German 
Wellmann. {Eat, counsel) Old G«rm. Wielrat, 8th cent. — 
Eng. Wheelwright ? ( Ulf, wolf) Old German Weololf — 
French ? Welhoff ? 

From a similar root is woly which Forstemann 
refers to Old High German wolOy wola, fortuna, 
bene. As a prefix it may in some cases be formed 
by syncope from ivolf, 

simple forms. -WolL 

Old German Wolo, Wola, 9th cent. English Woli, prosperity. 
Wolley, Wholey. Mod. German Wohl, Woll. French 
YoL, Yollee. 

* Grimm thinks that the Weland of Northern mythology may perhaps 
derive his name from Old Norse vela, to deceive, a derivation which would accord 
with the story of which he is the hero. 



384 WEALTH AND PROSPERITY. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Eng. WoLEDGE. French Woillez. French VoiLQUiN. 

PHONETIC ENDING. 

English WoLLEN. French Yoilin. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Et, p. 189) Eng. WoLLATT, Vollet — French Vollet. 
(Har% warrior) Eng. Yoller — French Vollier. (Helm) 
Eng. YoLLAM, YoLLUM — French Woillaume, Yuillaume. 
(Frid, peace) Old German Wolafrid, 9th cent. — French 
Yuillefroy. (MaVj famous) Old German Wolomar, 8th 
cent. — Mod. Germ. Wollmer — French Yoillemier. (Mot^ 
courage) Old German Wolamot, 8th cent. — French Yuille- 
MOT. (Mund, protection) Old Germ. Wolamunt, 9th cent. 
— French Yoillemont. (Ric, power) Old Germ. Wolarih, 
8th cent. — Eng. Wolrige. (Work, opus)* Eng. Whole- 
work? 

From the Goth, ufjd, abundance, Forstemann 
thinks may perhaps be derived the root uf^ of, 
remarking, however, that the root ub, (Old Norse 
uhbi, fierce) is Hable to intermix. There is, more- 
over, another derivation suggested by the name 
of the Mercian king OfFa or UfFa. His ancestor 
of the same name, who ruled over the continental 
Angeln, " was blind till his seventh, and dumb 
till his thirteenth year ; and though exceUing in 
bodily strength, was so simple and pusillanimous 
that all hope that he would ever prove himself 
worthy of his station was abandoned.'^ (Thorpe.) 
This description naturally suggests to us as the 
etymon of his name, the Anglo-Saxon uuf, owl, 
English " oaf," blockhead. It does not, however, 
seem to me necessary to assume with Mr. Thorpe 
that it was any resemblance to his Anglian 

* This is found as the termination of some ancient names. 



WEALTH AND PROSPERITY. 385 

ancestor that gave the name to the Mercian 
Offa ; I should rather suppose that the ignoble 
origin (if such it were) of the name had passed 
out of mind, and that it was assumed in accord- 
ance with the common principle of taking the 
name of an ancestor. 

SIMPLE FORMS. q^ ^ff 

Old Germ. Uifo, Offo, 8tli cent. A ng. -Saxon Offa, king ^bun^ance. 
of Mercia. English Offey, Ough. Mod. Germ. Off. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old German Ofilo, 7th cent. English Offill, Uffell, 
Offlow, Offley. Mod. Germ. Oeffele. 

PHONETIC ending. 

Old German Offuni, 8th cent. English Offen. French 

Ofin, Offny. 

compounds. 
{Hard) English Offord. (Hari, warrior) Eng. Offer. 
(Man) French Offman. 

For the following stem, on which Forste- 
mann remarks as very obscure, he suggests Ang.- 
Sax. tass, acervus, congeries frugum. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old German Taso, Lombard king, Qth cent., Tasso, Dasso. 
Eng. Dassy. Mod. Germ. Dasse. French Dassy, Tassy. 
Ital. Tasso ? 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old German Tassilo, Bavarian king, 6th cent., Dassilo, 
Dessilo — Eng. Tassell — Mod. Germ. Dassel — Fr. Tassel, 
Tassily, Desolle. French Tasselin. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{And, life, spirit) English Dasent ? — French Dessant? 
Desaint t (Et, p. 189^ English Dassett — French D asset, 
Tassot. {Hard, fortis) English Dessert — French Tassert, 
Desert. {Hari, warrior) French Dassier. (Man) English 
Tasman — Mod. Germ. Dessmann, Tessman. {Eat, counsel) 
Old Germ. Tasrad, 9th cent. — French Desrat. {Ger, spear) 
English Tassiker ? Tasker ? — French Tascher ? 

w 2 



Tass. 
Acervus. 



386 WEALTH AND PROSPERITY. 

The idea of inheritance seems to be found in 
the root arb, arp, which Forstemann refers to 
Gothic arhja. Old Norse a7^Ji, heir, Gothic arbi. 
Old Norse arfr, Ang.-Sax. erfe, hereditas. I do 
not feel sure, however, that we ought not to take 
the most ancient meaning of the root, as found 
in Sansc. cwv, to destroy, to desolate. Zeuss and 
Grimm mention also Gothic airps, Anglo-Saxon 
eorp, fuscus. (In Ang.-Saxon and Old Norse this 
word had also the meaning of wolf, a suitable 
sense for proper names.) 

, , . SIMPLE FORMS. 

A.rl) A.n3 

Inheritance ^^^ German Arbo, Arpo, Erbo, Erpo, Herbo, Herpo, 
Herfo, 8th cent. Avpus, a prince of the Catti in Tacitus, 
Ist cent., probably comes in here. Old Norse Erpr. Eng. 
Harp, Herp. Modern German Arve, Erb, Erpf, Harpe. 
French Arbeau, Arbey. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old Germ. Erfilo — Mod. Germ. Erpel — French Herbel, 
Harbly. French Herbelin. French Herbecq. French 

Harbez. 

phonetic ending. 
Old German Erbona, Arbun, 8th cent. — English Arbon, 
Arpin — French Arpin, Herbin, Herpin. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Gast, guest) Arbogastes, a Frankish general under the 
Emperor Gratian, 4tli cent. — French Arbogast. (Hard) 
Old German Arphert, 9tli cent. — French Arfort. {Hari 
warrior) Old German Erphari, 8th cent. — English Arber, 
Arbery, Herper, Harper? — Modern German Herpfer? — 
French Arbre, Arvier, Hervier. (Ilund, protection) Old 
German Erpmund, 10th cent. — French Arbomont. (Ulfi 
wolf) Old Germ. Erpulf, 8th cent. — French Arveuf. 

Another stem of similar meaning may be laib, 
laiv, which Forstemann refers to Gothic laifs. 



WEALTH AND PROSPERITY. 387 

supers tes. The meaning, however, may be, as 
Forstemann suggests, simply that of son. A 
root liable to intermix is Hub, leoj] p. 264. 

SIMPLE FORMS. T b L * 

Old Germ. Leifi. English Lavey, Laby, Levey. Mod. guperstes. 

Germ, Leff. French Lab^, Labie, Lebey, Lebeau, Leve, 

Leveau. 

diminutives. 

English Lavell, Levell — French Labelle, Lavalle, 
Lavalley, Lebel. French Labiche, Lebocq. French 
Leflon. English La vis, Levis — French Lebiez. 

PHONETIC ending. 

Old German Leibin, Laifin, 9th cent. — English Lavin, 
Levin — Mod. Germ. Lebin — Fr. Lavenay, Lafon, Leban. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Em, eagle) English Labern — French Laverne. (Et, 
p. 189) English Levett — French Labitte, Lafitte, Levite. 
(Hard) Modern German Lepert — French Levard. {Ha/riy 
warrior) Old Germ. Leibher, 8th cent. — Eng. Layer, Labor 
— Mod. Germ. Laiber — French Lavier, Labour, Laborie. 
(Ram, ran, raven) Eng. Labram — French Laviron. [Rat, 
counsel) Old Germ. Leibrat, 8th cent. — English Leveret — 
French Levrat, Lebret. {Rig, power) English Laverick, 
Leveridge — Fr. Labric, Lebreck. {Wald, power) French 
Lavault, Lebeault. (Ulf, wolf) Old German Laibulf, 8th 
cent. — French Lebuffe, Leboeuf. 

The sense of acquisitiveness may perhaps be 

foiuid in the root arg, arc, ere, which Graff refers 

to Old High German arc, arac, avarus, though 

Forstemann thinks that some older meaning may 

lie at the bottom of it. 

simple forms. 

Old Germ. Argo, Archo, Araho, Ercho, 9th cent. Eng. ^^^^^l'^- 

Arch, Urch, Argue. Mod. Germ. Erche, Erck. French 

Argy, Arago. 

diminutives. 

Old Germ. Argila, 7th cent. English Arkell, Arculus 

(Birm.) 



388 WEALTH AND PROSPERITY. 

COMPOUNDS. - 

(And, life, spirit) Old Germ. Argant, 11 th cent. — Eng. 
Argent — French Argand. {Bald, bold) Eng. Archbold, 
Archbell. (Bud, envoy) Old Germ. Argebud, 7th cent. — 
Eng. Archbutt. (Hard) Old Germ. Archard, 10th cent. 
— Eng. Archard, Orchard, Urquhart. {Hari, warrior) 
Old German Argar, Erchear, 8th cent. — Arch ere, Roll Batt. 
Abb. — Eng. Archer — Mod. Germ. Erker — French Arche- 
REAU. (Eat, counsel) Old Germ. Archarat, 8th cent. — Eng. 
Arkwright 1 {Mwnd, protection) Old German Argemund, 
7th cent. — English Argument. 



yl-^i 



CHAPTER XXII. 



THE OUTER MAN. 

Names derived from personal characteristics, 
such as stature, complexion, &c., must no doubt 
have in many cases been originally surnames- 
Bede, in his Ecclesiastical History, gives us one 
of the earliest instances of surnames of this sort. 
There were two Hewalds, both missionaries to 
the Old Saxons, one of whom was called for the 
sake of distinction black Hewald, and the other 
white Hewald, from the different colour of their 
hair. This brings us back to the year 692. But 
such names appear also to have been often given 
baptismally, and though in some cases we may 
suppose that they were an actual description of 
the infant, yet in the majority of cases I conceive 
that they were simply adopted as being names 
in use. 

The sense of personal beauty enters into a 
considerable number of names. From the Old 
High Germ, scdni. Mod. Germ. scJioiiy Ang.-Sax- 
sceone, scene, are the following. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old German Sconea, 9th cent. English Skone, Shone, sheen' 
Skeen, Skiney, Sheen, Shine, Shinn. Mod. Germ. Schon. BeautifuL 
French Schone. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Burg, protection) Old Germ. Sconiburga, Sconburg, 1 0th 
cent. — French Shoenberg. (Hari, warrior) Old Germ. Scon- 
hari, 8th cent. — English Shoner, Shiner, Shinner — Mod. 
Germ. Schoner — French ? Schener. (Man) Eng. Sheniman. 



390 THE OUTER MAN. 

The sense of personal beauty is in some 
instances closely allied to that of brightness. 
Thus the above root is related to Eng. "shine'^ 
and " sheen." And the Old Norse dcegilegr, 
pulcher, is probably connected with dag, day, 
dagian, to shine. Again, the sense of bright- 
ness is used metaphorically to express glory or 
fame, as in the root hert, bright, p. 369. But 
though these two senses are naturally Hable to 
intermix, I am inclined to think that the more 
general meaning is that of personal beauty. In 
the former edition I took the root dag, day, to 
be derived from the personification of Northern 
mythology. But Grimm (Deutsch. Gramm.J 
suggests whether its meaning may not be that 
of brightness or beauty. The latter sense I take 
as the most suitable, and introduce the group in 
this place, 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Dag, Tag, I Old German Dag, Dago, Daga, Dacco, Tacco, 6th cent. 
Brightness, English Dagg, Dack, Deck, Day, Tagg, Tegg, Tay. Mod. 
Beauty, q^^^^^ Daake, Dage, Deck, Tag, Tack. French Daga, 
Taquo, Decq, Degay. 

diminutives. 
Old German Dagalo, Tacilo, 7th cent. — English Dagley, 
Daily, Tackle, Tackley, Tekell — Mod. German Degel, 
Tagel — Fr. Degalle, Degola, Decle, Dechilly, Decla, 
Dailly. Old Germ. Dacolenus, 7 th cent. — French Daclin, 
Decline, Deglane. English Daykin. Eng. Dayes, Daze, 
X)AisY — French Dages, Daces. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(And, life, spirit) Old Germ. Dachant, 8th cent. — French 
Dagand. {Bald, bold) Old German Tagapald, Dacbold, 8th 
cent. — Daegbald, Lib. Vit. — English Daybell — Mod. Germ. 



THE OUTER MAN. 391 

Tabold. {Bern, bear) Old German Tagapern, 9th cent. — 
Englisli Tayburn. {Bert, bright) Old German Dagobert, 
Frankish king, 7th cent. — Mod. German Dabbert — French 
Dacbert, Degobert. {Birg, protection) Old German Taga- 
birga, 9 th cent. — Eng. Tackabarry. (Gest, hospes) French 
Dagest. (Grim, fierce) Old German Dagrim, 9th cent. — 
French Dagrin, Dagron.* {Hari, warrior) Old German 
Daiher, 9th cent. — Dacher, Lib. Vit. — English Dagger, 
Dacker, Payer, Dairy — Modern German Tager — French 
Daguerre, Dagoury, Dachery, Degory, Decker, Decori. 
{Hard) English Tagart, Tegart — Mod. German Deckert — 
French Tachard, Dechard. (Helm) Old Germ. Dachelm, 
9th cent, — English Dacombe — French Dechaume. (Med, 
reverence) French Dagomet. (Man) Eng. Tackman, Day- 
man — Mod. German Tagmann. {Mund, protection) Old 
German Dagamund, 9th cent, — English Daymont. {Rand, 
shield) French Degrand, Decrand. {Rat, counsel) Old Germ. 
Dacarat, 8th cent. — French Decret. {Wine, friend) Old 
Germ. Dagoin, 8th cent. — French Dagoin, Dacquin. (TP^f, 
wolf) Old German Dagaulf, Thuringian duke, 6th cent. — 
Mod. Germ. Daulf — French Degof, Decuve. 

phonetic intrusion of n. 
{Hard) Old Germ. Tagenard, 9th cent. Fr. Tagniard. 

I take the stem glas, glis,\ also to have the 
meaning of shining, smoothness, and hence of per- 
sonal beauty. In the former edition I referred 
our name Glass to glass, vitrum, but I now 
think it necessary to look deeper, and to take the 
root from which that word is derived. The sense 
contained is that of brightness, smoothness, and 
polish, and the root is foiuid in Old High Germ. 

* Or these two names, and especially the latter, may be the same as the 
Da^hrefn of Beowtilf — refn, raven, being in French names frequently contracted 
into ron. 

t Perhaps to the same stem may be put English Gloss, Close, French 
Closse, Cloez, English Closbk, French Closiee, (fee. 



392 THE OUTER MAN. 

glizan. Mod. German gleiszen, to shine, Old Norse 
glcBsa, to polish. Old High German glas, glis, 
brightness, English glaze, gloss, glisten. 

Glass, Glis. SIMPLE FORMS. 

Brightness Old German Glis, lOth cent. English Glass, Glassey, 
Beauty, Glaze, Class. Mod. Germ. Glass, Gleiss, Klass. French 
Glas, Glaise, Glaze. 

diminutive. 
English Glaskin. 

phonetic ending. 
English Glasson, Glissan, Classon. French Glassoni 
Classen. 

compounds. 
(Hard) Eng. Glazard. {Hari, warrior) Old German 
Glisher, 8th cent. — Eng. Glazier, Glaisher — Mod. German 
Glaser — French Glaeser. {Wald, power) Eng. Clissold. 

Again, the sense of brightness sometimes 
merges into that of whiteness. Thus the Anglo- 
Saxon hlanc. Old High Germ, blanch, white, seem 
to have their root in Old Norse hlanJca, to shine. 
And the Ang.-Sax. hide, pale, is derived from the 
verb hlican, to shine. Hence, as the Eng. "fair" 
means both light-complexioned and also beautiful, 
so I think in the above two roots there may be 
something more contained than the mere sense of 
white or pale. 

Blank. SIMPLE FORMS. 

White, Old Germ. Blanca, 10th cent. English Blank, Blanch, 

Beautiful? Blenky, Blinco, Plank, Planche, Plincke. Mod. Germ. 
Blank, Blang, Blenk, Planck. French Blanc, Blanque, 
Blanca, Blanche, Blangy, Planque, Planche. 

phonetic ending. 
English Blenkin.* French Blanchin. 

* Henc* Blenkinhop as a local name, " Blenkin's hope," (Ang.-Sax. hdp, 
mound). 



THE OUTER MAN. ' 393 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Et, p. 189) English Blanchett— French Blanquet, 
Blanchet, Planquet. {Hard) Old Germ. Blancard, Blan- 
chard, 11th cent. — English Blanchard — Modern German 
Blanckardt — French Blancard, Blanchard, Blangeard 
Planchard. (Hari, warrior) English Blancker — French 
Blanquier, Planker, Plancher. (Man) Eng. Blankman. 
(Ron, raven) Eng. Blenkiron, Blinckhorn — French Blan- 
CHERON. {Ward, guardian) French Blanquart. 

From the Anglo-Saxon hlican^ to shine, Old 
High Germ, hleih, Ang.-Sax. hide, pale, I derive 
the following stem, which is cognate with the 
last, losing the nasal. There are several Old 
German names, but only one corresponding with 
ours. 

SIMPLE FORMS. Blake. Blick. 

Eng. Blick, Bleak, Bleach, Blake, Blakey, Blacow, paie, 

BlIGH. French BlECH. Beautiful? 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Hari, warrior) Old German Blicker, 8th cent. — English 
Blaker, Bleacher — Mod. Germ. Blecher — French Bl^- 
QUIER (Man) Blaecmon, Lib. VU. — Eng. Blakeman. 

Of a similar meaning maybe the word Jlad, 
fiat, for which Grimm supposes a Gothic fiSths, 
Old High Germ, fl^dt, in the sense of brightness, 
cleanness. Traces of these two senses are found 
respectively in the Mid. High German vlaetec, 
shining, and Mod. German unflath, filth. As a 
termination it is peculiar to the names of women, 
and in Ang.-Sax. takes the form fied, as in Adel- 
fleda, Wynfleda, &c. The Old Norse flidd, a 
beautiful or elegant woman, may be cognate. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

English Flatt, Flett, Flatau. Mod. Gennan Flathe. ^^*'^' ^*^ 

Fair. 

French Flad, Flaud. 

X 2 



394 THE OUTER MAN. 

DIMINUTIVE. PHONETIC ENDING. 

Eng. Flattely. Eng. Flitton. French Flaton. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Harij warrior) English Flatter, Flattery. {Man) 
English Flatman. {Rod^ glory) Old German Fladrudis, 8th 
cent. — French Flatraud. 

Another word having the meaning of beauty 
may be wan, wen. Forstemann suggests Gothic 
v^ns, opes, or Old High Germ, wdn, spes, opinio. 
Graff also refers to Old High Germ, wan, deficiens, 
imperfectum, and wdni, poverty. The most suit- 
able root, as it seems to me, in most cases, is Old 
Norse vcenn, formosus, elegans, to which I here 
place it. 

Wan, Wen. SIMPLE FORMS. 

Beautiful. Old Germ. Wan, Wane, Vano, Wenni, 8th cent. Eng. 

Wane, Wenn, Vane, Vann, Venn. Fr. Vaney, Gueneau. 

diminutives. 

Old Germ. Wanilo, Venilo, 8th cent. — Eng. Wannell, 

Vennell — French Vanelli, Venelle. Old Germ. Wanicho, 

Wenniko, 9th cent. — Eng. Vanneck — Mod. Germ. Wannick 

— French Vanegue. Old German Wannida, Wanito, 9th 

cent. — Eng. Wannod — French Vanetti. 

phonetic ending. 
Old Germ. Wanini, 8th cent. French Vanin, Vanoni. 

patronymics. 
Old Germ. Waning, Wening, 7 th cent, Eng. Wenning, 

Venning. Mod. Germ. Wening, 

compounds. 
(And, life, spirit) Old Germ. Weniant, 9th cent. — French 
Venant. {Bald, bold) Old German Wanbald, 9th cent. — 
French Gu^n^bault. (Ger, spear) Old German Wanegar, 
8th cent. — French Vanackere — Mod. German Weniger. 
{Hari, warrior) Eng. Vanner, Venner — French Wanner, 
Vannier. (Hard) French Vanard, Venard, Guenard. 
{Laug, lavacmm ?) Old Germ. Wanlog, 8th cent. — English 
Wenlock. {Man) English Wenman, Wainman ? {Muth, 
courage) English Wenmoth. (Rat, counsel) Old German 



THE OUTER MAN. 395 

Wanrat, 9th cent. — Eng. WainwrightI — French Guenerat. 
( Waldf power) French Venault, Guenault. 

The names derived from complexion or colour 
of the hair are liable to some uncertainty on 
account of the curious manner in which certain 
of the words denoting colour intermix in their 
roots. To call black white has passed into a 
proverb, yet, as Mr. Wedgwood has shown, it is 
probable that the original meaning of black ivas 
white or pale. Again, the two colours, blue and 
yellow, which have stood in hostile array on so 
many hustings, can scarcely be separated in their 
roots. The Old Norse hldr Haldorsen renders 
both as flavus and caeruleus ; the Italian hiavo, 
blue, is explained by Florian as pale straw- 
coloured ; the Dutch blond is applied to the livid 
hue of a bruise, as well as to the yellowish colour 
of the hair ; and the Old French bloi is explained 
by Roquefort as blond, jaune, bleu, et blanc. 
Hence, a& Mr. Wedgwood observes, it becomes 
difficult to separate Mid. Lat. hlavus, blue, from 
Jjdi.tm JlavuSy yellow. 

So far then as the root black appears to be 
baptismal, we cannot be sure that it does not 
intermix with the two previous roots blank and 
blake. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Blache, Blac, Domesday. Eng. Black, Blackie. French 
Blaque. 

compounds. 

(Hari, warrior) Eng. Blacker — Fr. Blachier, Blacher. 
(Man) Blsecman, genealogy of the kings of Northumbria — 
Blacheman, Domesday — Eng. Blackbian. 



Black, 

Niger ? 



396 THE OUTER MAN. 

Between blue and yellow we have scarcely a 
choice, if we take a positive colour at all. In the 
few Old Germ, names in which it occurs Forste- 
mann proposes the latter sense as the more natural. 
But there is a wider sense which might perhaps 
be taken. The Anglo-Saxon hleo, blue, signifies 
also bloom, beauty, and the root appears to be 
found in the Old High Germ, hluen, Ang.-Saxon 
hlewan, hloivan, to blow, bloom, flourish. A 
similar sense is found in many other names. 

Blue, Blow. SIMPLE FOEMS. 

Bloom? Old Germ. Blawa, Bloa, 8th cent. Eng. Blew, Bleay, 

Blow. French Bleu, Blou, Blee. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Hari, warrior) English Blewer, Blower. 

There is a word hleon, found in several Old 
German names, which Grimm takes to be related 
to, and have the same meaning as Ang.-Sax. hleo, 
bloom, colour. To this may belong the following. 

Blain. SIMPLE FORMS. 

Bloom? Old Germ. Bleon, Pleon, 8th cent. Eng. Blowen, Blain, 

Blaney, Plain. French Blain, Blein, Blin, Plain, Planus. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Hari, warrior) English Planner — French Blenner, 
Planier, Planer. (Rice, powerful) French Planry. 

It is probable that the word bland, hlondy 
which is found in some German forms both in 
ancient and modern names, has the same meaning 
as the Ital. hiondo, French blond, fair or flaxen. 
Diez suggests that this may be a nasalised form 
of Old Norse blaudr, Danish blbd, soft, weak, in 
the sense of a soft tint. Mr. Wedgwood connects 
it with Pol. bladij, pale, Ital. biado, biavo, pale, 



THE OUTER MAN. 397 

straw-coloured. Fcirstemann refers in the follow- 
ing names to the Ang.-Sax. hlanden-feax, which 
he renders flavi-comus. But Bosworth renders 
it only grey-haired, from hlanden, to mix {i.e. black 
and white). There may be an intermixture of 
these two meanings, but the former seems the 
more probable. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old German Bland, lOth cent. EngHsh Bland, Plant. .^^*''^- 
French Blond, Blondeau, Blond^, Blanzy, Planty. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old Germ. Blandila (with the variation Brandila). Eng. 
Blindell, Blondell. French Blondel. 
phonetic ending. 
Eng. Blanden. French Blandin, Blondin, Plantin. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Hard) French Plantard. (ffari, warrior) French 
Plantier. 

From the Ang.-Sax. deorc, dark, in the sense 
of complexion, I take to be the following. Hence 
the name of the Maid of Orleans, commonly called 
Joan D'Arc, but properly Joan Dare. There are 
some ancient names, but not any corresponding 
with ours. 

SIMPLE FORMS. ^^^^ 

Eng. Dark, Darch. French Darque, Darche, Derche. fuscus. 

DIMINUTIVE. 

French Darclon. 

PHONETIC ENDING. 

Eng. Darkin, Dargan 1 French Derquennk 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Hari, warrior) English Darker — French Darquier. 
(Man) English Darkman. 

Of a similar meaning may be the word darn, 
tarn, which Forstemann refers to Ang.-Sax. derne. 



398 THE OUTER MAN. 

occiiltus, Old High German tarnjan, dissimulare, 
&c., supposing as the most ancient meaning that 
of dark complexion. Here again there are no 
ancient names to correspond with ours. 

Darn, Tarn. SIMPLE FORMS. 

i>ark. Eng. Dern, Tarn. French Darnay, Derni. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Eng. Darnell, Darnley. French Darnis. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Audf prosperity) French Tarnaud. {Harif warrior) 
English Tarner. 

The stem white is very difficult to separate 
from other stems. In Ang.-Saxon there are names 
beginning with whit or hwit, as if from white, 
albus, and others beginning with wihty as if from 
wiht, a man. These sometimes seem to inter- 
change ; thus the nephew of Cerdic is called both 
Whitgar and Wihtgar. The corresponding Old 
Germ, form is generally wid or wit^ as in Witgar 
and Widgar, and the probability seems to be that 
all these names are the same. Forstemann refers 
to wity wide, and wid, wood. The commonness of 
our name White is I apprehend owing to its 
being in most cases a surname derived from com- 
plexion. 

So Brown we can scarcely doubt to have 
been in most cases a surname. Yet it was by no 
means uncommon as a baptismal name, and it is 
not quite certain as to its meaning. Forstemann 
thinks that there may be an intermixture of hr'dn^ 
brown, and of Old High German hrunno, Anglo- 
Saxon brunn, burn, Scott. " burn," brook, (in the 



THE OUTER MAN. 399 

sense of impetuosity 1) I also think, see p. 127, 
of Old Norse hriln, the eyebrow. 

But even taking the sense of " brown," there 
may be something more to be said. The sense in 
proper names is in so many cases the deepest- 
lying one, that I am led to enquire what is the 
root of brown. Clearly, as it seems to me, that 
suggested by Mr. Wedgwood, " the colour of 
things burnt, from Gothic hrinnan, German 
hrennaUy to burn." The sense of burning seems 
to be that in the Ang.-Sax. hrun-ecgy an appella- 
tion of a sword. This is rendered by Bosworth 
" brown-edged," but should it not be rather 
" bright or burnished edge 1" So the Mod. Germ, 
has hruniren, to burnish. The Ang.-Sax. hi^andy 
English brand, a sword, shews a similar sense 
from the same root. Our name then. Brown- 
sword, I take to have the meaning of " bright- 
sword." And a similar sense, or perhaps rather 
that of fiery or impetuous, may at any rate inter- 
mix in the following names. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Brun, Bruno, Bruni, 8th cent. Ang. -Saxon ^"^o^^* 
Brdn.* Bron, Lib. Vit Old Norse Briini. Eng. Brown, ^^"""^^ 
Brune. Mod. German Braun, Brunn, Bruno. Fr. Brun, 
Bruno, Bruneau, Bruny. 

diminutives. 
Old Germ. Brunicho, 8tli cent. — Mod. Germ. Brunck — 
French Brunache. Eng. Brownell, Brownlow — French 
Brunel, Prunel. 

* Brtln, bydel, in a charter of manumission, Cod. Dip. No. 1353. Brown, tha 
beadle, "what a nineteenth century sound ?" Mr. Turner oddly enough translates 
it " the brown beadle," 



400 THE OUTER MAN. 

PHONETIC ENDING. 

. Old Germ. Brunin. Eng. Brunnen, 

PATHONYMICS. 

Old German Bruning, 8tli cent. Bruningus, Lib. Vit, 
Eng. Browning. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(And, life, spirit) French Brunant. (Et, p. 189) English 
Brownett — French Brunet, Prunet. {Hard) Old German 
Brunhard, 9th cent. — Modern German Brunnert — French 
Brunard. {Ger, spear) Old German Brunger, 8th cent. — 
English Brunker. {Hari, warrior) Old German Brunheri, 
Brunher, 9th cent. — Fr. Bruner, Brunner, Brunnarius, 
Prunier. {Rig, power) Old German Brunric, 9th cent. — 
Eng. Brownrigg ? 

The stem dun may be either referred to Ang.- 
Sax. dunn, brown, or to Old Norse duna, thunder. 
The latter seems to me the more probable, as 
there are other names with the same meaning, 
elsewhere referred to. 

It is probable that Grey, like Brown and 
White, has been in most cases a surname. But 
it is also found in many baptismal names, and 
there is another sense, which seems to be closely 
allied, and which may perhaps intermix. The 
Old Norse grdr, grey, signifies also malignus ; 
and the Germ, grauen^ to turn grey, signifies also 
to detest, and to be afraid of. So also the Old 
High Germ, gris, grey, seems to contain the root 
of Ang.-Sax. grisUc, Eng. grisley. The particle 
gr seems to be formed from a natural expression 
of horror or aversion. There may then be con- 
tained in some of the names from this root a 
similar sense to that referred to at p. 192. 
Nevertheless, judging from the ancient, names, 



THE OUTER MAN. 401 

the meaning in some cases is certainly nothing 
more than grey. The following may be referred 
to the Ang.-Sax. greg, Old Fries, ^re, Old High 
German graw. 

SIMPLE FORMS. ^ 

Old Germ. Grao, Grawo. Gray, Roll Batt. Abb. Eng. oriseua. 
Gregg, Grey, Grew, Cray, Crew. Mod. German Grau. 
French Gregy, Grau. 

DianNUTIVES. 

English Grayling. French Greiling. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Ber, bear) Eng. Grueber 1 {Man) Old Germ. Graman, 
8th cent. — Eng. Grumman — Mod. Germ. Gramann — French 
Gramain. {Wald, power) Old German Graolt — French 
Grault. 

Another word of the same meaning is Old 
High Germ, gris, Lat. griseus, French gris. The 
Old Norse grts, porcellus, whence apparently the 
name Gris of several Northmen in the Land- 
namabok, might intermix. 

simple FORSIS. Gris, 

Old German Grisus, Crisso, 8th cent. Gressy, Cressy, Grey. 
Gracy? Roll Batt. Abb. English Grice, Grace? Gracey ? 
Cressy. French Griess, Gresy, Grj^sy. 

diminutives. 
English GrissEll, Gresley, Cressall — French Grisol, 
Gresle, Graesle. French Griselin, Greslon, 
phonetic ending. 
French Griessen, Grison, Cresson. 
compounds. 
(Hard) French Grisard. {Hariy warrior) French Grisier, 
Gressier. {Land) French Gresland. {Wald, power) Eng. 
Grisold, Greswold. 

A stem which may perhaps come in here is 
more or moor, respecting which Forstemann 
remarks — " a not uncommon but an uncer- 

Y 2 



402 THE OUTER MAN, 

tain stem, for which I scarcely dare venture to 
think of the Old High German mor, ^thiops." 
Yet if there were names derived from the Huns, 
I do not quite see why not from the Moors, whose 
name must have been familiar to most of the 
German peoples. At the same time, it will 
perhaps be safer to take the more general sense 
of dark or swarthy complexion. Though I do 
not feel quite sure that it may not be in some 
cases a degenerate form of mord, p. 258, as we 
find in the Diplomata of Pardessus a person 
variously called Mora and Morta. On the whole, 
however, I feel inclined to bring in the stem here. 

Mor, Moor SIMPLE FORMS. 

Dark. Old German Manr, Mauri, Mor, Moro, Mora, Moor, 6th 

cent. Eng. More, Morey, Maury, Morrow, Moore. Mod 

Germ. Mohr. FrcDcli Maur, Maurey, More, Moreau. 

dimestutives. 
Old Germ. Maurilo, 8th cent. — English Morell — Mod. 
Germ. Mohrle — French Maurel, Morel. Old German 
Mauroleno, Morlenus, 7th cent. — English Morling — French 
Morillon, Mourlon. Old German Mauremia, 9th cent. — 
French Moriame. 

PHONETIC ending. 

Old German Morino, 8th cent. Morin, Hund. Rolls. 

English MoRAN, Moorhen. Mod. Germ. Mohrin. French 

Maurin. 

patronymics. 

Old German Mauring, 8th cent. Mod. Germ. MoRiNG. 
French Maurenque. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Bert, famous) Old Germ. Maurbert, Morbraht, 8th cent, 
— Eng. MoREBREAD ? {Hard, fortis) Old German Morhard, 
8th cent. — Modern German Mohrhard — French Morard. 
(Ilari, warrior) Old Germ. Maurhar, 8tli cent. — Mod. Germ. 
Maurer — French Maurier. (Lac, play) Old Germ. Maur- 
lach, 8th cent. — English Morlock — French ^Mourlaque, 



THE OUTER MAN. 403 

(Helm) Frencli Morihalm. (Man) English Moueman, 
Moorman — Modern German Mohrmann. (Ward) English 

M OR WARD. 

Snow is I thiiik more probably from a mytho- 
logical origin than from anything relating to com- 
plexion. It was the name of a mythical king of 
Denmark, one ©f whose daughters was also called 
Mioll, which signifies freshly fallen snow. The 
latter was a common female name among the 
Northmen, and hence may perhaps be our Miall, 
MiELL, Meall. In addition to the two Old 
German names, Sneoburg and Sneward, cited by 
Forstemann as compounded with sneOy snow, I 
adduce two others, Snahard and Snsedisa, from 
the Liber Vitae. The latter signifies " snow- 
nymph" or " snow- woman," and may be compared 
with our Snowman (Stiff. Sum.) 

There are several names which seem to be 
derived from the curling of the hair, and at the 
bottom of some of which may lie a heroic sense. 
For among the ancient German tribes the wear- 
ing of the hair long or curled was considered a 
badge of the noble or the hero. In Anglo-Saxon 
locc-ho7'a signified "a hair-bearer, a noble," and 
locc-hore " one entitled by her rank to wear long 
hair, a lady," (Bosivortli). The tribe of the Suevi 
was noted, according to Tacitus, for wearing their 
hair fastened up into a peculiar curl or knot. 
This peculiarity I have suggested, p. 304, as the 
origin of their name. A similar origin is sug- 
gested by Grimm and Richthoven for the name 



404 THE OUTER MAN. 

of the Frisians (or Frieses), viz., the Old Friesic 
frisle^ a curl, of which the simple form is found 
in English frizz, to curl, frieze, a rough woollen 
cloth, and the French f riser. The latter is pro- 
bably of German origin, as it is not found in the 
Itahan language. Other derivations have however 
been proposed for this people's name, as that by 
Zeuss referred to at p. 312. 

From the Old Norse krusa, to curl, may 
perhaps be the following. The North. English 
word cruse or crowse, which has the meaning of 
forward or " bumptious," may possibly be from 
this origin, preserving a trace of the heroic sense. 
A word liable to intermix is grouse, elsewhere 
noticed in this chapter. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Curled. English Cruse, Cruso. German Kruse. Dan. Kruse. 

French Cruice, Creuse, Creuz^ Creucy, Crousse, Crousi, 

Cruz, Crussy. 

diminutives. 

English Crussell. French Cruzel. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Hard) French Creusard. {Hari, warrior) French 
Crussiere. 

From the Ang.-Sax. crisp, curled, may be the 

following. But the Latin crispus may have 

an equal claim, for there is nothing in any of 

these forms essentially German. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

^"sp- English Crisp, Cripps ? 

^^^^^^- DIMINUTIVES. 

English Crespel. French Crespel. 

PHONETIC ending. 

Crispina, daughter of RoUo, duke of Normandy, 10th 
cent. Eng. Crispin, Crespin. French Crispin, Crespin. 



Cruse. 



CroU. 
Curled 



THE OUTER MAN. 405 

From the Danish krolle, Old EngHsh " cruU," 
English " curl," may be the following. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Curly, BoU Batt. Abb. English Croll, Croly, Curll. 
Mod. Germ. Kroll, Krull. 

PATRONYMIC. 

English Curling. 

Under this head may in some cases be included 
the name Harding. As a general rule the stem 
hard is to be referred to Ang.-Sax. heard, English 
hardy. But the Hardings (in Ang.-Sax. Heard- 
ingas) are celebrated in ancient poems as a heroic 
race, and Grimm has observed (Deutsch Myth. 
317, 321) that there was a Gothic hero race called 
Azdingi, and an Old Norse Haddingjar. He 
remarks that the Gothic zd, the Ang. -Saxon rd, 
and the Old Norse dd interchange, so that 
Heardingas, Azdingi, and Haddingjar may all 
be different forms of the same word. And the 
root may be found in the Old Norse haddr, a 
lock or curl, giving the sense of " crinitus, capil- 
latus, cincinnatus," which, as before observed, was 
the attribute of the hero. 

From the German gross, great, in the sense 
of large stature, and from an extra High German 
form grauss, as noticed at p. 49, may be the 
following. Forstemann however refers this stem 
to Anglo-Saxon gi^eosan, horrere, in the sense of 
metuendus. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Grozo, Grauso, Gros, Cros, 6th cent. English Grouse 
Grose, Grouse, Cross. Mod. Germ. Gross. French Grosse, Great. 
Grusse, Crosse, Croze. 



406 THE OUTER MAN. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Frencli Gkoseille, Gruselle, French Grosselin. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Hard, fortis) Eng, Grosert — French Grossard, Cros- 
SARD. {Hari, warrior) English Groser, Croser — French 
Grossier, Crozier. (Man) Eng. Grossman, Grossman. 

Another word having the meaning of great is 

probably mie or muc, which Forstemann takes to 

be the simple form of Gothic mikilo, Sco. mickle 

and muchle. 

Mic, Muc. SIMPLE FORMS. 

Great. ^1^ Germ. Micca, 3rd cent. Mucca, Lib. Vit. English 

MiOHiE, Mico, Much. Mod. Germ. Mucke, Mugge. French 

MiCHY, MiCHE, MoUGE. 

COMPOUNDS. 

[Hard, fortis) Old Germ. Michard, 11th cent. — Modern 
Germ. Mxjckert — French Micard. (Wald, power) English 
MucKELT — French Micault, Michault. (Wine, friend) 
French MicouiN. 

j^lQ-^lQ EXTENDED FORM MICKLE, MUCKLE. 

Muckie. Eng. MiCKLE, MucKLE. Mod. Germ. MiicKEL. French 

Great. MiCOL. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Hard, fortis) French Micquelard. (Hari, warrior) 
French Micollier. (Man) Mod. German Michelmann — 
French Mukleman. (Mar, famous) English Michelmore ? 
(Rat, counsel) English Micklewright ? Mucklewrath ? 
(Manchester.) 

From the A ng. -Saxon thic, Old Norse thyckvy 

digr, Mod. Germ, dick, stout, thick, may be the 

following. 

simple forms. 
Dick, Thick. Old Germ. Thicho. Old Norse Thyckr, Digr (surnames), 
stout. English Thick, Dick, Dickie, Tigg, Tick. Mod. German 

Dick, Tieck. 

diminutives. 
Ang.-Sax. Diccel (found in JDiccelingas, now Ditchling^ 
Cod. Dip. 314) — Eng. Diggle, Tickle. 



THE OUTER MAN. 407 

PHONETIC ENDING. 

Old Germ. Ticlihan, 9th cent. Eng. Dickin. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Et^'p. 189^ English Thicket. (Hard) Mod. German 
DiCKERT — French Dichard, Digard. {Hari, warrior) Eng. 
Dicker, Digory — French Dicharry. (Man) Eng. Dick- 
man, DiGMAN, DiTCHMAN — Mod. Germ. Dikmann. 

Of a similar meaning I take to be the stem 

huss, as shewn in Old Norse hihsa, a stout woman, 

husscty a broad ship, husi, a short, broad knife. 

simple forms. 
Old German Buaso, Piiaso, 8th cent. Sivard Buss, a 
Northman ? (Domesday Line.) E»g. Buss, Bussey. Mod. 
Germ. Boos, Buss. French Busse, Bussy, Pussy. 

diminutives. 
Old German Busilo, 8 th cent. English Bussell. Mod. 

Germ. Bosel. 

patronymic. 
English Bussing. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Hard) English Buszard — French Bussard. (Har% 
warrior) French Busser, Bussi^re. {Man) Eng. Bussman — 
Mod. Germ. Bussmann — French Buisman. 

I take the stem boss (for which Forstemann 
finds no other derivation than the Old High 
German hdsi. Mod. Germ, hose, wicked, which he 
admits to be an unsatisfactory one) to be the 
same as huss. But it suggests as possible a rather 
different meaning, though from a common origin, 
viz., the Dutch hosse, husse, a boss or knob of a 
buckler, French hosse, a bunch, hump, or knob. 
Again, as Mr. Wedgwood observes, the words 
signifying a lump or protuberance have commonly 
also the sense of striking, knocking, of which he 
gives many examples. And we have Dutch 



Buss. 
Stout. 



408 THE OUTER MAN. 

bossen, Ital. hussar e, FreDch bousser, to knock, 
Bav. bossen, to strike so as to give a dull sound. 
Either this, or the sense of the boss of a buckler, 
are meanings which might obtain, along with 
that first mentioned. 

Boss SIMPLE FORMS. 

Burly? Old German Boso, Bosso, Poso, 6th cent. English Boss, 

BossEY. Mod. German Boss, Pose. French Bos, Bosse, 

Bossy, Posso. 

diminutives. 
Old German Bosico, 9th cent. — French PossAc. Old 
Germ. Poasilo, 8th cent. — Eng. Bosley — French Boselli. 
French Possesse, Posez.- 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Hari, warrior) Old German Bozhar, 8th cent. — English 
BosHER — French Boussiere, Bossuroy. (Hard) English 
BossARD — French Bossard, Poussard. (Helm J Old Germ. 
Boshelm, 11th cent. — Eng. BossoM. (Man) Eng. Bosman. 
(Wald, power) Old Germ. Buzolt, 8th cent. — Mod. German 
Bosselt — French Posselt. ( Ulf, wolf) Old Germ. Possulf, 
8th cent. — French Poussif ? 

I take the stem host, bust, to have the same 
meaning as boss and buss, viz., that most probably 
of bulkiness or burliness. This is shewn in our 
word " bust," the original meaning of which, Mr. 
Wedgwood observes, was the trunk or body of a 
man ; also in the Old Norse bUstinn, burly. "^^ 
There are only two ancient names in which it is 
found, viz., Boster and Postfred, both 9th cent. 
Both these names Forstemann thinks may be cor- 
ruptions, but the evident occurrence of the word 
in the following names makes it probable that 
this is not the case. 

* Mr. Lower, on the name Buist, gives the .same meaning, referring to the 
Scotch huist, thick and gross. 



THE OUTER MAN. 409 

SIMPLE FORMS. B^^^ Bust, 

Eng. Boast, Busst, Buist, Post. French Bost. Burly. 

DDIINUTIVES. 

Eng. BosTEL, PosTLE — French Postel. Eng. Bostock. 
phonetic ending. 
English BusTiN, Poston. 
compounds. 
{Hard) English Bustard, Pustard. {Ric, power) Eng. 
Bostridge. {Wald, power) French Bustault. 

From the Old Norse hortr. Old Fries, hort, 
kurty short, and the corresponding High German 
form kurz, may be the following. The Latin 
curtus, French courte, may intermix. 

simple forms. Cort, Corse, 

Old German Corso, 8th cent. English Corse, Course, short. 
CuRTZE, Cort, Court, Curt. French Course, Coursy, Corta, 
Court, Courty, Courteau, Curty. 

diminutives. 

English CouRCELLE. — French Coursel, Cortel. French 

CURTELIN. 

PHONETIC ENDING. 

Curson, Curtenay, Eoll Batt. Abb. Eng. Corsan, Curson, 
Curtain, Courtenay. Modem German Kohrssen. French 

CORSAIN, COURSON, COURTIN. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(ffari, warrior) English Corsar, Courser, Courtier — 
French Cortier, Courtier. (Band, shield) French Coursse- 
RANT. (Eat, counsel) English Courtwright. 

There are many words containing the meaning 
of physical strength, though in some cases it is 
not easy to separate this meaning from that of 
courage, valour, or fierceness. 

From the Gothic magan, posse, I take to be 
derived the following stem, with which, however, 
the Gothic meki, sword, may, as suggested by 
Forstemann, intermix. 

z 2 



410 THE OUTER MAN. 

Magan. SIMPLE FORMS. 

Posse. Old German Mago, Macco, Maho, Maio, Megi, 6tli cent. 

Eng. Maggy, May, Mayo, Meggy, Mee, Mayhew 1 Mod. 
Germ. Mack, Meye. French May, Machu 1 MaheuI 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old German Megilo, Meilo, 8th cent. — English Mayall, 
Male — French Mailley. Eng. Maylin — French Maylin. 
Old Germ. Megizo, 10th cent. — Eng. Maize, Maisey. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Hariy warrior) Old Germ. Megiher, Magher, 8th cent. — 
English Mager, Mayer — Modern German Mager — French 
Mahier, Mayer. {Had, war?) Old German Magodius, 11th 
cent. — Magot, Lib. Vit. — English Maggot. (Man) Eng. 
Mayman. {Ron, raven) Old German Megiran, 8th cent. — 
Eng. Megrin — French Magron, Macron, Mayran. {Wald, 
power) Old German Magoald, 8th cent. — Modern German 
Machold, Maywald — French Mahault. (Wine, friend) 
Old Germ. Magwin, Macwin, 7th cent. — French Macquin. 
{Ward, guardian) French Macquard, Macquart. 

From the above root mag is formed Ang.-Sax. 
mmgin, English main, vis, robur, from which we 
may take the following. 

simple forms. 

Magin. Qj^ German Magan, Main, 8th cent. English Maine. 

Vis, Robur. es ' ) & 

Mod. Germ. Machen, Mehne. French Magne, Magney. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Bald, fortis) Old Germ. Meginbold, 8th cent. — French 
Magnabal. {Burg, protection) Old Germ. Meginburg, 8th 
cent. — French Mainbourg. {Fred, peace) Old Germ. Magin- 
frid, 8th cent. — French Mainfroy. {Gold) Old German 
Megingald, 10th cent. — French Maingault. {Ger, spear) 
Old Germ. Meginger, 9th cent. — English Manger. {Gaud, 
Goth) Old Germ. Megingaud, 8th cent. — French Maingot. 
{Hard, fortis, durus) Old German Maginhard, Mainard, 7th 
cent. — English Maynard — Mod. German Meinert — French 
Magnard, Maynard. {Ilari, warrior) Old Germ. Maganhar, 
Mayner, 7th cent. — Mod. Germ. Meiner — French Magnier, 
Maynier. 



« 



THE OUTER MAN. 411 

From the root mag is also formed Old Higli 
German maht, Mod. Germ, inachty Anglo-Saxon 
miht, English might. 

SIMPLE FORMS. Maht. 

Old Germ. Maht, 9th cent. English Might. Might. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Hari, warrior) Old Germ. Mahtheri, Macther, 8th cent. 
— English MiGHTER — French IMactier. (Hild, war) Old 
German Mahtliildis, 8th cent. — English Matilda (christian 
name). 

Among the words having the meaning of 
nimbleness or activity must be included several 
which are derived from simple roots signifying to 
fly, to run, to move, to go. From the Aug.- Sax. 
jligan, jiogan, Old Norse fliugy to fly, may be 
the following. Or we may perhaps take the 
active sense, to put to flight. Or again, the 
meaning of dart or arrow, as found in the Anglo- 
Saxon ^4 French ^ec/ie, both from this root, may 
intermix. 

SIMPLE FORMS. Flag. Fleg. 

Old German Flacco, Fleece,* (ancestor of the Nesselrode To Fly. 
family). Ang. -Saxon Flagg, (found in Flegges gdvan, Cod. 
Di2). 578). English Flagg, Flack, Flegg, Fleck, Fluck, 
Flock, Fly, Flea. Fr. Fleig, Fleck, Flick, Flichy, Fle. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Mod. Germ. Flogel, Flugel. French Flechelle. 

COMPOUNDS. 

fUt, p. 189) Eng. Fle WITT — French Flachat, Fliquet, 
Floquet. (Hard) Fr. Flicourt, Flocard, (Har% warrior) 
Eng. Flyger, Flyer, Fluer. (Man) English Fleeman — 
Modern German Fluemann. 

* The Old Norse fieckr, Old High Germ, jlecco, Old English fleck, a mark or 
spot, may intermix. It would not be unnatural for a child to derive its name from 
some peculiar mark with which it might happen to be born. 



412 THE OUTER MAN. 

From the Anglo-Saxon winge. Mod. German 
schwinge, English wing, in the sense of swiftness, 
may be the following. 

Wing, Wink. SIMPLE FORMS. 

j^ Old German Wine, Yinco, 9 th cent. Old Norse Vingi, 

(messenger of Atli or Attila in the Yolsungasaga). English 
Wing, Winch, Yingoe, Yink. Modern German Winck, 
ScHwiNGE. French Yincq, Wenk. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Hari, warrior) Wingere, Lib. Fit. — Eng. Winger. 

Of a similar meaning may be the word floss. 
Old Norse flos, plumula vestium, whence flosi, 
plumatus, also volans, from which Haldorsen 
derives the Old Norse name Flosi. There is only 
one Old German name, Flozzolf, in which it 
appears, and Forstemann gives no opinion on it. 

Floss. SIMPLE FORMS. 

Plumatus. Old Norse Flosi. English Floss. French 1 Flosi. 

From the Ang.-Sax. wadan. Old High Germ. 

watan, to go, probably in the sense of celerity, 

Forstemann derives the stem wad, wat. The 

Anglo-Saxon hwcet, keen, bold, might intermix, 

though there does not seem any trace of it in the 

ancient names. Grimm derives the name of 

the mythical hero Wada or Wato, from his 

having, as elsewhere referred to, waded over the 

Groenasund. 

simple forms. 

Wad, Wat. Old Gcrm. Wado, Waddo, Watto, Yato, 6th cent. Ang.- 

vadere. ^^^ Wada. Old Norse Yadi. Eng. Wade, Wadey, Wadd, 

Waddy, Watt, Wedd. Modern German Wadt, Wehde. 

French Yad4 Watteau, Yedy. 

diminutives. 
Old Germ. Wadila, Watil, Yatili, 7th cent. — Ang.-Sax 
Weatla — English Waddle, Wattle, Watley, Weddell — 



THE OUTER MAN. 413 

Mod. Germ. Wedell — French Watel, Vatel, Vedel. Old 
Germ. Vadiko, Veduco, 3rd cent. — Eng. Wadge? Wedge ? 
Old Germ. Waddolenus, Watlin, 7tli cent. — Eng. Wadling, 
Watling — French Watelin, English Wadkin, Watkin. 

English Watts — Fries. Watse. 

phonetic ending. 
Old Germ. Yatin, 9 th cent. Eng. Wadden, Wathen — 
French Watix, Vatton. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Gis, hostage) Old German Watgis, 8th cent. — English 
Watkiss. {Gar, spear) Old German Wadegar, 8th cent, — 
English Waddicar, Watker. (Hard) Old Germ. Wadard, 
8th cent. — French Vatard. (Hari, warrior) French Vatier. 
(Leo/, dear) Eng. Waddilove. filar, famous) Old German 
Vadomarius, Prince of the Alamanni, 4th cent. — English 
Wadmore, Watmore, Whatmore — Fr. Vattemare. (Man) 
English Wadman, Whatman, Wetman. (New, young) Old 
Germ. Vettani, Wattnj, 8th cent. — English Watney. (Ric, 
power) Old Germ. Wadirih, 9th cent. — French Vatry. 

From the Goth, ihragjan, Ang.-Sax. thregjan, 

to run, Forstemann derives the following stem, 

the sense of which, in the Ang.-Sax. tlircec, merges 

in that of bravery or strength. A cognate Celtic 

word seems to be the Obs. Irish traig, foot. 

simple forms. 
Old Germ. Trago, 8th cent. Eng. Drage, Drake, Dray, !,*^' ^^' 

o > & ' ' ' To Run. 

Tray. Mod. Germ. Drey. French Dracq, Drach, Dr^ge, 

Dr^o. 

diminutives. 

Old German Dregil, 9th cent. English Trail. French 

Tr^colle. 

phonetic ending. 

Eng. Dragon, Drain, Train. French Tragin, Trajin, 

Drain. 

compounds. 

(And, life, spirit) Old Germ. Traganta, 8th cent. — French 
Tr^gont. (Hard) French Trj^hard. (Hari, warrior) Eng. 
Trahar, Traer — Mod. German Treyer — French Trager, 
Trayer. (Fuss, foot) French Dreyfus ? Treifous ? 



414 THE OUTER MAN. 

From the Old Norse hif, motus, Old Saxon 
hivoUy Ang.-Sax. hifian. Old High German bihen, 
tremere, Forstemann derives the following stem. 
The sense may probably be that of nimbleness or 
activity, as in the Old Norse pipr, velox, from 
the same root. 

Bil,^ Biy^ SIMPLE FORMS. 

Pip. Old German Bibo, Bebo, Bevo, Pippi, Pipa, 8th cent. 

Active. Ang.-Sax. Bebba, Pybba. Eng. Bibb, Bibby, Bebb, Pipe, 
PippY. Mod. Germ. Pippe. Frencb Bibus, Biffe. 

diminutives. 
Ang.-Sax. Piple (found in the name of his grave, Piples 
beorh, Cod. Dip. 774). English Bible, Beville, Peploe — 
French Bibal. 

phonetic ending. 
Old Germ. Bibbin, Bivinus, Pippin, 7th cent. Ang.-Sax. 
Pippen (found in Fippenes fenne, Cod. Dip. 1,360). English 
Bevan, Biffin, Pepin, Pippin. French Pepin. 

compounds. 
(Hard J English Befford, Peppard — Modern German 
BiPPART, PiPPERT — French Bebert, Befort, Bibert, Bivert, 
PiPARD, PiVERT. {Wald, power) French Piffault, Bibaut, 

BiFFAUT. 

Clever. I think that English Clever, Cleaver, and 

Active, p'j.ench Oliver may be the same as our word 
" clever," though more probably in its original 
sense, which, I take it, was that of personal 
activity. We may trace this in the Old English 
word clever, to climb (still retained in Cumber- 
land), from the Old Norse klifra, Dutch klavereUy 
Jdevereriy to clamber."'^ Something of the transition 
sense seems to be found in the expression of a 

* I am glad to find this etymology, which I suggested in the previous 
edition, confirmed by the authority of Mr. Wedgwood. 



J 



THE OUTER MAN. 415 

horse being " clever at his fences/^ The EngHsh 
Cleverly might be a diminutive, but seems more 
probably a disused adjective form. 

From the Old Norse kJifa, to climb (of which Active 
the above word klifra is a frequentative), may be 
the Eng. Clive, Cliff, and Cleveley. Perhaps 
Clift may be added to this group ; the Cumber- 
land dialect has clifty, active. 

There are several words in which the sense of 
activity or sprightliness is allied to that of bud- 
ding or sprouting. Again, the sense of a sprout 
or shoot frequently merges into that of spear or 
dart, as mentioned at p. 207. Thus the Gothic 
sprauto, active, Eng. spruce and sprightly, Ang.- 
Saxon spreoty sprout, shoot, also spear, pike, Old 
High German spriuzan, English sprout, are all 
from the same root. In the former sense I take 
the following. sp,^^,^ 

SIMPLE FORMS. Spruce. 

Old Germ. Sprutho, 8th cent. English Sprout, Spratt, Spnghtiy. 
Sproat, Spritt, Spruce, Sprice. Mod. Germ. Sprotte. 

Again, the Old Norse sprcekr and sprcehlegr, 
Prov. Eng. spragg, sprach, spry, smart, active, 
are allied to Ang.-Sax. spree, a shoot. 

SIMPLE FORMS. Sprack, 

Spraga, Lib. Yit. Eng. Spragg, Sprack, Spark, Spreck, Sprightly. 
Sprigg, Spray, Spry. 

diminutives. 
Spraclingus, Lib. Vit. English Spracklin. 

Here also, probably from Old Norse sprceklegr, 
come in Sprakaleg, brother of Sweyn, King of 
Denmark, Eng. Spreckley. Also perhaps Eng. 



Bun 
To burst 



416 THE OUTER MAN. 

Spurge and Spurgeon, the nearest form to which 
seems to be the Sansc. spurj, to spout, not a bad 
etymon, by the way, for the name of the well- 
known preacher. 

Another word in which we may perhaps take 
the bursting forth of water as an emblem of live- 
liness and activity is hun, for which Forstemann 
finds no suitable etymon, and for which I suggest 
the Old Norse huna, scaturire. 

SIMPLE FOEMS. 

Old German Bunno, Bunni, Bun, 8th cent. Buna, Lib. 
forth. Vit English Bunn, Bunney. French Bouneau. 

PHONETIC ENDING. 

Old Germ. Punin, 8th cent. English Bunyan. French 

BUNON. 

PATRONYMIC. 

English BuNNiNG. Modern German BiJNNlNO. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Et, p. 189) English Bunnett, Punnett — French Bunet, 
PuNiET. (Harij warrior) English Bunyer. (Wald, power) 
English Punelt. 

From the Old High German ilan, festinare, 
Forstemann derives the following stem. Hence, 
I take it, the name Ylbod, quoted by Mr. Lower, 
from the records of Lewes Priory, in the sense of 
a speedy messenger. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

He. Old Germ. Ilo. Ylla, Lib. Vit. Eng. Iley, Eel, Eley. 

To hasten, -jy^^^ q^^^ j^^^ j^^^ 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Har% warrior) Old German Illehere, 8th cent. — English 
Ihler. {Man) English Illman. 

From the Old High German fendo, foot, are 
the following. 



THE OUTER MAN. 417 

SIMPLE FORMS. P»nd, Fant 

Old German Fanto, Feudio, 8th cent. Modem German ^°^'- 
Fendt. 

diminutives. 

Old German Fandila, 7th cent, — Eng. Fendall, Eng. 
Fendick. 

PHONETIC ENDING. 

English Fenton, trench Fanton. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Hard) French Fandard. (Hari, warrior) Ed^^. Fender. 
(Helm) Eng. Fantom, Fentum. (Man) Eng. Fentiman. 

As foot in proper names has the meaning of 
nimbleness, so hand we may presume to have the 
meaning of dexterity or skilfidness. The EngHsh 
word handy is in fact formed on just the same 
principle. A word very Hable to intermix is and, 
life, spirit. 

simple FOEMS. Hand, Hant 

Old German Hanto, 9th cent. English Hand, Handey, Manus. 
Hendy, Henty. Mod. Germ. Handt. French Handus. 

diminutives. 
English Handel, Handley. Modern German Handel. 

French Hendle. 

phonetic ending. 
Old Germ. Hantuni, 8th cent. Eng. Hanton, Henden, 
Henton. ' 

It is difficult to say in what sense the follow- 
ing are derived. The word seems evidently to 
be, as Forstemann suggests, the Old Bigh Germ, 
and Old Sax. ivamha, Ang.-Sax. wamh, the belly. 
Was it by accident that Scott, in the grand story 
of Ivanhoe, gave a name like this to the jester ? 

simple forms. Wamb. 

Old German Wamba, king of the West Goths 7th cent., ^^^^J^- 

English Wambey. 

phonetic ending. 

Old Germ. Wambanis {Genitive). Eng. Wampen. 

A 3 



Old. 



418 THE OUTER MAN. 

Most of the other names apparently derived 
from parts of the body, as Neck, Chin, Arm, 
Thumm, Mouth, Shin, &c., are to be otherwise 
derived. 

There are no inconsiderable number of names 
which are derived from the period of life. From 
the Ang.-Sax. aid, leld, Old High Germ, alt, old, 
Eng. old, are the following. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

^i^*' Olcl Germ. Aldo, Alto, 7th cent. Alda, Lib Vit. Eng. 
Allday, Allt, Allty, Elt, Old, Yeld. Mod. Germ. Alt. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Aldhysi, Haldisa, Lib. Vit. Eng. Aldis, Oldis. 

PHONETIC ENDING. 

Old German Aldini, Altun, Sth cent. English Alden, 
Alton, Elden, Elton. Mod. Germ. Alten. French Aldon. 

PATRONYMICS. 

Old German Aiding, Sth cent. Eng. Olding. French 

Olding. 

compounds. 
(Bert, bright) Old Germ. Aldebert, Oldebert, Olbert, Sth 
cent. — Eng. Aldebert — French Aldebert, Olbert. (Brand, 
sword) Old German Altbrand, Sth cent. — French Albrand. 
(Gan, magic) Old German Altiganus, 9th cent. — French 
Alecan, Alkan. (Gar, spear) Old German Aldegar, 7th 
cent. — Eng. Oldacre — French Olacher. {Hari, warrior) 
Old German Althar, 9th cent. — Aldheri, Lib. Vit. — English 
Alder — Mod. Germ. Alder, Alter. (Helm) Old German 
Althelm, Sth cent. — Ang.-Sax. Aldhelm — English Aldham, 
Eltham. (Roc) Old German Altroch, 9th cent. — French 
Altaroche. (Man) Old Germ. Aldman, Altman, Sth cent. 
Aldmon, Lib. Vit. — Eng. Altman, Oldman — Mod. German 
Altmann. (Rad, counsel) Old German Aldrad, Sth cent. — 
English Aldred, Eldred. (Rit, ride) Old Germ. Aldarit — 
English Aldritt — French Alteriet. (Ric, power) Old 
Germ. Alderich, Olderich, Altrih, 6th cent. — Eng. Aldrich, 



THE OUTER MAN. 419 

Aldridge, Eldrtdge, Oldridge, Altree, Oldry — French 
Altairac. (Thius, servant) Old Germ. Aldadeus, 8tli cent. 
— English Alderdice 1 

From the Ang.-Sax. gamol. Old Norse gamal. 
Old High German kamol, old, are the following, 
Forstemann has twelve names from this root, but 
only one corresponding with ours. 

simple forms. ^^^^^ 

English Gamble, Gemele, Gemmill, Cammell. French qm. 

Chamel ] 

diminutives. 

English Gambling, Gamlin. French Gambelon. ItaL 

Gambalunga. 

compounds. 
(Hari, warrior) Old Germ. Kamalhere, 8th cent. — Eng. 
Gambler, Camalary {Boston) — Mod. Germ. Kamler. 

A not uncommon name among the Northmen 
was Eylifr, which seems to be from Old Norse 
eylifr, ever-living/'' It was undoubtedly bap- 
tismal, for one of the men in the Landnamabok 
is surnamed " the young." Hence may be English 
Ayliffe, perhaps French Eloffe. A similar 
name seems to be the Langlif in the Liber Vitae. 

From the Old High German y^n^, junc, Ang.- 
Sax. jong, jung, gung, ging, English young y are 
the following. 

simple forms. Young, 

Old Germ. Jungo, Junggi, lOth cent. English Young. Jung 
Mod. Germ. Jung, Jcjnke. French Jung, Yunc. Juvenis. 

diminutives. 
English Gingell. French Juncal, Gunckel. 

compounds. 
{Aud, prosperity) French Ginaud. (Hari, warrior) Eng. 
Younger, Ginger — Mod. Germ. Jungher — Fr, Jonchery, 

* Another derivation perhaps might however be suggested — see p. 210, 



Jun. 



420 THE OUTER MAN. 

(or all these same as English younker ?) (Man) Old Germ. 
Yungman, 9th cent. — English Youngm an — Modern German 
JuNGMANN. Old Germ. Jungericus, Gothic king, 4th cent. — 
Mod. Germ. Jungerich. 

There is a stem jun, which Forstemann thinks 
may perhaps be the older form oijung, supposing 
a contraction ofjuvan (Latin juvenis). 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Juno, Junno, 8th cent. Eng. June, Junio.* 

Young? Fl'ench JUNY, JOUNNEAUX. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Hard) Old Germ. Joonard, llth cent. — French Jonnard, 
J^ONNART. (Hari, warrior) Eng. Junner — French Joniere. 
(Wold, power) French Jounault. 

There is a stem new, ny, which Grimm and 

Weinhold take to be from the Old High German 

naw, niwiy Ang.-Saxon new, Dan. and Swed. ny^ 

Sanscrit nava, new. The meaning they take to 

be that of " young," as in the Greek ; and in the 

names of women, to which as a termination, this 

root is confined, Grimm supposes a Goth, nivi, in 

the sense of virgin. Forstemann considers that 

the form 7iy is more particularly a Bavarian, and 

perhaps al; o a Lombard form. It is, however, 

also Scandinavian. 

SIMPLE FOR vs. 
Niv New ^^^ German Niwo, Nivo, Nivi, Nevo, Nibo, 7th cent. 
Ny. English New, Newey, Nay, Neve, Niavi. Mod. German 
Young. ]v^EUE, Ney. French Neu, Ney, N^e, Neve, Naef, Naveau, 

Niveau. 

diminutives. 

English Newick. English Newling — French Noulin. 

phonetic ending. 
English Newen, Nevin, Navin. 

* a Boston surname— English f 



THE OUTER MAN. 421 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Cum, quum, guest, stranger) Neucuni {Domesday) — Eng. 
Newcome, Newcomb. (6^6/-, spear) French Nevviger, Negre? 
{Hard) Old Germ. Niviard, Nivard, 6th cent. — Mod. Germ. 
Neuwert — French Nivard, Nivert, Nibart, Niard. {Hari, 
warrior) French Niviere, Navieb. {Leqf, dear) English 
Newlove.* {Man) Eng. Newman— Mod. Germ. Niemann 
— French Neyman. {Rat, counsel) Old Germ. Niwirat, 9th 
cent. — Old Norse Nyrathr — Mod. Germ. Neurath — French 
Neyret. {Eeid, ride) Old Norse Nereidr — English Nerod. 
{Eic, power) Old Germ. Niwerich — French Neyeey, Navry. 
( Wald, power) French Nibault, Navault. 

There is a stem hoh, bov, bop, Sec, which 
Forstemann refers to Germ, bube, Dutch boef, 
boeve, boy. The word bube is not found in the 
German language prior to the 13th cent., but 
there is no doubt about the antiquity of the root, 
which is cognate with Lat. pupus, pupillus, Sec. 
Mr. Wedgwood observes that " the origin seems 
the root bob, bub, pop, pup, in the sense of some- 
thing protuberant, stumpy, thick, and short." If 
this, however, be the case, it suggests that the 
meaning in proper names might be akin to boss, 
buss. Sec, p. 408. 

simple forms. „ t. t. 

Bob, Bop. 

Old German Bobo, Bobbo, Boppo, Poppo, Bubo, Pupo, Boj. 
Poupo, Poapo, Popi, Bovo, Bova, Boffo, 6th cent. Anglo- 
Saxon Bubba. Boffa, Lib. Vit. English Bovey, Bovay, 
BoFF, Boffey, Bubb, Buba, Pope, Poppy, Povey, Pupp. 
Mod. German Bobbe, Bopp, Bube, Popp, Puppe. French 

Bobee, Bceuf. 

diminutives. 
Old German Bobilo, Bovilo, Popila, Popili, 8th cent. — ^ 
Eng. BoviLLE, PoPLE, PoFLEY — Mod. Germ. Bobel, Popel 

* New, in the sense of young, gives a sufficiently expressive meaning to this 
name, without supposing a gay Lothario in the case. 



422 THE OUTER MAN. 

French Bouville, Povel, Pupil, Populus. Mod. Germ. 

PuPKE — French Bubeck. English Bobkin, Popkin — Mod. 
German Popken. Old German Bobolin, 6th cent. — French 
PoPELiN. Eng. Poplett, Puplet — Fr. Boblet, Bouvelet. 

PHONETIC ending. 

Old German Bohin, 6th cent. English Bobbin, Buffin, 
PouPiN. French Bobin, Boffin, Bouvin, Buffon, Popon. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(And, life, spirit) French Bobant. (Et, p. 189) Pobbidi, 
Lib. Vit. — English Bobbitt — French Bobot, Buffet, Popet. 
{Hard) Buffard, Roll Batt. Abb. — Eng. Bobart, Poupard, 
PouPART — Mod. Germ. Bobardt— Fr. Bouvard, Popard. 
(Hari, warrior) Eng. Bouvier, Bouverie, Buffrey— French 
BoBiERE, Bouvier, Bouvry, Buffier, Pupier. f TJlf, wolf) 
English % PoPOFF — French Bobceuf. ( Wold, power) French 
Buffault. 

From the Ang.-Saxon cnapa, German knabe, 
boy, may be the following. The suggestion of 
Mr. Wedgwood (see last page) that the origin of 
Old Germ, biibe, Eng. boy, is " the sense of some- 
thing protuberant, stumpy, thick, and short," is 
strongly confirmed by this root, which is cognate 
with English knob, a lump. And therefore, as in 
the case of the last root, the meaning might pos- 
sibly be Hke that of boss, see p. 408. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Knab,Knap. qj^j German Ilnabi, 8th cent. English Knapp, Nabb, 

^°^' Knope. Mod. German Knabb, Knapp. French Naba ? 

Naef 1 

diminutive. patronymic. 

English Napkin. English Knapping. 

COMPOUND. 

(Man) English Knapman. 

From the Goth., Old High Germ., Old Norse 
barn, Anglo-Saxon beam, child, may be the fol- 
lowing. 



THE OUTER MAN. 423 

SIMPLE FORMS. Barn. 

English Barney. French Barnat. ^^"*^- 

DIMINUTIVE, 

French Barnich. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Hard) Old Germ. Barnard, 9th cent. — Eng. Barnard — 
Mod. Germ. Barnhard. (Et, p. 189) English Barnett — 
French Barnet. {Hari, warrior) French Barnier. {Wine, 
friend) Old Germ. Barnuin, 9 th cent. — French Barnouvin. 

There is a stem kim, chim, which Forstemann 
refers to Old High German kim, chim, germen. 
None of the ancient names correspond with ours. 

simple forms. Kim, Chira. 

English KiMM. French Chimay. ^'""'^ 

diminutives. 
French Chimel. English Chimlen. 
compounds. 
(N'ew, ny, young) English Chimney — French Chimene. 
{Hari, warrior) French Chemery. 

Another stem of somewhat similar meaninof 
may be sah, sap, saf, sav. Forstemann refers to 
a supposed Goth, safjan, adduced by Grimm, in 
the sense of the Lat. sapere. It is not, however, 
easy to see any suitable meaning for proper names 
in that root, and I would rather, in the absence 
of any better explanation, take the Ang.-Sax. sap. 
Old High Germ. 6'q/i Eng. "sap," in the sense of 
youth, growth, viridity. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Sabas, a Goth, 4th cent. Saba,* also called Saebeorht, Sab, Sav, 
an Anglo-Saxon prince {Bedes Ecc. Hist ) English Sabey, ^*P' 
Sapp, Safe. French Sapy, Sapia, Savy, Sauve ? Sauve ? ^M^t 
1 Sauvey ? 



424 THE OUTER MAN. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old German Sabulo, Savalo, 7th cent. — English Sable, 
Saffell, Savell, Saveall — Fr. Sauvel. Eng. Sabbage, 
Savidge, Savage — French Sapicha, Saupique, Sauvage. 
Eog. Saplin— French Sablon, Savelon. 

PHONETIC ending. 

Eng. Sabine, Saphin. French Sabbini, Sapin, Savigny, 
Savin. 

compounds. 

(Aud, prosperity) Old Germ. Sapandus, 9th cent. — Fr. 
Sabaud. Perhaps also to this Old German Sapato — French 
Sabot, Savit. (Hard J English Safford — Mod. German 
Savert — Fr. Sabart, Savard, Savart. {Hari, -warrior) 
Eng. Sapper — Mod. Germ. Saphir (see p. 4) — Fr. Sauphar, 
Sauvier, Sauveur 1 {Bon, raven) Eng. Safran — French 
Sabran, Savarin, Souverain ? (Ric, powor) Old German 
Sabaricus, Savarich, Safrach (Gothic leader, 4th cent.), Saf- 
farius — Savari, Lib. Vit. — Eug. Saverick, Savory, Saffery 
— French Savary, Saffray, Sauffroy. 

Probably to the above group may be placed 
Eng. Sapte, which shews the Old Norse, Danish, 
and Mod. Germ, form saft, taking a t. 

The following stem may be referred to the 
Mod. Germ, groh, Dan. grrov, coarse, clumsy. But 
I think that the original meanmg may probably 
have only been that of large stature. Compare 
English gross, in a similarly changed sense — also 
Eng. plump, which in German and Danish means 
coarse. Forstemann has only one Old German 
name Griubinc, which he does not explain. 

firr^h Pr«^- SIMPLE FORMS. 

GrOD, Grove. . /^ y r\^ 

Stout? Anglo-Saxon Grohb, (found in Grohhes den, Cod. Dip. 

1066). Eng. Grobe, Grove, Grubb, Gruby, Cropp 1 Mod. 

* Mr. Kemble considers Saba to be only a familiar or abbreviated form of 
Saebeorht. 



THE OUTER MAN. 425 

German Grobe, Grobe. French Grub, Gruby, Crobey, 

Croppi 1 

diminutives. 

Mod. Germ. Grobel. French Grouvelle. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Harif warrior) Eng. Grover, Cropper 1 (Man) Eng. 
Groffman. 



b3 



CHAPTEE XXIII. 



THE INNER MAN. 

As the baptismal name was conferred by the 
fond parent, and the surname by the impartial 
world — so there is more truth in the latter than 
in the former. They represent the honest opinion 
which a mans neighbour had of him, and are 
complimentary or otherwise, as the case may be. 
There are forty-two men in the Landnamabok 
of Iceland having Helgi (holy), as a baptismal 
name, but only three that had acquired it as a 
surname. And of the former there was one who 
had the surname of Gudlaus — "Holy the Godless.'' 
What a bitter satire ! 

Seeing then, as will be manifest from the 
following, how great is the preponderance of 
baptismal names, we cannot in any degree admit 
the evidence of proper names as a test even of the 
accredited virtue of ancient times. 

Beginning with the name of " Holy" already 
referred to — so easy to assume and so difficult to 
deserve — we have the following. This word 
however is liable to intermix with two others, 
Ang.-Sax. hdl, sound, hale, and hcele, hero. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Haiiey ^^^ Grerman Halicho, Halec, 8th cent. Eng. Hollick, 

Holy. Halley. Mod. Germ. Hallich, Heilig. French Hailig, 
Halley, Hallu, Hely. 

diminutive. 
English Halliley, Hollaley. French Alely. 



THE INNER MAN. 427 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Bert, bright) Old Germ. Ifalacbert, Helihpret, 8th cent. 
— Halgeberct, Lib. Vit. — Eiig. Hallovvbuead, Halbert 1 
{Dag, day) Old Germ. Halcgdag, 9th cent. — Eng. Halliday, 
HoLLiDAY. (Ger, spear) Old Germ. Heligher, 9th cent. — 
Eng. HoLKER — French Holacher. (Man) Eng. Holeyman, 
HoLLiMAN — Mod. Germ. Heiligmann. (Rat, red, counsel) 
Old Germ.Halegred, 9th cent. — French Aligrot. (Wig, wi, 
war) Old Germ. Heilagwih, 9th cent. — English Halloway, 
HoLLOWAY — French Halevy. 

From the Ang.-Sax. dug an. Old High Germ. 
tugan, to be vktuous, good, honourable ; Anglo- 
Saxon themv, Old High German dau, morals, 
behaviour, are probably the following. 

SIIMPLE forms. 

Old Germ. Tugus, Tukko, Docca, Tocca, Dauo, 8th cent. ^^: ^^'^ 

° ' , Virtue. 

Old Noi-se Toui. Ang.-Sax. Tuk, in a grant to the monastery 

ofCroyland, A.D. 1,051. Tocca, Lib. Vit. English Tuggy, 

Tuck, Tuke, Tuckey, Duck, Doke, Dock, Duke, Tow, Toe, 

Dow, Dowey, Doe, Dew, Dewey. Modern German TocKj^ 

TucH, DucKE, Dau, Dewe. French Toche, Doche, Due, 

Doue, Dieu. 

diminutives. 
Old German Dauwila, Dewila, 9th cent. — Eng. Dowell, 

Dewell, Duly, Towell — Fr. Ducel, Dugelay, Douelle, 
DouiLLY. Old Germ. Dugilin, 8th cent. — Eng. Duckling, 
DowLiNG — French Dulong. Eng. Dewick — French Duick. 

phonetic ending. 
Old Germ. Dawin, 8th cent. Eng. Duggin, Dudgeon, 
Dewen. French Dugenne, Duquin. 

patronymics. 

English Docking, Dewing. French DucoiNO. 

compounds. 

(Et,p. 189 J English Duckett, Doggett — Fr. Duquet, 

Douet, Tugot. (Hard) Eng. Dugard, Towart, Tewart — 

French Dugard, Tougart, Toucart. (Hari, warrior) Eng- 

DucKER, Docker, Tucker, Toker, Dower, Dewar, Tower 

— Mod. German Dukher, Tucher — Fr. Ducher, Ducoroy. 



\y i-"^ 



428 THE INNER MAN. 

DouARE. (Land) Eng. Dowland — Fr. Dugland. (Mom) 
Old Germ. Dugiman, Tugeman, 9tli cent. — Eng. Tugman, 
Duckman — French Dewamin, Dumain. {Mar^ famous) Old 
German Daumerus, 6th cent. — Eng. Dugmore. {JJlf-, wolf) 
Old Germ. Tugolf, Touwolf, Daulf, 7th cent.— Fr. Dewulf. 
{Waldj power) Eng. Dugald — French Tugault, Douault. 
{Weal\ stranger) Eng. Dugwell, Tugwell, Tuckwell. 

DOUBTFUL names. 

Eng. DuGOOD, TooGOOD, TowGOOD. Perhaps from Ang.- 
Sax. duguth, virtuous, honourable. 

From the Ang.-Sax. dafan, Gothic gadahan, 
convenire, Ang.-Sax. defe, fit, proper, Forstemann 
derives the stem dah, daf, dap, to which also I 
place daVy referred by him to the preceding root. 
The scriptural name David may probably inter- 
mix in some of the following. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 
Dab, Daf. q^^ g^^^^ jy g^j^ ^^^^ -^ T>ABB, DaPP, DaFFY, 

Seemly. 

Tapp, Tappy, Davy, Devey. Fr. Dabeau, Dab^e, Dappe, 
Dapy, Daffy, Davy, Devy, Devay, Taveau. 

diminutives. 
Old German Dafila, Davila, 7th cent. — English Davall, 
Deffell — French Daval, Deville, Tavel. Eng. Taplin, 
Devlin — French Dablin. Old Germ. Tabuke, 11th cent. 
Eng. Davock, Davidge, Devick — Fr. Davach, Devicque. 

PHONETIC ending. 

English Daven, Devon, Tappin. Fr. Davin, Devenne, 

Taffin, Tapin. 

compounds. 
(Hard J Eng, D afford — Fr. Dabert, Devert, Tavard. 
{Earn, ran, raven) Eng. Tabram, Daviron — French Dabrin, 
Daveron. (Eic, power) Old Germ. Daperich, 10th cent. — 
French Dafrique. (Wald, power) Old Germ. Tavold, 10th 
cent. — French Davattlt. 

From the G(;thic triggws, Old Norse triggr, 
Ang.-Sax. treowe, Old High German driu, Mod. 



THE INNER MAN. 429 

Germ. U^eu, Eng. " true," may be the following. 
But this stem is very apt to intermix with driuqan, 
militari, p. 195. 

SIMPLE FORMS. _, . „, 

Trigg, Try. 

Old Germ. Driwa. Old Norse Tryggo, King of Norway. True. 
English Trigg, Trickey, Tree, Troy, Try, Dry. French 
Trich]^, Triau, Try, Driou. 

compounds. 

(Bert, bright) French Triebert, Trubert. {Et, p. 189) 
Eng. Trickett, Drewett — French Triquet, Tricot. {Hard) 
French Tricard. (Hari, warrior) Eng. Trigger, Tricker, 
Dryer — French Triger, Drier. (Leof, dear) Eng. True- 
love. {Wald, power) French Druault. 

DOUBTFUL names. 

English Truefitt. French Triefus, Dreyfus. Perhaps 
from Ang.-Sax. yo^. Old High Q^qxtd.. fuaz. Mod. Germ./i(«5, 
English foot. 

There is a word just, found in some German 
compounds, which Forstemann seems to think 
may be from the Latin. However, the French 
jouste, tilt, tournament, of which the Old Flemish 
just, impetus (whence also Eng. "jostle"), seems 
to be the origin, may be mentioned. None of the 
ancient names correspond with the following. 

simple forms. 
English Just, Justey. French Juste, Jost. 
compounds. 
{Mund, protection) English Justamond (wrangler 1750). 
(Wald, power) French Justault. 

There is a stem^^, which Forstemann thinks, 
unless the few ancient names be corruptions either 
0^ frid, peace, or of f aid, hostility, may be from 
the Latin Jldus, faithful. The following names 



Just. 



Fid. 



430 THE INNER MAN. 

go to shew that there is such a stem, but the 
Ang.-Saxon ^^^an, to sing, also to dispute, might 
also be proposed. 

SIMPLE FOEMS. 

Faithful. Old German Fidis, llth cent. English Fiddey, Fidoe, 
FiTT. French Fitte, Fity. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old Germ. Fidolus, 6th cent. — Eng. Fidell — Mod. Germ, 
FiDALL — French Fidele ? Eng. Fitkin. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Hari, warrior) Eng. Fitter — French Fidery. {Man) 
English Fiddaman, Fitman. {Mund, protection) English 

Fiddament. 

From the Ang.-Sax. sdth, true, Eng. " sooth,'' 
of which the Gothic form would be sanths, and 
the Old High German sand, (though neither of 
these are preserved,) Forstemann derives the stem 
sand, sants. The Anglo-Saxon sand, messenger, 
seems a word which might intermix, a,nd which 
indeed in some cases I have taken in preference. 
Forstemann includes also sod as a Saxon, and sad 
as a West Frankish and Lombard form. 

simple FORMS. 

Old German Sando, Sadi, 8th cent. English Sandoe, 

True ' ' ° ' 

Sandy, Sant, Santy, Sadd, Sodo, Soddy. Mod. German 
Sand, Sandt. French Sandeau, Santi. 

diminutives. 

Old German Sanzo, 9th cent. — Englisli Sans, Sands, 
Sandys — Mod. Germ. Santz — French Sance, Sandoz. Eng. 
Sandell, Santley — French Sanzel. French Sandelion. 

compounds. 

{Hari, warrior) Old German Sandheri, Santher, 8th cent. 
— Eng. Sander,* Santer — Mod. Germ. Sander, Santer — 
French Sandre, Santerre. (Man) English Sandman. 

* Most of the English writers, and some of the Gernaan, as Pott, make 
Sander a contraction of Alexander 



THE INNER MAN. 431 

(Eic, power) Old Germ. Sandrih, 9th cent. — French Santry. 
(War, defence) English Sandwer. (Ulf, wolf) Old German 
Sandolf — Mod. Germ. Sandhoff. 

PHONETIC ENDING. 

Eng. Sanden, Sodden. Mod. Germ. Sanden. 

PHONETIC INTRUSION Op r. 

(Hari, warrior) Old Germ. Sandrehar, 8th cent. — French 
Sandrier. 

From the Ang.-Sax. sidu. Old High German 
sitUy Mod. German sitte, manners, morals, may be 
the following. The sense, according to the usual 
rule in proper names, must be that of good 
manners or morals. 

simple forms. Sid, Sit. 

Old German Sito, Sita, 9th cent. Sido, king of Suevia Manners. 
in Tacitus. English Side, Sidey, City. Modern German 
Sitte. Dutch Seyde. French Sitt. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old German Situli, 8th cent, — Ang.-Sax. Sidel (found 
in Sidelesham, Cod. Dip. 46 4 J — Eng. Siddell — Mod. Germ. 
Seydel — French Sidoli, Sittell, Sedille. Old German 
Sitilin, 8th cent. — French Sedillon. English Siddons. 

PHONETIC ending. 

Eng. SiDDEN, SiTTON, SiDNEY. French Sidney. 

COMPOUND. 

(Ger, spear) English Sidgear. 

Of somewhat similar meaning may be the 
following, which Forstemann refers to Old Norse 
skicka, ordinare, and the noun Schick, used in 
many Low German dialects in the sense of order. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Scih, 11th cent. English Shick, Sky. Mod. 
Germ. Schick. 

DIMINUTIVE. 

English Shickle. 



Shick. 

Order, 

propriety. 



432 THE INNER MAN. 

From the Old High Germ, ercan, Ang.-Sax. 
eorcen,'^ genuine, pure, Forstemann derives the 
following stem. 

jj^ggn SIMPLE FORMS. 

Pure. Old German Ercan, 10th ceut. Mod. German Herken. 

French Arquin. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Baldy bold) Old Germ. Ercanbald, Arcambald, Archam- 
bald, 8th cent. — Eng. Archambaud — French Archambault 
— Ital. Arcimboldi (of Milcm). (Hard) Old Germ. Ercan- 
hart, 8th cent. — French Archinard. (Reid, state, condition) 
Old Germ. Ercanheid, 9th cent. — Eng. Harknett. {Rari, 
warrior) Old German Erkanher, 8th cent. — Mod. German 
Herkner — French Erckener. 

There are several words having the meaning 
of life, zeal, spirit, though the sense is often difficult 
to separate from that of bodily activity. From 
the Old High Germ, ando, zelus, Forstemann 
derives the following stem, which is, however, 
very liable to intermix with two others, hand, 
manus, and Ang.-Sax.- ent, giant. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

And, nt. q^^ German Ando, Anto, 7th cent. An g. -Saxon Anta, 

Life, spirit. . 

(found in Antan hldw, Cod, Dip. 150). Eng. And, Andoe. 
Mod. Germ. Ende. French Anty. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old German Antecho, 10th cent. — French Antiq. Old 
German Andala, 5th cent. — English Antill, Antley. Old 
Germ. Andolenus, 8th cent. — English Andlan, 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Relm) English Anthem — French Antheaume. (Rari, 
warrior) Old German Antheri, Anter, 9th cent. — French 
Antier. (Ead, counsel) Old German Andrad, 8th cent. — 
Eng. Andrade, Handright. (Eic, dominion) Old German 
Andarich, 5th cent. — English Antridge — Mod. German 
Entrich. 

* Perhaps the stem arc, p. 387, may be a simple form of the above. 



Zeal. 



THE INNER MAN. 433 

From tlie Old High German zila, English 
zeal, are the following. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old German Zilo, Zello, 8th cent. Eng. Zeall, Zealey. 
Mod. Germ. Ziehle. French ? Zei.le. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Ger, spear) Old German Cilger, 10th cent. — French 
Zelger. {Hari, warrior) French Zeiller, Zeller. (Man) 
Old German Ciliman, 8th cent. — English Silliman 1 — Mod. 
German Zillmann. 

From the Old High German gerUy eager, are 
probably the following. 

SIMPLE forms. 

Old Gei'man Cherno, Kerne. Gnrnay, Boll Batt. Abb. ' 
English Gurney, Chirney, Curno, Corxey. Mod. German 
Gern, Kern. French Journe, Cornay. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

English Gurnell, Cornell — French Cornely, Cornil- 
Leau. Eng. CuRNiCK, CoRNicK. French Cornichon. Mod. 
Germ. Gernlein — French Cornillon. 

PATRONYMICS. 

English Corning. Mod. Germ. Gerning. 

COMPOUNDS. 

[Bert, famous) French Cornibert. (Hard, fortis) Eng. 
Gurnard — Mod Germ. Gernhardt. (Hari, warrior) Eng. 
GuRNEK, KiRNER, CoRNER — Mod. Germ. Gerner, Korner — 
French Curnier. (Man) Old Germ. Gerneman, 9th cent. 
— Eng. CoRNMAN — Mod. Germ. Kernmann. (Wald, power) 
Old Germ. Gernolt, 9th cent. — French Journault. 

There are several words which have the mean- 
ing of joy, mirth, cheerfulness. From the Old 
High Germ, mandjan, gaudere, mendi, gaudium, 
Fcirstemann derives the following stem. As a 
termination it is very liable to intermix with 
man, homo. The form mance, mence, seems to 
be High German. 

c 3 



434 THE INNER MAN. 

Mand^ SIMPLE FORMS. 

Mance. Old German Manto, Manzo, Manso, Sth cent. English 

Jo7- Mant, Mandy, Mend ay, Mannse, Mence. Mod. German 
Mandt, Mende, Manz, Mense. Fr. Manteau, Manceau, 
Mansey. 

diminutives. 

Mantel, Domesday — Mauntel, Mancel, Hund. Rolls, — 

Eng. Mandle, Mantle — Mod. Germ. Mentzel, Menzel — 

— Fr. Mandell, Mentel, Mangel. Eng. Mendes — French 

Mandouce, Mendez, Mansoz — Spanish Mendez, Mendoza. 

PHONETIC ENDING. 

Old Germ. Mantoni (genitive), 9th cent. Eng. Manton. 
French Mandon, Mantion, Mention, Manson ? Mansion ? 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Hard) French Mansard. {Hari, warrior) Eng. Mander, 
Mancer, Menser. 

The word spil is not quite certain. Forste- 

mann gives it the meaning of joy (which it had 

in Old Norse), in preference to that of play, as in 

the German spielen. The Gothic spillon, Old 

Norse spiala, to relate, discourse, is also suitable. 

simple forms. 
j^ ' Eng. Spill. Mod. Germ. Spiel. French ? Spill. 

patronymic. 
English Spilling. 

compounds. 
(Hard) Old Germ. Spilihard, Spilhard, Sth cent. — Eng. 
Spillard. (Hari, warrior) Eng. Spiller, Spellar — Mod. 
Germ. Spieler — French 1 Spiller. (Man) Eng. Spillman, 
Spelman— Mod. Germ. Spielmann. 

The stem glad also seems to me rather un- 
certain. It might be from glad, Isetus, or it 
might be from Old Norse gledia, to polish. Mod. 
German glatt, Danish glat, Dutch glad, smooth, 
pohshed. Tn that case the sense might probably 



THE INNER MAN. 435 

be that of personal beauty, as referred to in 
chapter 22. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Cletto, 8th cent. Eng. Glad, Clad, Glide, Gia<^- 
Gleed. Mod. German Glade. Laetus? 

DIMINUTIVES. 

English Gladdell, Gleadall. Eng. Gladdish — Mod. 
German Gladisch. 

phonetic ending. 
English Gladden, Gliddon. French Glatigny, 

patronymics. 
EngKsh Gladding. French Gladung, Cladung. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Hard) French Glatard. (Man) English Gladman. 
(Wine, friend) Gladewinus, Domesday — English Gladwin. 
(Wis, sapiens) Gledewis, Lib. Vit. — Eng. Glad wish ? 

There is a stem fag, which Forstemann takes 
to be the simple form of Ang.-Sax. fcegen, Eng. 
fain, as shewn in Goth, faheds, joyfulness. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old German Facco, 9th cent. Feg, Fech, Domesday. J^f 
Fag, Hund. Rolls. English Fagg, Fake, Fay, Fahey. 
Mod. German Fack, Fecke. French Fage, Fege, Feche, 

Faye, Fahy. 

diminutives. 
Old German Fachilo, Fagala, 11th cent. English Fail. 
French Fagel, Fayolle, Faille. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Et, p. 189) Eng. Faggots* — French Facet, Faquet, 
Fayet. (Hard) French Fagard, Fa yard. (Hari, warrior) 
Old Germ. Fagher — Eng. Faker — French Faguer. 

extended form=eng. fain. 
Eng. Fagan, Fachney, Fehon. French Fajon, Fain. *^°' 

o ' ' ' Fain. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Hard) French Feinert. (Hari, warrior) French Fag- 

NIER, FeCHNER, FeINER. 

* May possibly represent the Gothic faJuds, joyfulness. 



Joyful. 



436 THE INNER MAN. 

From the Ang.-Saxon gamian, to play, sport, 
English " game," may be the following. Or the 
meaning may rather be that of joy fulness, as in 
Old High German gaman, Anglo-Saxon gamen, 
gandium. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Gaudium ^^^ German Ganimo, Cammo, 7 th cent. Gam, Game, 

(Domesday). English Game, Camm. Mod. German Gamm, 
Kamm. French Game, Gaime, Cam, Jam, Jame, Jameau. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Eng. Gammage, Cammegh — French Gamache. French 
Gamichon. 

compounds. 
(Hard) Old German Gamard, 7th cent. — Mod. German 
Gammert — French Gamard, Gaimard, Camard. (Har% 
warrior) Old German Gamer, 9th cent. — Eng. Gamer (17th 
cent.) — Mod. Germ. Kammer — French Gamier. (Ritj ride) 
Old Germ. Gamarit, 8th cent. — French Camaret. (Wold, 
power) French Jamault. 

extended form=ang.-sax. gamen. 
(J ^ ' Old German Gaman. English Gammon. Mod. German 

Gamann. French Gamen, Jamin, Camin. 

From the Old Norse gcela, exhilirare, Old 
High German geil, elatus, Anglo-Saxon galan, to 
sing,*'" may be the following. 

simple forms. 
*^*^®- Old German Gailo, Gelo, Geli, Cailo, 8th cent. Gale, 

Elatus. q^^^Yq^ Hund. Rolls. English Gale, Galey, Gall, Gally, 
Gallow, Gale, Caley, Callow, Gell, Jell, Jelley, Kell, 
Kelly, Kellow. Modern German Gayl, Gehl, Kehl. 
French Galle, Galli^, Gally, Gelle, Gell^ Jal, Jaley, 
Caille, Cailleau. 



* Forstemann separates the two stems, gale and gall, which, however, as 
being, I take it, from the same root, and moreover in modern 'names impossible to 
•cparate, 1 put together. 5 



THE INNER MAN. 437 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old Germ. Geliko, Jeliko, 10th cent.— English Jellicoe, 
Kellock — Mod. Germ. Geilich. English Jellis, Jealous, 
Gallows 1 Kelsey — French Galisse, Gellez, Cailliez. 
Eng. Calkin — French Galichon. Eng. Galilee — French 
Caillelau — Ital. Galileo 1 

phonetic ending. 

Old Germ. Gailin, 8th cent. Galun, Hund. Rolls. Eng. 
Gallon, Gellan. Fr. Galino, Galon, Jaillon, Caillon, 

Gallon. 

patronymics. 
French Gellynck — Ital. Gallenga. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Andy life, spirit) Galaunt, Hund. Bolls. — Eng. Galland, 

Gallant, Kelland — French Galand, Galant, Jaillant, 

Caillant. {Bert, bright) French Galabert, Jallibert. 

(Bot. envoy) Eng. Galbot — French Gailhabaud, Caille- 

botte, Callebaut. {Burg, protection) Old Germ. Cheilpurc, 

9th cent. — French Gallibour, Galibourg. (Drud, dear) 

Old Germ. Kaildrud, 8th cent. — French Gaildraud. {Fred, 

peace) Old Germ. Galafred, 9th cent. — Ang. -Saxon Galfrid, 

Gaufrid — English Geoffry" — French Galoffre, Jeoffroy, 

Gaulofret (Ger, spear) English Gallager — Mod. Germ. 

Galliger — French Galicher. {Hard) Gallard, Bund. 

Rolls. — English Gayleard, Gallard, Gellard, Kellord — 

Mod. Germ. Kahlert — French Gaillard, Jaillard, Cail- 

lard. {Hari, warrior) Eng. Gayler, Gallery, Geller — 

Mod. Germ. Kehler — French Callier, Cailler, Caillier, 

Gallery. {Bind, mild) Old German Geilindis, 8th cent. — 

Eng.GALiNDO. {Rat, counsel) Old Germ. Gailrat, Keylrat, 

8th cent. — Fr. Jallerat, Calaret. {Sind, via) Old Germ. 

Geilsind, 8th cent. — French Gallissant. {Wold, power) 

French Gaillault. {Wig, wi, war) Old German Geilwih, 

Keilwih, 8th cent. — Galewey, Galaway, Hund. Rolls. — Eng. 

Galloway, Callaway, Kellaway — Fr, Jalvy, Caillouee. 

From the Ang.-Saxon singan, to sing, sang, 
sayic, song, may be the following. Forstemann 
mentions also Ang.-Sax. 5mc, treasure. 



Cantare, 



438 THE INNER MAN. 

Sang, Sing. SIMPLE FORMS, 

Cantare. Old Germ. Sancho, 8th cent. English Sang, Sankey, 
Shank 1 Shankey 1 Mod. Germ. Sancke, Senke. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Eng. Single — French Sengel, Singly. Fr. Sanchez, 

Singes. 

compounds. 
(Hari, warrior) Old German Singar, 8th cent. — English 
Singer, Sinker — Fr. Singer, Singery. (Ward, guardian) 
French Sangouard. (Wine, friend) Eng. Sangwin — French 
Sangouin. 

Another stem of similar mei^ning seems to be 
gid, ADg.-Sax. gidd, a poem, giddian, to sing. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

^^^- Old Germ. Giddo, 9th cent. Cyda, Lib. Vit. English 

Giddy, Kiddy, Kidd, Kitt, Kitty, Kitto, Chitty ? Fr. 

GiDE, GiTEAU. 

diminutives. 
Old Germ. Chitell ? — English Gidley, Gidlow, Kiddle, 
Kittle, Chidell ? Chittle ? — French Gidel. English 
Chittock. 

phonetic ending. 
Eng. GiDDEN, Kidney. French Gitton. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Ger, spear) English Kidger. (Hard) French Gittard. 
(Man) Eng. Gidman, Kidman. ( Wine, friend) Old German 
Gydoin, 11th cent. — French Gidoin. (WoA'd, guardian) Fr. 

GiDOUART. 

There is a word nun, non, found in several 
ancient names, on which Forstemann gives no 
opinion, and for which I think of Old Norse 
nunna, to sing, or perhaps rather, to hum. I 
take it that both this, and the preceding stems 
have something of the meaning of the Scotch 
lilt, which, as rendered by Jamieson, is " to sing 
cheerfully." More particularly, I think, to sing 



THE INNER MAN. 439 

without words, an especial mark of gaiety and 
light-heartedness. So in the fine Old Scotch 
ballad of " The Flowers of the Forest," the sense 
of the desolation that had come upon the land is 
expressed by a contrast not easily surpassed in 
its simple pathos. 

*' I've heard a lilting at our ewe milking — 
Lasses a' lilting before the break of day, 
But now there's a moaning in ilka green loaning, 
For our braw foresters are a' wed awa. " 

It would be difficult in the compass of a line 
to bring out a more perfect picture of rural happi- 
ness and content than the " lasses ol lilting," and 
before the break of day too, when man is 
generally more disposed to go about his work 
in grim silence. 

SIMPLE FORMS. Nun. 

Old German Nunno, Nonno, Nunni, 7th cent. Nun, Cantiliare. 
kinsman of Ina, king of Wessex. English Nunn, Nunney^ 
Noon. Mod. Germ. Nonne. French Nony. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old German Nunnil. English Nunley. 
patronymic. compound. 

Eng. Nooning. {Hari, wan-ior) Eng. Nunnery. 

From the Ang.-Sax. plegan, to play, appear to ^^^^' 
be formed a number of names in our own early 
annals. There was a Plegmund, 19th Archbishop 
of Canterbury, and in the Lihei^ Vitce are a Plecga, 
Plegheri, Plegheard, Pleghelm, Plegbrecht, and 
Pleguini. This stem in the Altdeutsches Namen- 
buck mixes up with another, blic, which Grimm 
and Forstemann refer to blic, fiilmen. But 
whatever might be the original meaning of the 
stem, I think it is clear that the Anglo-Saxons in 



440 THE INNER MAN. 

their names thought of it in the above sense. 
Corresponding with the two first names in the 
Liher Vitce are our Play and Player. Possibly, 
however, the sense may be taken to be that of 
the play of battle, so often dwelt on by the Ang.- 
Saxon poets. 

From the Old High Germ, hltde, Ang.-Sax. 
blithe, Eng. blythe, Forstemann derives a number 
of names. But another root, blad, hlat, p. 376, is 
liable to intermix. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Blythe. Q^^ ^^^^ Bledas, Blida, Plida, 5tli cent. Eng. Blyth, 

Hilans. ° 

Blight, Bledy. Mod. German Blede, Bledow. French 

Bled 1 Blet 1 

diminutives. 
Old Germ. Blidilo, 9th cent. Eng. Pleydell. French 

Bletel ? 

PHONETIC ending. 

Old Germ. Blidina, 8th cent. Eng. Blethyn, Pleaden. 

French Bleton. 

compounds. 
{Gaud, Goth) Old German Blidgaud, 8th cent. — English 
Bloodgood. (Ger, spear) Old Germ. Blidegar, Plidger, 7th 
cent. — Eng. Pledger. (Mar, famous) Old Germ. Blidmar, 
Blimmar, 8th cent. — Eng. Plimmer. 

From the Anglo-Saxon hliss, joy, hlissian, to 
rejoice, exult, may be the stem bliss, with which 
we may also put bless. But the Ang.-Sax. blise^ 
a blaze, is a word liable to intermix. 

simple forms. 
Bliss. Blesio, apparently German, found on an ancient inscrip- 

^^^"^ tion in the Netherlands. English Bliss. French Bless, 
Blesseau. 

diminutive patronymic. 

Eng. Blessley. Mod. Germ. Blessing. — Fr. Blessing. 



Sorg. 
Sorrow ? 



THE INNER MAN. 441 

COM POUNDS. 

{Et, p. 189) English Blisset, Blessed. (Hard) English 
Blizzard. (Hari, warrior) French Blesser, Plessier. 

Of an opposite meaning may be the following, 
wliicli seem to be from Gothic saurga^ saurja, 
Ang.- Saxon sorg, sorh, Dutch zorg, Eng. sorroiv. 
Though possibly the original sense may have been 
rather that of anger. 

simple forms. 
English SuRGEY, Sourk, Soar, Sour. Mod. Germ. Sorg. 
French Sourg, Sirguey, Zorgo, Soreau, Soury. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Et, p. 189) Eng. Surgett, Sirkett, Circuit. (Hari, 
warrior) French Zircher, Zurcher. fUl/, wolf) Old Germ. 
Sergulf, 10th cent. — French Surcouf. 

From the Old Norse driupr, Mod. Germ, triihe, 
sorrowful, may be the following. But as the root- 
meaning seems to be that rather of " overcast," 
possibly the sense in proper names might be that 
of dark complexion. Forstemann gives no opinion 
upon it. 

simple FORMS. 

Old Germ. Tinibo. Eng. Truby, Troup, Droop. Mod. 
Germ. Traub, Trube. French Traube, Troupeau, Trouve, sorrow? 
Trufy, Drubay, Druveau. 

diminutives. 
French Trouble, Trupel. French Trouplin, Troplong. 
compounds. 
(Hari, warrior) French Troupier, Truffier. 

Then there are a few names which seem to be 
derived from joke or facetiousness. From the 
Old Norse skoi^. Old High German scopf, jocus, 
English scoff, Forstemann derives the following. 

D 3 



442 THE INNER MAN. 

Scop,Scof. SIMPLE FORMS. 

Jocus. Old German Scopo, Scoppo, 9th cent. Scupi, Lib. Vit. I 

Scope, Lord Mayor of London, A.D. 1403. Eng. Shopp, 
Shoppee, Scobie. Mod. Germ. Schoppe, Schopf. ^ 

DIMINUTIVES. i 

Old Germ. Scopilius. English Scobell, Shovell. ■ 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Hari, warrior) English Shover, Shopperie*— French 

SCOFFIER. 

From the Ang.-Sax. huso, hues, irony, " cliaff," 
whence probably Enghsh hoax, I take to be the 
following names, with which I find nothing to 
correspond in the Altdeutsches Namenhuch. 

jj^sc SIMPLE FORMS. 

Irony. English HusK, Hux. Mod. German Hoske. French ? 

HuscH, Hux. 

' PATRONYMICS 

English HosKiNG. English Huskisson. 

PHONETIC ENDING. 

English HosKiN, Huxen. French Husquin. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Rari, warrior) English Husher, Usher. 
From the Ang.-Sax. gilp, strepitus, jactantia, 
may be the following. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Jtanua Eng. GiLBY, KiLBY. French Gilb^ Gelpy, Kilb4 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Mod. Germ. Gelpke. French Gilblain. 

PHONETIC ENDING. 

English Gilpin, Kilpin. 

scimph. From the Old High German scimph, jocus, 

Jocus. j^orstemann derives the name Scemphio, 8th 

cent. Hence may be Enghsh Scamp, quoted by 

Lower. May not the above be the origin of our 

word scamp '? 

There is a word salt, salz, of whi ch I find no 

* A Boston surname— English ? 



THE INNER MAN. 443 

trace in ancient names, but to which Pott, in the 
Modern German name Salz, gives the meanmg of 
salax. I also think of Old Norse salt, the sea, as 
a possible word. 

SIMPLE FORMS. g^lt g^l^, 

Eng. Salt, Sault, Soltau. Mod. Germ. Salz. French g^iax. 

Sault, Soult, Salze. 

diminutives. 

French Salsac, Salzac. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Ha/rd) French Salzard. (Hari, warrior) Eng. Salter 
— French Seltier, Selzer. (Man) Mod. Germ. Saltzmann. 

Perhaps of a similar meaning may be the root 
brass. Old Norse brass, salax ; unless, as seems 
to be the case in some instances, it is to be referred 
to the metal. 

simple FORMS. Brass. 

English Brass, Brassey. French Brasa, Brazy. Saiax? 

diminutives. 
French Brassac. English Brassell, Brazill \ 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Hard) French Brassart. {Ravi, warrior) Eng. Brasier, 
Brazier — French Brassier, Brasserie. 

From the Old Norse ginna, to seduce, gan, 
magic, are probably the following. A large pro- 
portion of the ancient names from this root seem 
to have been those of women, and the general 
sense is probably only that of seductiveness or 
fascination. But in one case, where we find Ganna 
as the name of a fortune-teller or witch, we must 
take the direct sense of magic."^^ A stem liable 
to intermix is gag an, gain, p. 1 75. 

* Perhaps to this stem we may put the female name Genovef a, 6th cent. , 
and the present Christian name Genovefa in Germany and G€nevi6ve in France. 
If the name be German, it might mean " weaver of spells." Miss Yonge, however, 
argues for a Celtic origin, as also do Leo and Mone. But Grimm [Gesch. d. 
Deutsch. Spr. ) assumes the Germanhood of the name, which compares with others 
having the same termination. 



444 THE INNER MAN. 

Gan. SIMPLE FORMS. 

Magic, Old Germ. Ganna, 1st cent. Canio, Lib. Vit English 

Fascination. Q^^j^^ GaNNOW, CanN, CaNNEY, GeNNA, GiNN, GuINEAU. 

French Ganne, Ganneau, Ganie, Jan, Janny, Gen, Geny, 

Geneau, Gin. 

diminutives. 
Eng. Gannel — French Ganil, Genelle, Canal. Eng. 
Jenkin — Mod. Germ. Jenichen — French Janquin, Genne- 
quin, Jennequin. French Genique, Janac. French Janlin. 

phonetic ending. 
Old Germ. Ginnana, 8th cent. Eng. Gannon, Cannon. 
French Genin, Janin, Canon. 

patronymics. 
Old Germ. Gening, 8th cent. Eng. Jannings, Jennings, 

Canning. 

compounds. 
{Bert, famous) Old German Gimbert, 8th cent. — English 
GiMBERT — French Gimbert. (Bod, hot, messenger) Old 
Germ. Genobaud, Frankish prince, 3rd cent. — Fr. Jeanpot. 
(Had, war) Old German Genad, 8th cent, — Eng. Jennott — 
Mod. Germ. Genet — French Genette. (Hard) Old Germ. 
Ganhart, Genard, 7 th cent. — French Ganard, Genard, 
Canard. (Hari, warrior) Old German Genear, Ginheri, 8th 
cent. — Eng. Genner, Jenner, Jennery, Cannar, Canary — 
Modern German Gener — French Ganier, Jannair, Ginier, 
Canier. {Man) English Ginman. (Rid, ride) Old German 
Generid, 8th cent. — English Oeanneret — French Generat. 
(Ric, power) English Jenrick — Mod. German Gennerich — 
French Jeanray. {Wig, wi, war) Eng. Gannaway, Jana- 
WAY, Ginvey, Jenvey — French Genevee. {Wdd, power) 
French Canault. 

Of a similar meaning is probably the word 
span, spen, &c., Anglo-Saxan sparian, spenan, to 
allure, spdn, allured, spdnere, enticer, allurer. As 
in the former case, the Old German names (of 
which one only corresponds with ours) seem to 
be all or mostly those of women. 



THE INNER MAN. 445 

SIMPLE FORMS. ' Span, Spon. 

Speinn, Spegen, Lib. Vit. Eng. Spain, Spon, Spinney ? Aiucere. 
Mod. Germ. Spohn. French Sponi, Spinn ? 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old Germ. Spenneol 1 9th cent. — Eng. Spaniel 1 
compounds. 
(Hariy warrior) Eng. Spooner* — Mod. Germ. Spanier ? 
— French Spenner 1 {Leofj dear) Eng. Spenlove, Spendlove. 

From the Ang.-Sax. masc, max, Mod. Germ. 
masch, English " mesh," a noose, may be the fol- 
lowing, perhaps in something of a similar sense 
to the foregoing. 

simple forms. Mash, Max. 

Old Germ. Masca, 8th cent., Maxus, 9th cent. English AUicere? 
IVIash, Maxse, Maxey, Moxey. Modern German Maske, 

Masch, Meske. 

diminutive. 

English Maskell. 

phonetic ending. 

English Machine, Maxon, Moxon. 

compounds. 

(ffari, warrior) Eng. Mesher — French Mascar. (Man) 

English Mashman. 

There is a stem gog, cog, coc, which may 
perhaps, though very uncertainly, come in here. 
The sense may be that of English cog, Spanish 
cocar, to cajole, Danish kogle, Dutch kokelen, to 
juggle. The root of this seems to be found in 
German kugel, Dutch kogel, a ball, the simple 
form of which is seen in North. English cog, a 
roundish lump. But there are several other 
derivations which might be proposed, as — \st, 
cock, the bird — 2nd, the cuckoo, in Persian koku, 
Indian kuka, Welsh cog. Old High Germ, gang, 

* Or from Anglo-Saxon spoiiere, cnticer, seducer. 



446 THE INNER MAN. 

Swed. goh, and that there are names from the 
cuckoo is shewn a.t p. 105 — SrcZ, the Ang.-Saxon 
gedc, courage, p. 244. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 
Cog, Cock. Qj^ ^ Q^ Q ^ g^j^ ^^^^^ Q ^^.5 Y^^ 

To cajole? » ' o ? j o ? 

Gaugy, Roll Batt. Abb. Eng. Gogay, Cock. Mod. German 
Koch. French Coq, Coqueau, Coche, 

DIMINUTIVES, 

Eng. Cockle, Coghill — Mod. Germ. Gogel, Gockel — 
French Gochel, Coquille. Eng. Coglin, Cocklin — Mod. 
German Kochlin — French Coclin, Coquelin, Cochelin. 
Eng. GoGGS, Cocks — French Cogez, Coccoz. 

PATUONYMICS. 

English Cocking. Mod. Germ. Gockingk. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Et, p. 189) Eng. CocKETT — French Coquet. (Hard) 
Mod. Germ. Kockert — French Cocard, Cochard. (ffarij 
warrior) Eng. Cogger, Cocker — Mod. German Kocher — 
French Cochery. (Man) Eng. Cockman, Coachman 1 

phonetic ending. 
Eng. GoGGiN, Coggin, Cockin. French Coquin, Cochin, 

COGNY. 

phonetic intrusion of w.* 
(Hard) Old Germ. Guginhart, 11th cent. Fr. Cognard, 

COCHINART. 

From the Old Norse locka, to seduce, beguile, 
may be the following. Hence seems to be the 
name of Loki, the mischief-maker among the gods 
in Northern mythology. The Aug.- Sax. locc, a 
curl, might also be proposed m the sense referred 
to at p. 403. 

Lock. simple forms. 

To beguile ? Locchi, Lib. Vit. Eng. Lock, Lockie. French Locque, 
Loche. 



* Possibly hence also the Swiss GuggenbUhl, (for Guggenbald ?) 



THE INNER MAN. 447 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Hard) Old Germ. Lokard, Lochard, 9th cent. — Eng. 
LocKHART — Fr. LocARD, LocHART. (Hari, warrior) Ang.- 
Sax. Locar, Cod. Dip. 819— English Locker. (Et, p. 189) 
English LocKETT — French Locquet. (Eat, counsel) French 
LocRET. (Man) Eng. Lockman — Mod. Germ. Lochmann. 

From the Ang.-Sax. lorilt, proud, may be the 
following. But in Old Norse jprudr seems rather 
to have meant courteous or polite, which is pro- 
bably a preferable sense for men's names. 

SIMPLE FORMS. Proud. 

Toui, surnamed Pruda, a Northman at the Court of PoUte? 
Canute. English Pruday, Proud, Prout, Prowse. Mod. 
Germ. Prutz ? French Pruede, Prout, Prouteau, Pruce. 

patronymic. 

English Prouting. 

uncertain naivies. 

English Prudence. 

There was an Ang.-Sax. priest called Prudens, Cod. Dip. 

971. This name seems most probably Latin. 

Eng. Proudfoot. 
Finding another name Puddefoot, I think the r may be 
only intrusive. Puddefoot seems to be from hudy a mes- 
senger. 

From the Ang.-Saxon, Old High Germ, ivild, 

ferus, silvaticus, are probably the following. The 

stem, however, is very apt to mix up with ivald 

and will. 

simple forms. -WUd. 

Old German Wilto, 9th cent. English Wilt, Wild, Fems. 
Wildey, Wilday, Gwilt. Modern German Wild, Wildt. 

French Vilde. 

diminutive. patronymic. 

Eng. WiLDisH. Eng. Wilding, 

compounds. 
[Hard) French Viltard, Yilletard. (Hari, •warrior) 
Old Germ. Wildehar, 8th cent. — English Wilder, Quilter. 
(Man) Eng. Wildman. 



448 THE INNER MAN. 

From the Ang.-Sax. haest, hot, hasty, Forste- 
mann derives the following stem, which is however 
liable to intermix with ast, p. 216. 

Hast. SIMPLE FOEMS. 

^*®*^- Eng. Hast, Hastie. French Hesteau* 

DIMINUTIVE. 

English Hastilow. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Hari, wavrior) French Hastier — Eng. Hester, (i?^c, 
power) Eng. Hastrick. (Wald, power) Old Germ. Heiatald 
— French Haistault. 

From the Old High Germ, rasti, Mod. Germ. 
7'ast, Anglo-Saxon rest, English rest, requies^ 
Forstemann derives the stem rast, rest. I am also 
inclined to add the forms o^ost and rust, found in 
Fries, rost, Dutch and Low German rust. Mod. 
Germ, rust, English roost. Though for the form 
rust the German rUsten, to arm, may also be 
proposed. Forstemann has only the three fol- 
lowing names. In the Liber Vitce I find also a 
Restoldus. 

Rest. simple FORMS. 

Requies. Qld German Rusto, Rust, 9th cent. Eng. Rost, Rust. 

Mod. Germ. Rost, Rust. French Rost, Rosty, Rosteau. 

diminutives. 
Eng. Rastall, Restell — Mod. Germ. Rostel. English 
RusTiCH. French Rostolan. 

phonetic ending. 
Eng. RusTON. French Reston, Rostan. 

PATRONYMICS. 

Old German Resting, 8th cent. — Mod. Germ. Rusting. 
French Rostang. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Eic, power) Eng. Rastrick, Restorick. 
From the Ang.-Saxon fersc, fresc. Old High 
German yri5c, Mod. Germsin frisch, we may take 



THE INNER MAN. 449 

the following. But whether in the sense of 
innocence or purity, or in the sense of spirit and 
liveliness, or thirdly, in the sense of novus or 
juvenis, I must leave undetermined. The stem 
does not appear in the Altdeutsches NamenhucJi, 
and curiously enough, it is in the name of the 
Italian family of the Frescobaldi that it appears 
most distinctly in a German form. I find, how- 
ever, that Mr. Taylor has got Freshings in his 
table of Teutonic settlements in France and 
England. 

SIMPLE FORMS. Fresc. 

Ferse,* Domesday. English Fresh, Friskey, Furze. Fresh. 
Mod, Germ. Frisch. French Fresco. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

French Frescal. Modern German Frischlin — French 

Freslon. 

compounds. 

(Bald, fortis) Ital. Frescobaldi. (Hari, warrior) Old 
German Friskaer,t 9th cent. — English Fresher, Furzer. 
(Hard) French Fressard, Froissard. 

From the Old Norse idja, to labour, Forste- 
mann derives the following stem. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Ido, Ito, Hiddo, Hitto, 8th cent. Ans.-Sax. ^^^' "^' 

Ida, king of Bernicia. Eng. Hide, Hitt. Mod. German 

Ide. 

diminutives. 

Old German Idala, 8th cent. — English Idle. French 
Itaque. French Itasse, Ytasse (or to idis, itis, nymph, 

woman V) 

phonetic ending. 
Old German Idinus, 8th cent. English Iden, Hidden. 
French Iteney. 

* The Ang.-Sai form fersc. I am not sure, however, that this, as well as 
English Furze and Furzer, should not be put to Friese, p. 312. 

t Forstemann makes this Fris-kaer, placing it to Friese, p. 312. According 
to my placing, it would be Frisk-aer=Friskhar, 

E 3 



To labour 



450 THE INNER MAN. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Hari, warrior) Old German Ithar, Iter, Hither, 7th cent. 
Eng. HiDER. Mod. Germ. Itter. French Hitier, Ytier. 

In this chapter may be included the stem acty 
which Forstemann refers to Old High German 
ahtdn. Old Norse akta, to think. But I should 
rather take the sense to esteem, respect, which 
this root also has. 

Act, Ect. SIMPLE ^ORMS. 

To esteem. 01<i German Hecto, 9 th cent. Mod. Germ. Hecht. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Hari, warrior) Old German Aecther, 7th cent. — Ecther, 
Lib. Vit. — English Hector — French Hector. {Ric, power) 
Old German Huctrich, king of the Alamanni — English 
Uttridge ? 

From the Gothic svirs, honoratus, Old High 
Germ, sudri, gravis, Forstemann derives a stem 
found in a few ancient names.''^ The connection 
between the two senses is found in our own 
expression, " a man of weight." 

S^ar. simple FORMS. 

Honoratua Eng. SwEARS, SwiRE, SqUARE, SqUAREY. 

patronymics. 
Old Germ. Snaring, 8th cent. English Swearing. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Hari, warrior) English Swearer t 

* One of these is Swarnagal (heavy nail) a name found in the 8th cent, in the 
Verbruderungsbuch von St. Peter zu Salzburg. This seems to suggest an older origin 
for the curious class of names at p. 220 than I have there supposed. 



CHAPTER XXIV. 



THE STATION IN LIFE. 

Though a larger proportion of the names in 
this chapter have been originally surnames than 
in any of the preceding, yet even in this depart- 
ment of the subject there are not a few that are 
baptismal. 

The first place is naturally due to the most 
ancient of all occupations, that of the tiller of the 
soil. There is an Old German word sass. Mod. 
German sasz, signifying settler, mhabitant, from 
which, in the opinion of Adelung, the Saxons 
derive their name. Hence may be the following, 
but of course the stem sax, p. 200, may intermix. 
A Saxon or Low Germ, form may be sat. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Sazo, Sasso, 9th cent. English Sass, Satow. ®*''' ^**- 
Mod. Germ. Sass. French Sasse, Sassy. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Hari, warrior) Eng. Satter* — French Sassier, Sassj^re, 
Sezerie, Satory. (Eat, counsel) Eng. Setright — French 
Sazerat. (Eic, power) French Sazerac, 

From the Old High German buur, bouer^ 
pawer. Mod. Germ, bauer, Ang.-Sax. bure, Dutch 
buur, boer, bouwer, English " boor," countryman, 
seem to be the following. But the stem burg, 
p. 279, is liable to intermix. 

* Or from Ang. -Sax. sceterc, seducer, whence Saeter, the god who gave the name 
to Saturday. 



>f,^ 



^^' 



f Ai/v> ' .A 5/. 



452 Vj<> THE STATION IN LIFE. 

Boor, Bower. V" SIMPLE FORMS. 

Countryman. Power, i?o?Z Batt. Abb. English Boore, Bower, Poore, 
Power. Modern German Bauer. French Bour, Bour^ 
boureau, poure, pourreau. 

diminutives. 
English Burrell — French Bourrel, Bourla. English 
Burling — French Bourrillon. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Hard) French Bourard. (Man J English Boorman, 
Bowerman, Poorman — Mod. German Bauermann. 

Of the ancient occupation of the hunter we 
find considerable trace in baptismal names. From 
the Old High Germ, jag on. Mod. German jag en. 
Old Norse and Swedish jaga, to hunt, I take 
to be the following names, many of which have 
variously been derived by English and German 
writers from the scriptural names John, Jacob, 
and Joachim. Can our word "jockey" be derived 
from this root *? 



Jag, Jack. 
Hunter. 



SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Jacco, 11th cent., Joco, 9th cent. Eng. Jack, 
Jago. Modern German Jock. French Jacque, Jacquee, 
Jacqueau. 

diminutives. 

Jachelinus, Jagelinus (Domesday) — Eng. Jacklin — Mod. 
Germ. Jecklin — Fr. Jacquelin. Eng. Jackall, Jekyll — 
Mod. Germ. Jackel, Jeckel — Fr. Jekel. Eng. Jockisch, 
Jacks, Jax — French Jaccaz, Jacqx. 

phonetic ending. 

French Jaquin, Jegon. Mod. Germ. Jochen. French 

Jaquin, Jokin. 

compounds. 

(Hard) English Jaggard — French Jacquart. (Har% 

warrior) Old Germ. Jager, Jahheri, 9th cent. — Eng. Jagger 

— Mod. Germ. Jaeger, Jocher — French Jager, Jacquier, 

Jaquiery, Jahyer, Jayr. (Et, p. 189) English Jackett, 



THE STATION IN LIFE. 453 

Jagged, Jaget. (Man) English Jackman — Mod. German 
Jagemann — Fr. Jacquemain, Jacquemin. {Mary famous) 
French Jacquemak, Jacquemier. (Waldj power) French 
Jacquault. 

From the Old Dutch perssen, to hunt, Mr. 
Talbot derives the name Percival. The root 
may also mean to constrain, compel, being the 
same as English " press." Hence it is liable to 
intermix with the stem hris, p. 186. There is 
only one Old Germ, name, on which Forstemann 
gives no opinion. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old German Purso, 8th cent. English Pearse, Percy, 
Purse, Pursey, Press ? Pressey ? French Pers. 

diminutives. 

Percelay {Roll Batt. Abb.) — English Purcell. Purslow, 
Parcell, Parsley — French Persil. Eng. Persac. French 
Persoz. 

compounds. 

(Hard) Eng. Purssord. {Rari, warrior) Eng. Purser. 
(Leof, dear) Eng. Purselove, and probably as a corruption, 
Purseglove. (JVew, young) English Pressney — Fr. Presne. 
( Wealh, stranger) English Percival ? Presswell ? — French 
Parseval ? Perseval 1 for local from vUle, town.) 



Perse. 
To hunt! 



t^ 



->,'^.- 



One of the most common stems is hod, bud, 
pot, put, which I take to be from Ang.-Sax. boda, ^<^-^-^ <s-c 9**>w./ 
Old Norse bodi. Mod. German bodt, Danish bud, ^«-<|*^^ 
envoy or messenger. The older German writers '^<''*»'»'v*^-t5/^-<__ 
gave it the meaning of ruler or leader, and Forste- '^'^>^/**^^ 4^ 
mann doubts whether it is to be explained in the 
sense of praebere, offerre, or of jubere, as both are 
to be found in the root from which it is derived. 
I am inclined to think, from the nature of the 



454 THE STATION IN LIFE. 

compounds in which it is found, that its general 
sense is that which I have mentioned. It is 
rather apt in some cases to mix up with haldy 
fortis. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Bod, Bud, Old German Bodi, Boddo, Botto, Budo, Buddo, Butta, 
° ■ Poto, Potho, 8tli cent. Also probably Bando, Bondus, 
Boutiis, 4th cent. Ang.-Sax. Putta. Eng. Bodda, Body, 
BoTT, Boot, Booty, Booth, Budd, Buddo, Butt, Buddy, 
Putt, Pott, Potto, (Alderman of Cambridge, 17th cent. J 
Mod, Germ. Bode, Bote, Both, Booth, Butte, Pott, Poth. 
Danish Budde. French BoDO, Bodeau, Botti, Bothey, 
Boudeau, Bouthey, Bouty, Bout, Butti, Butheau, Poteau, 
Potey, Pothe, Puteau. 

diminutives. 

Old Germ. Bodilo, Potilo, Pedal, Putilo, 7th cent.—Old 

Norse Budli — Ang.-Sax. Pottel (found in Fottelestreow, Cod. 

Jk^ . Dip. 441) — English Bodell, Bodley, Bodily, Boadella, 

^„'" ; Bottle, Botly, Buddle, Boodle, Buttel, Pottle, Poodle 

^ ./Y^/ — Modern German Buddel — French Boutel, Potel. Old 

' ^ Germ. Poticho, Putico, 8th cent. — Ang.-Sax. Puttoc — Eng. 

PuDDicK, PuTTicK, BuDGE — Mod. Germ. Bodeck, Budich, 

BuDKE, Budge — French Pot age 1 Old Germ. Bodekin, 11th 

cent. — Eng. Bodkin — Fr. Bodichon. Old Germ. Bodolenus, 

Butilin, Budelin, Bodalung, 6th cent. — English Butlin, 

BuTLiNG, BuDLONG — Modern German Bohtlingk — French 

BoTTELiN, Boutelon, Budillon. French Bodasse, Buttez, 

PHONETIC ending. 

Old Germ. Baudin, 6th cent. Ang.-Sax. Potten (found 
in Pottenstreow, Cod. Dip. 1,283). Boden, Poll Batt. Abb. 
English Boden, Botten, Budden, Button, Potten. Mod. 
German Boden. French Bodin, Bottin, Budin, Buttin, 

POTIN. 

patronymics. 
Old German Poting. Anglo-Saxon Buttingc (found in 
Buttingc grdf Cod. Dip. 126, &c. Pudding, Lib. Vit. Eng. 
Botting, Budding, Pudding. Mod. Germ. Boding, Butting. 
French Boutung. 



THE STATION IN LIFE. 455 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Cum, guest, stranger) Eng. Buddicombe, Puddicombe — 
French? Buddicom. ( Fer, travel) Eng. Puddifer, Potipher, 
BoETEFEUR* — French Potefer. (Foot, pedes) Eng. Pudde- 
FOOT, Proudfoot ? (Gcr, spear) Old Germ. Baudachar, 7th 
cent. — Eng. Bodicker, Bodger, Podger, Poticary 1 — Mod. 
Germ. Bottger. (Hard) Old German Podard, 5th cent. — 
French Bodard, Bodart, Boudard, Boutard, Potard. 
(Hari, warrior) Old German Botthar, 7th cent. — Boterus, 
Domesday — English Butter, Buttery, Potter, Pottier — 
Modern German Buder, Butter, Putter — French Boder, 

BODIER, BOUDIER, BOTTIER, BOUTIER, POTHIER, POTIER, 

PoTERiE. (Gis, hostage) Old Germ. Boutgis, Boggis, Duke 
of Aquitania, 6th cent. — English Boggis. (Man) English 
BoDMAN, BuTiMAN, Beautyman, Pottman, Putman — Mod. 
Germ. Bodemann, Pijttmann. {Mar, famous) Old German 
Baudomir, 7th cent. — Eng. Bodmer, Bud3I0re, Buttemer, 
PoDMORE — Modern German Bothmer, Bodemeyer — French 
BoTTEMER. {Mund, protection) Old Germ. Baudemund, 7th 
cent. — French Potemont. (Rad, counsel) Old German 
Boderad, 9th cent. — French Poitrat. (New, young) Old 
German Baudonivia, 7th cent. — English Pudney — French 
PoTONi^. (Ric, power) Old German Butteiicus. Bauderich, 
Poterich, 7th cent. — English Butterick, Buddrich — Mod. 
German Bodrich — French Boutaric. (Rid, rit, ride) Old 
German Bodirid, Buotrit, 7 th cent. — English Botwright, 
Bo at WRIGHT? (Wald, power) Old German Baudowald — 
French Boudault. (Run, companion) Old Germ. Baude- 
runa, 7th cent. — French Boutron, Potron. {Wine, friend) 
Old German Butwin, Sth cent. — English Potwine — French 

BODEVIN, BOUDEVIN, PODEVIN, POTEVIN, POTVIN. 

uncertain NAMES. i-^CNn.v 0\^ 

English Buttress, Pewtress. French Boutrais. 

There is a stem ras, for which Forstemann suggests Old 

Norse rasa, to run, Eng. " race." This, though not found 

as the termination of any ancient names, seems likely to 

obtain in the above. And an Old German Hraspod, 9th 

* Also BoCTFLowBR and Butterfly as corruptions? 



Envoy. 



456 THE STATION IN LIFE. 

cent., may be the converse. Possibly Huntress (Folks of 
Shields) may be from the same ending, with hundy dog, or 
hunta, hunter. 

Of a similar meaning may be the root sind, 
sint, which Forstemann refers to Old High Germ. 
sind, way, observing that the sense may rather 
be that of the derivative gisindi, comitatus, 
satelHtes. This stem is apt to mix up with Old 
High Germ, swind, Ang.-Sax. sivith, vehement, 
but I think that it is too strongly defined to be 
entirely merged. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

^°*^^^^^ 01^ German Sindo, Senda, 8th cent. Sindi, Domesday. 

Eng. Sent. Mod. Germ. Sint. French Cent. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old German Sindico, 8th cent. — French Syndic. Old 
Germ. Sindila, 6th cent. — Eng. Send all. Old Germ. Sinzo, 
11th cent. — Mod. Germ. Sinz — French Sins. 

PHONETIC ending. 

Old Germ. Sinduni, 8th cent. Eng. Sinden, Sinton. 
compounds. 

(Bert, bright) Old Germ. Sindbert, Simpert, 8th cent. — 
Eng. Simberd. {Hard) Old German Sindard, 7th cent — 
French Sintard. {Berg, protection) Old Germ. Sindeberga, 
7th cent. — French Sentubery. {Hari, warrior) Old Germ. 
Sinthar, Sintar, 7th cent. — Eng. Sindrey, Sinder, Centre— 
French Cendre. {Rat, counsel) Old German Sindarat, 7th 
cent. — French Cintrat. 

From the Old High German scale, servant, 

seem to be the following. This stem was most 

common among the Alamanni and Bavarians, less 

so among the Franks and Saxons. 

simple forms. 
Servant. Old German Scalco, Scalh, 8th cent. English Shawkey, 

Shallow, Sh alley. Modern German Schalk, Schelck. 
French ? Schall. 



Shalk. 



THE STATION IN LIFE. 457 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Mail) Old Germ. Scalcoman— Eng. Shawman 1 

And from the Old High Germ, scultay servant, 
may be. 

SIMPLE FORMS 

Old German Sculd, 9th cent. English Shoult, Sholto. 
Mod. Germ. Schuldt. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Hariy warrior) Eng. Shoulder 1 — French 1 Scholder 1 

Another stem of the same meaning, more 
common as a termination, is Goth, thius, Anglo- 
Saxon iJieow, Old High Germ, dio, whence may 
be the following. 

SIMPLE FORMS. j) rj.^ 

Old Germ. Die, 9 th cent. Eng. Dey, Dye, Tyas, Thew. serirant. 
Mod. Germ. Thie. French Diey, Die, Dhios. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Eng. Diack. French Diache, Thiac. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Hard) French Diard. {Hari, warrior) English Dyer, 
Thyer. {Loh, grove) Old German Thioloh, 9th cent. — Eng. 
Dialogue. (Mad, met, reverence) Old Germ. Deomad, 9th 
cent. — English Demaid — French Demait, Dhomet. {Man) 
Old Germ. Dioman — Eng. Demon — Mod. Germ. Diemann 
— French Demanxe. {Nand, daring) French Dianand. 
(Mund, protection) Old Germ. Thiomunt, 9th cent. — Eng. 
Diamond — French Demante. 

From the Old High German gisal* hostage, 
are probably the following, though the Old Norse 
gisli, dart, may intermix. I do not feel sure, 
however, that the sense of the Mod. Germ, gesell, 
companion, is not the prevailing one. In modern 

* In Anglo-Saxon names it frequently appears in the form gils, and hence I 
take to be the christian name Giles, most oddly, according to my view, derived 
from -lEgidius, respecting which Miss Yonge seems to be the first to hint a doubt. 
Pott's alternative suggestion of the Latin Julius is not much better. 

F 3 



458 THE STATION IN LIFE. 

names it is generally contracted into gil^ as we 
find also to have been sometimes the case in 
ancient names. 

Gisil G-U SIMPLE FOEMS. 

Hosta e? ^^^ Germ. Gisal, Kisal, 7th cent., Gillo, Gilla, 10th cent. 
Eng. KissELL, Chisel, Gill, Gilley, Gillow, Kill, Killey. 
Mod. Germ. Geisel, Kiesel, Gill, Kille. French Gesel, 

GiLLE, GiLLY. 

diminutives. 
Old Germ. Gislin, 7th cent. — French Ghislain, Geslin. 
Eng. GiLLOCH, KiLLiCK. French Gilquin. 

PHONETIC ENDING. 

Old Germ. Gillin, 9th cent. Eng. Gillen. Mod. Germ. 
KiLLiN. French Gilan. 

PATRONYMICS. 

Old Germ. Gisolung, 9th cent. Anglo-Saxon Gyseling, 
(Jound in GyselingJiam, now GislinghaTUy Suffolk.) Eng. 
GiLLiNG. Mod. Germ. Kissling. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Bald, bold) Old German Gisalbald, 8th cent. — French 
GiLBAULT. [Bert, bright) Old German Gisalbert, 7th cent., 
Gilbert, 8th cent. — English Gilbert — Mod. German Gissel- 
BRECHT, Gilbert — French Gilbert. {Bod, envoy) English 
GiLBODY. (Brand, sword) Old Germ. Gislebrand, 8th cent. — 
Eng. GiLLiBRAND. {Fred, peace) Old German Gisalfrid, 9th 
cent. — Eng. Gilford, Gilfred {christian name). {Hard) 
Old Germ. Giselhard, 8th cent. — Eng. Gillard — French 
GiLLARD — Italian Gilardi. {Hari, warrior) Old German 
Gisilhar, Kisalheri, 8th cent.— Eng. Giller, Killer — Mod. 
German Gessler, Kessler — French Gieseler, Gillier. 
{Had, war) Old German Gislehad, Kisalot, 9 th cent. — 
English Chislett, Gillett — French Ghillet. {Helm) Old 
German Gisalhelm, 8th cent. — English Gillihom, Gilliam. 
{Ran, raven) Old Germ. Gislaran, 8th cent. — Fr. Gilleron. 
(Man) Old German Gisleman, 9th cent. — English Gillman, 
KiLLMAN. {MaVi famous) Gisalmar, 7th cent., Gilmar, 8th 
cent. — English Gilmore — Mod. German Killmer — French 
Gilmer. 



THE STATION IN LIFE. 459 

Then there is a stem giSy which Forstemann 
takes to be the simple form of the above word 
gisal. Besides the High German form his, there 
is also a Lombard form cliis. 

SIMPLE FORMS. ^. .,. 

^ , _. , Gis, Kis. 

Old German Giso, Gizo, Kiso, Cisso, 7tli cent. Perhaps ji^gtage? 
Geeso, 6tli cent. Anglo-Saxon Cissa, King of the South 
Saxons, 6th cent. Chese, Hund. Rolls. Eng. Kiss, Cheese? 
Mod. Germ. Geiss, Giese, Kiss, Tsjisse (Friesic). French 
Ghys, Gies^, Guizot ? Chesse ? Chieze ? 

diminutives. 

Gesecg, genealogy of the kings of the East Saxons — Eng. 
Kissick. — Mod. Germ. Gisecke. Old German Gisoma, 9th 
cent. — EDg. Jessmay. 

PHONETIC ending. 

English Chessen, Chesney. French Gissien, Chesney, 

Chesneau. 

patronymics. 

Old German Gising. English Gissing. Mod. German 

GlESlNG. 

COMPOUNDS. 

Old German Gisbert, 8th cent. — Mod. Germ. Gisbrecht 
— French Gesbert, Gisbert. {Helm) French Gessiaulme, 
Gessiomme — Eng. Chisholm? (Man) Old Germ. Guesmau? 
8th cent. — English Chisman, Chesman, Cheeseman ? — Mod 
Germ. Giesemaxn. 

Names derived from trade were naturally of 
rare occurrence in ancient times. There is an Old 
German Coufman, 9th cent., which may be from 
Old High German koufman. Modern German 
kaufma/ui, meixhant. I do not think, however, 
(see p. 248) that this is altogether certain, though 
it is in its favour that the corresponding Anglo- 
Saxon cedpman and copeman are also represented 
by Enghsh Chapman and Copeman, the latter 
corresponding with a Copaman in the Liber Vitce. 



460 THE STATION IN LIFE. 

In the name of a grave (Ceapan hldwj, we 
find an Ang.-Sax. Ceapa, which seems to be fi:"om 
cedpa, a merchant, and with which corresponds 
Eng. Cheape. 

Names derived from handicraft, as a general 
rule, are of more recent origin, and have been 
well explained by Mr. Lower, to whose work the 
reader may be referred for further information 
respecting them. At the same time I hold to 
the opinion that a great number of the names 
apparently so derived are nothing more than acci- 
dental coincidences. Such are many ending in er, 
such as Angler, Carter, Collier, Clothier, 
Harper, Mariner, Marker, Ringer, Slater, 
Stoker, Tasker, Turner, Walker, &c., most 
of which are referred to elsewhere. Nevertheless, 
I will not dispute that in some cases two different 
origins may obtain for the same name. Thus 
it is very probable that the common name of 
Walker is sometimes from Ang.-Sax. ivealcere, 
a fuller. 

So also I take it that many of the names end- 
ing in luright, as Arkwright, Allwright, Boat- 
WRiGHT, Cartwright, Cheesewright, Good- 
WRIGHT, Hartwright, Sievewright, Wain- 
WRiGHT, WooLWRiGHT, are compounds either of 
rat, counsel, or of rit, ride, both common as 
ancient terminations. In some of these cases 
again two different origins may obtain, but we 
must be guided very much by the probabiUties 
of the case. Thus Boatwright, Cartwright, 



's 



THE STATION IN LIFE. 461 

and Wainwright would be natural enough as 
names derived from trade. But the term 
" Wright" would I think hardly be properly 
appHed to makers of cheeses, or manufacturers 
of wool. Again, Ark weight has been explained 
as a maker of meal chests. But it would not be 
reasonable to suppose that a division of labour 
such as does not even obtain at present, prevailed 
in the more primitive days of old, so that any one 
man was exclusively employed in making chests. 

So also many of the names ending in man, as 
Aleman, Bellman, Cloutman, Coleman, Gin- 
man, Hartman, Henman, Honeyman, Potman, 
Saleman, &c., I do not conceive to be derived 
from trade or occupation. 

The commonness of the name of Smith is to 
be accounted for by the fact that anciently the 
term was not confined to iron work, but was 
applied to everything which required " smiting." 
Thus the poet was a " verse-smith," though he 
had only to " cudgel his brains." Though no 
doubt generally a surname, it may be in some 
few cases baptismal. There was an Old German 
Smido, 9th cent., and we have the names Smithy 
and Smytha — here we seem to have the three 
endings a, z, and o, the characteristics of bap- 
tismal names. Perhaps Eng. Smither, Smiter, 
French Smyttj^re, Mod. Germ. Schmieder, may 
be a compound, hari, warrior. The names of 
Germany shew some further signs of connection 
with an ancient name-stem in the diminutives 



462 THE STATION IN LIFE. 

SCHMIEDECKE, SCHMIEDEL, and SCHMIDLIN, and 

in the apparently patronymic form Schmedding. 
In the case of these names the meaning may 
simply be that of smiting, and most probably in 
a warlike sense. 

Our name Brownsmith* is, I take it, the 
opposite to blacksmith, and signifies the smith 
who did the bright or burnished work. Sheab- 
SMITH might have the same meaning, from Ang.- 
Saxon scir, bright, but is more probably the 
same as the German Schaarschmidt (Anglo- 
Saxon seer, plough-share). Scottsmith I have 
referred to at p. 817 as similar to Arrowsmith. 
Grossmith I should be inclined to explain as the 
opposite to the German Tdeinschmidt, " small 
smith,'' i.e., maker of locks, &c. Our Wildsmith 
seems to be the same as the German Wald- 
SCHMIDT, which appears to be from wold, forest. 
For other Smiths, English and German, see Lower 
and Pott. 

As Alderman, p. 338, is most probably to 
be explained in its ancient and higher sense, so 
also Constable, if we refer it to an office at all, 
must be looked upon (see Lower) in a similar 
light. But, as I have elsewhere shewn, it may 
also be derived from a name of christian import 
not uncommon among the early Frankish converts. 

* So also Brownsword, p. 399. But what the meaning of Greensmith is, 
also of Greensword and of Gruneisen (green iron), the latter name, I take it, of 
German origin, I do not know. Dr. Doran ("Names and Nicknames" in the 
Universal Review) mentions an Irish chieftain called Eochod "of the sharp grean 
aword. " 



THE STATION IN LIFE. 463 

Bishop is a name about the origin of which 
there is some difficulty. We first find it in the 
name of a heathen (Biscop) in the genealogy of 
the kings of the Lindisfari, and I have suggested 
a possible explanation at p. 182. It occurs more 
commonly among the Anglo-Saxons in christian 
times, and oddly enough, all the men so called in 
the Liber Vitce are ecclesiastics. Possibly, for a 
young man intended for the church, it might be 
thought to be rather an auspicious name. It is 
possible then that Bishop may have been a 
heathen name, continued in christian times, but 
doubtless in a changed sense. 



CHAPTER XXV. 



ALL FLESH IS AS GRASS. 

Something akin to the above sentiment lies 
at the root of a number of our names. Grass 
itself (Old High Germ, gras, eras, Ang.-Sax. grces, 
by transposition gcers,) is adduced by Forstemann 
as the root of several ancient names. He sug- 
gests however as probable a lost verb grasan, 
virere, crescere. 

Grass, Gars. SIMPLE FORMS. 

Gramen. Qld German Garsia, 8th cent. English Grass, Grassie. 
Mod. German Graesse. French Grass, Grassi, Grasso, 
Garce, Garceau, Garcia. 

diminutives. 
Eng. Grassick. French Grassal. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Etj p. 189) English Grasset — French Grasset. (Hard) 
French Grassart. (Man) English Graseman — Mod. Germ. 

Grassmann. 

Of a similar meaning I take to be the stem 
green, which, though in most English names it is 
probably local, is undoubtedly in some cases 
baptismal. The various forms of the annexed 
are found in Old High Germ, gruon, Ang.-Saxon 
groen, grSn, Eng. " green." The German kron, 
English " crown," might intermix, though this 
does not seem to be the case as far as the ancient 
names are concerned. 



ALL FLESH IS AS GRASS. 465 

SIMPLE FORMS. Grone, 

Old German Grun, Gruna, Ci-uan, Chrona, fdaicghter of Green. 
the Burgundian king Chilperich^ 5th cent. J Greno, Domesdai/. 
English Gronow, Green, Greeny, Crean, Croney, Crown 1 
Mod. German Grohn, Grun, Gritn, Kron. French Grune, 
Greinn, Cron, Croneau. 

diminutives. 
Eng. Grenell — French Grunelle. Grensy, Moll Batt. 
Abb. — Eng. Greenish, Greenhouse — French Grenuz. 

PATRONYMICS. 

Grenesune (Domesday). — English Greenson. English 
Greening, Gruning — Mod. Germ. Groning, Gruning. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Hard) Old Germ. Cronhai-t, Cruanhart, 9th cent. — Mod* 
German Grohnert, Grunert, Grunert — French Grenard. 
(Hari, waiTior) English Greener, Gruner — Mod. German 
Gruner, Groner, Kroner — French Gronier, Cronier, 
Grenier, Crenier (Man) Eng. Greenman. 

From the Old High German hloma. Modern 
German hlume, flower, Forstemann derives the 
following stem ; though we may perhaps take 
the wider sense of blooming or flourishing. 

SIMPLE FORMS. Bl^^^^ 

Old German Pluoma. English Bloom, Bloomy, Plume, piume. 
Plum. Mod. German Blume, Blum. Mod. Danish Blom. Flower. 
French Blome, Blum. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Eng. Blomeley, Plumley — Mod. Germ. BLiJMEL. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Hard) Mod. Germ. Blumhardt — Dutch Blommaert — 
French Blomard, Plumartin (Dimin. ?) (Hari, warrior) 
English Bloomer, Plumer, Plomer — Mod. Germ. Blumer — ■ 
French Plumier, Plumeray. (Ric, power) English Plum- 

BIDOE % PlUMBRIDGE ? 

From the Ang.-Sax. blosm, blossom or flower, 
is our name Blossom. The root-meaning, as re- 

G 3 



466 ALL FLESH IS AS GRASS. 

marked by Mr. Wedgwood, is to shine, to glow, 
as shewn in Old Norse blossa, to flame, &c. Hence 
Eng. Bloss and Blossett. 

The Latin flos, fioris, French jleur, appears, 
like some other Romanic words, to have been 
adopted to a certain extent into the Teutonic 
name-system, particularly among the Franks. 
Whether our name Flowerday may be referred 
to such origin and derived from the common 
ending dag, day, brightness, beauty, I should not 
like to assume in the absence of any correspond- 
ing ancient name. 

Grimm, in his Frauennamen aus hlumen, read 
before the Academy at Berlin, discourses with 
his usual fulness of learning on the names derived 
from flowers and plants among various nations. 
The Hebrews, whose national career gave a cast 
of sternness and gloom to their sentiment, exhibit 
only two — Tamar, signifying a palm-tree, and 
Susannah, signifying a lily. The hieroglyphics 
of ancient Egypt reveal to us three — the lotus 
as a man's name, the ivy and the palm as names 
of women. The nomenclature of the Romans 
was somewhat wanting in names of this class, 
while tha.t of the fanciful and elegant-minded 
Greeks was richer than any other. 

The ancient German tribes, full of rude and 
fierce energy, despised the gentle associations of 
trees and flowers. If they thought of the lime- 
tree or the ash, it was not of their beauty or their 
pleasant shade, but of the spear and the shield 



ALL FLESH IS AS GRASS. 467 

which their wood was good to make. Their idea 
of woman was not as the angel to smooth the 
stem side of hfe, but as the ministering spirit of 
the war-god to incite the warrior on his course. 
Hence the objects of comparison which seem to 
us so natural — the ivy and the clematis as the 
emblems of endearmg dependance — the violet 
" half hidden to the eye" as the emblem of modest 
sweetness — had no place in their imaginations. 
And as a general rule, the names of women were 
as fierce and ungentle as those of men. 

But with the Minnesingers of the middle ages 
a softer feeling arose, and names derived from 
flowers began to be in use. It is probably from 
this period that names such as the following, 
more common in German than in English, date 
their origin. Eng. Roseblade, German Rosen- 
blatt and EosEisBLUT (rose-leaf)— Eng. Rosin- 
bloom (rose-flower) — Germ. Rosengarten (rose- 
garden), Rosen HAGEN (rose-hedge), Rosenzweig 
(rose-branch), Rosenstiel, Rosenstock, Rosen - 
STENGEL (rose-stem), Rosen kranz (rose-crown), 
Rosenweber (weaver of roses, i. 6., into garlands). 
Perhaps also such as English Rosethorn, Ros- 
TERNE ; English Hawthorn, Hagdorn, Germ. 
Hagedorn ; Eng. Prjmerose, EngHsh Sweet- 
apple, German Gulden apfel, &c. But such as 
the EngHsh Peppercorn, Mod. Germ. Pfeffer- 
KORN, and German Haberkorn, KlOvekorn, 
&c., must be from some different origin, perhaps 
feudal tenure or custom. 



468 ALL FLESH IS AS GRASS. 

From the Romanic tongues, probably about 
the period of the middle ages, come such names 
as French Hyacinthe ; Eng. Yiolett, Modern 
Germ. Violet, French Violete ; Eng. Blanch- 
flower, &c. A pretty poem of the middle ages 
celebrates the loves of two children called Rose 
and Blanchefleur, who, dying, were buried in one 
grave, from which sprung the mingled lily and 
sweet-briar. 

There are, however, a few names of the earlier 
period which seem to be derived from trees or 
plants. In some cases, as that of the ash and the 
lime-tree, a particular reason may obtain, apart 
from any sylvan associations. In other cases it 
is not so easy to see the reason why. Thus the 
Old Norse name Humbl, whence probably Eng- 
Humble,'" and perhaps French Hummel, seems 
to be from humall, the hop-plant, though as to 
the reason for its adoption we are quite in the 
dark. It is not difficult to account for such a 
name as Thorne, which seems to be ancient. As 
an Anglo-Saxon name it occurs in the name of a 
place — Thorninga byra, " the hillock of the Thorn- 
ings,'' i. e., descendants of Thorn. As a Scan- 
dinavian name Thorny occurs in Saxo.t The 
sense might be that of spear, as in many other 
names of the same class already referred to. 

Thystell, which occurs as the surname of a 

* Might, however, also be from Hunibald, Humbald, p. 314. 

t The female name Thorny in the Landnamabok is not, as I before thought, 
from thorn, but more probably a compound of Thor and ny, young, which aa a ter- 
mination seems exclusively feminine. 



ALL FLESH IS AS GRASS. 469 

Northman in the Landnamabok, may probably 
be explained on something of the same principle 
as that of the Scotch motto " Noli me tanerere." 
Thistle is an English name, though not common. 

To the other words signifymg shoot or branch 
— in most cases probably in the sense of spear — 
may be added the root stqff, stuf, stub, from Old 
Norse stufr, stuhhr, Anglo-Saxon styh, branch or 
shoot. We have the word stove in this sense in 
Cumberland ; Leicestershire has stovin. Fdrste- 
mann has no trace of this stem. 

SIMPLE FORMS. Stof, Stuf, 

Ang.-Sax. Stuf, nephew of Cerdic. Old Norse Stufr, a s*^^- 
poet in the Laxdsela-saga. English Stubbe, Stobie, Stobo, ^^^^ ' 
Stop, Stiff. Mod. German Stoff, Stuve. French Stouf, 
Stoffe, Stuve, Stuppy. 

diminutives. 

Eng. Stovel, Stoffell, Stiffel. Mod. Germ. Stiebel. 
French Stoffell, Stival. 

patkonymics. 

Ang.-Sax. Stopping, (found in Stoppingas, Cod. Dip. 83. J 
Eng. Stubbing, Stebbing. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Ha/rd) Eng. Stobart, Stubbert, Stupart, Stibbard — 
French Stevart. (Hari, warrior) English Stuber, Stubber 
Stopher, Stover — Mod. Germ. Stuber — French Stopfer. 

extended F0RM= ANG.-SAX. STOVN, LEICEST. STOVIN. 

English Stovin, Stiffin. French Stobin, Steuben, 
Steffen. 

Another word having the meaning of shoot Quigt. 
or branch — and in this case probably in nothing 2J*anch. 
more than its simple sense — is quist, which 
Professor Leo, in a communication to Notes and 
Queries, refers to Swed. quist, branch. The Old 



470 ALL FLESH IS AS GRASS. 

Norse quistr, and the Dutch quast have also the 
same sense ; the Mod. German quaste means tuft 
or tassel. Hence English Hasselquist, Lind- 
QUIST, and Zetterquist, signifying respectively 
" hazel-branch," " lime-branch," and " aspen- 
branch." It seems probable that these names do 
not date beyond the middle ages. 

Then there are some other names which seem, 
to say the least, doubtful. As for instance the 
Old German Balsimia — English Balsam, French 
Balsem(ine) — which Grimm takes to be from 
tlie balsam-plant. But Forstemaim, in his work 
published subsequently, places in apposition the 
names Baldisma and Baltisma, and it seems pro- 
bable that the whole are only diminutives from 
the root bald, fortis. 

Another doubtful name is Lily. There is an 
Old German Liula, 8th cent., and a later Liela, 
which Grimm takes to be from the vitis alba or 
clematis. Then there is also an Ang.-Sax. Lilla, 
but while the Old German names are those of 
women, the Anglo-Saxon is that of a man. The 
question then is in the first place whether these 
various names are the same ; and in the second 
place whether in any case the above is the right 
meaning. Or might the Ang.-Sax. lilie, English 
" lily," obtain in any of these names ? 

j^jjj SIMPLE FORMS. 

Lily ? Old German Liula, Liela, 8tli cent. Anglo-Saxon Lilla. 

Eng. LiLL, LiLLO, Lily, Lely. French Lillo, Lelly, Lely. 

COMPOUNDS. 

English Lillyman, Lilliman. 



ALL FLIiSH IS AS GRASS. 471 

The English Olive, Oliff, and the French 
Olive, Oliva, Oliffe, might be from the olive 
tree. The names Oliva and Olefia occur in the 
" Polytyque de I'Abbe Irminon" in the 8th cent. 
But the Scandinavian name Olaf, borne by several 
kings of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, and 
with which correspond Old German names Olaf, 
Olef, and Olof, 8th cent., might intermix. The 
word also appears in some German compounds, 
as Olevildis, 9th cent., {liildy war). To these 
might be put the Olifard in the Roll Batt. Abh. 
and in the Liber Vitce, present French Olivert. 
It is hard to say whether all or any of these 
latter names are from the olive. 

Doubtful also are EngHsh Oake, Oakey, 
AiKiN, Airman. There are Old German names 
Aiko, Oiko, Occo, Eckan, and Eckeman, for which 
Graff and Forstemann propose aki, discipKna, 
ekka, edge, &c., see p. 209. Nevertheless, the oak, 
as the emblem of stabiHty and strength, would 
be very natural for men's names, and it does not 
seem to me at all certain that the above are not 
so derived. 

I do not think that Maple is from the tree ; 
neither does the derivation from ma belle seem a 
sufficient one. The names Mabilia and Mabic in 
the Lib. Vit. appear to be diminutives, and the 
stem-name is also found there as Map. Hence 
English Mabb, Mabbutt, &c., and the French 
Mabillon, another diminutive. As to the etymo- 
logy, I can give no opinion. If the name Mabilia 



472 ALL FLESH IS AS GRASS. 

may be dissevered from the others, I should be 
inclined to refer it to the Latin amabilis. 

Our name Rowntree (the mountain ash) is 
probably derived from some of the superstitions 
connected with that tree. Rointru is also 
a French name, derived, it may be, from some 
of the many Scotch settlers who have left 
traces of their nationality in the names of that 
country. Whether our Rowen is from the same 
origin or from a Saxon Rodwin, (whence in the 
female form Rowena), may be uncertain. Miss 
Yonge is surely in error in saying that there is 
" nothing Teutonic" about Rowena : it would be 
derived from Rodwina as naturally as Robert 
and Roland from Rodbert and Rodland. The 
female form Rodwina does not, however, occur in 
the Altdeutsches Namenhuch, though the man's 
name Rodwin is common. 

Ivy, Mr. Lower thinks, may be derived from 
the old hohday games, in which Ivy was a female 
character. Ivymey, which may be "ivy-maiden," 
may perhaps be from this source, as also Ivyleaf. 
But Ivy itself, along with IvE and Ife, and a 
Mod. Germ. IvE, seems to be from an Old Germ. 
Ivo, Ang.-Sax. Iffi, the probable etymon of which 
if it be not from the root ah, p. 60, is Old Norse 
yfa, to rage. Indeed, Ivymey itself may be taken 
to be a diminutive form from this stem, corres- 
ponding with an Old Germ. Ivamus, 11th cent. 

Our name Jessamine seems to be a corrup- 
tion of another name, Jessiman, which again may 



THE STATION IN LIFE. 473 

be the same as an Old Germ. Gezzeman, the root 
of which is doubtful. Our name Nutt I take to 
be the same as Knut, which we incorrectly make 
a dissyllable in Canute. So Almond, Filbert, 
Medlar, Poppy^ Garlick, &c., I take to be 
ancient names. I even doubt the old song which 
says 

*' Johnny Figg was a grocer, white and red," 

so far as it may be adduced for the explanation 
of our name, which I refer, as at p. 249, to an 
ancient stem. 



H3 



CHAPTER XXVI. 



THE STUFF A MAN IS MADE OF. 

Though the gentle associations of trees and 
flowers seem to have been but little in favour 
among our fierce ancestors, yet there is another 
class of names derived from metals, which, as 
more in accordance with the character of their 
ideas, hold a larger place in their nomenclature 
Among these iron, as tlie symbol of hardness and 
strength, was naturally the most common, and 
probably the most ancient. There are three 
forms, 1st, the Gothic eisarn, Old High German 
isarn, Anglo-Saxon isern. This is the original 
form from which are derived respectively the 
later forms isan and iren in Old High German 
and Anglo-Saxon. The first in some names might 
also be the adjective, Old High German isern. 
Mod. Germ, eisern, ferrous. So in the Chron. of 
Limhurck there is a Heinrich der Isern, Henry 
the Iron. 

, T SIMPLE FORMS. 

Ison. Isarn. 

Iron. Old German Isinus, 8th cent., Isarn, 10th cent., Isarna, 

one of the Anses in Jornandes. English IsoN, Izon, Iron, 
Isern. Mod. Germ. Eisen. French Eysen. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Bert, bright) Old German Isanbert, Isambert, 8th cent. 
Mod. German Isanbart — French Izambert. (Burg, pro- 
tection) Old German Isanburg, Irinbric, 8th cent. — English 
Ironbridge — Mod. Germ. Isenberg. {Hard) Old German 
Isanhard, Isnard, 8th cent. — English Isnard — Mod. German 



THE STUFF A MAN IS MADE OF. 475 

EiSENHARDT — French Isnard. (Man) Old Germ. Isanman, 
9th cent. — English Ironman. {Wold, power) Old German 
Isinolt, 9th cent. — French Esnault. {Ulf, wolf) French 

ESNOUF. * 

SURNAME. 

Ironside was the surname both of our own Edmund and 
also of Bjorn, king of Sweden. Ironside is a present English 
name. 

Then there is another form is, which if we take 
it to be, on the principle which I have assumed 
throughout this work, the older form of isarn 
and ison, must represent the Sansc. ay as, Gothic 
aiz, which at first probably meant copper, but 
on the discovery of iron was transferred to that 
metal, t But in a few names, as Isborn, p. 326, 
is, glacies, may probably intermix. 

SIMPLE FORMS. Ise 

Old Germ. Iso, Isi, 8th cent. Eng. Eyes, Ice. ^""^"^ 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old Germ. Islo, Isula, 8th cent. — English Icely — Mod. 
Germ, Eisele — French Eisele. Eng. Iselin — Mod. Germ, 
EiSELN — French Iselin, Yslin. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Bert, bright) Old German Isabert, Isbert, 7th cent. — 
French Isbert. (Burg, protection) Old German Hisburg — 
Eng. Isburg. (Hard) English Isard, Izard — Mod. Germ. 
IsERT — French Izard, Yzard. (Hari, warrior) Old Germ. 
Isheri, Iser, 8th cent. — Eng. ? Heiser — Mod. Germ. Eiser — 
French Isar. (Man) Old German Isman — Ang.-Sax. Hyse- 
man (found in Eysemannes thorn, Cod. Dip. 714)— English 
Heasman 1 — Mod. Germ. Eisemann. {Mar, famous) Old 
Germ. Ismar, 9th cent. — Eng. Ismer. {Odd, dart) Old Norse 
Isodd — Eng. Izod. {Ward, guardian) Old German Isevard, 
Isoard, 10th cent. — French Isoard. 



* Fbrstemann has only the form Isulf. The form Isernuulf occurs in the 
Liber Vitae. 

t Max MtUler, Lectures on the Science of Language. Second series. 



476 THE STUFF A MAN IS MADE OF. 

From the Old High German stahal, Modern 
German stahl, Ang.-Sax. styl, EngHsh " steel," are 
the following. 

„, , „, , SIMPLE FORMS. 

Stal, Steel. 

chaiybs ^^^ German Stahal, Stal, Sth cent. Old Norse Stall, 

(surname). English Steel, Steal, Staley. Mod. German 
Stahl. French Stal. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Hard) Old Germ. Stahelhart, Stallard, Sth cent. — Eng. 
Stallard. (Man) Eng. Steelman, Stalman — Mod. Germ. 
Stahlmann. 

phonetic ending. 

English Stealin, Stalon, Stallion. Modern German 
Stahelin. French Stalin. 

DOUBTFUL NAMES. 

English Steelfox, Stelfox. Most probably a corruption 
of Steelfax, from the colour of the hair. The traces of Fox 
as an ancient name-stem are not such as to warrant us in 
thinking of a compound like the Old Germ. Stahalolf (steel 
wolf). 

Brass and Copper seem both somewhat 
doubtful. The former, as at p. 443, might be 
referred to Old Norse brass, salax ; the latter 
might be a corruption of Cowper, (Old Norse 
kaupari, North. English " couper," dealer) ; or a 
compound from the stem cop, p. 248. The cor- 
respondence of a Mod. Germ. Kupfer is however 
so far in favour of the metal. 

As iron and steel seem to have been synonyms 
of hardiness and strength, so gold may probably 
have been a synonym of affection. Thus in an 
Old Friesic song quoted by Halbertsma, a lover 
addresses his mistress as " goune Swobke," 
" golden Swobke." Thus babies are said to be 



1 



THE STUFF A MAN IS MADE OF. 477 

" as good as gold." A similar expression occurs 
ill a Modern Greek lullaby (Fauriel, " Chants 
populaires de la Grece Moderne"), where a child 
is addressed as " a golden little boy." There was 
an Alfgar, or Wulfgar, bishop of Lichfield, sur- 
named se gyldena, " the golden" — perhaps, Mr. 
Kemble suggests, from his munificence, or as I 
think equally probable, from his goodness. Old 
High German forms of gold, as found in the 
annexed, are golt, hold, kolt. 

SIMPLE FORMS. ^^^^ 

Ang.-Sax. Golde {woman's name). Eng. Gold, Goldie, Aurum. 
Gould, Goult, Goulty, Cold, Colt. French Gault. 

PHONETIC ending. 

Old German Coldin, 9th cent. English Golden (or an 
adjective ?) 

PATRONYMICS. 

English Golding, Goldingay. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Birin, pirin, bear) Old German Goldpirin, 9th cent. — 
English GoLDBOURN. (Ber, bear) French Goldber. (Hard) 
English CoLTHARD. (Hari, warrior) English Golder, 
Colter — French Gaultier. (Man) Eng. Goldman, Cold- 
man, CoLTMAN — Mod. Germ. Goldmann. (iV^ey, young) Old 
German Golni 1 10th cent. — Eng. Goldney. (Bed, counsel) 
Old German Goltered, 10th cent. — Eng. Coulthred. fBic 
power) Old Germ. Goldericus, 9th cent. — English Goldrick 
GoLDRiDGE, CoLDRiCK. (BuTi, companion) Old German 
Goldrun, Coldrun, 10th cent. — Coldrun, Lib. Fi^.— English 
Calderon — French Caudron — Span. Calderon. {Wine, 
friend) English Goldwin. 

To the same stem Forstemann places the 
following, suggesting, however, the Old High 
German geltan, reddere, valere. Whether of the 
two is the root-meaning is difficult to decide, but 
it is not improbable that there may be a mixture. 



478 THE STUFF A MAN IS MADE OF. 

GUd. SIMPLE FOEMS. 

Old German Gildo, Comes Africa^ Sth cent. — Gildia, a 
Gothj 6tli cent. — Geldis, 9th cent. Ulf Gilt, Domesday. 
Englisli Guild, Gilt, Kilda^, Kilt, Kilto, Kilty. Span. 

Gildo.* 

patronymics. 
Old German Gelding, Giltiug, 8th cent. Eng. Gilding, 

Gelding, Kelting. 

compounds. 
{Hard, fortis) Old Germ. Gildard, Ghelthard, 6th cent. — 
Eng. GiLDERT, Geldert. {Hari, warrior) Old Germ. Gelther 
— English Gilder, KiLDERRY.t {Man) Mod. Germ. Gilte* 
MANN. {Ulf, wolf) Old Germ. Geldulf, Keltolf, 7th cent. — 
Eng. KiLDUFF.t {Wig, war) Old German Geltwi — English 

GiLDAWIE. 

From the Old Norse form gull, gold, may 
perhaps be the following. The Old Norse gull, 
gold, is sometimes prefixed to Scandinavian 
names, as in Gull-Thorir, Gull-Haraldr, " Gold- 
Thorir," " Gold-Harold." I thought before, that— 
Ivar being a Scandinavian name — our Gulliver 
might be Gull-Ivar, " Gold Ivar," a name like 
these. But as the name does not stand alone in 
that form, I now think the above scarcely pro- 
bable. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 
Gul 

^ ,J Enff. Gull, Gully, Cull, Culley. Mod. Germ. GiJLL. 

Gold. o ^ ' ^ 

French Goulay. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

English GuLLiCK. Mod. Germ. Gulich. 

PHONETIC ENDING. 

English GuLLEN, Cullen. 

* The Spaniards have also Hermenegildo, from the Old German name 
Herminigild, found in the 6th cent, in the name of a son of the West-Gothic king 
Leuvigild, of a bishop of Oviedo in the 9th cent., a Spanish abbot in the 10th. 
The prefix is Armin or Ermin, p. 146. 

t KiLDERRY and Kilduff are Boston surnames, and seem to be EngliHh. 
They may come in here, though they have rather a Celtic sound, 



THE STUFF A MAN IS MADE OF. 479 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Bert, bright) English Gulbert. {Et, p. 189) English 
Gullet — French Goulette. {Fred, peace) Gulfered, Gulfer, 
Domesday — Eng. Gulliford, Gulliver. 

We do not find any trace of silver in ancient 
names. There is an Old Germ. Selphar 8tli cent., 
and an Old Norse Solvar, but perhaps these, 
along with English Silver, Mod. Germ. Silber, 
may be placed to the stem salv, self, p. 346. 
Another derivation may however be traced in the 
Silebuhr in the Liher Vitce, which points to a 
stem sil, referred to, but not explained by Forste- 
mann. At the same time, the present German 
names Silberard, Silberman, &c., rather seem 
to point to an ancient name-stem. 

From the Old High German stain. Old Norse 
steinn, Ang.-Sax. 5^a?z, Dutch 5^66n, Eng. "stone," 
in the sense of hardness and firmness, are the fol- 
lowing. The stem is more common in Old Norse 
names than in Old German. 

semple forms. c.* 

Stane. 

Old Germ. Steina, 10th cent. Old Norse Steinn, Steini. stone. 
English Stain, Steen, Stoxe, Stony, Stonah, Stannah — 
French Stein. 

diminutives. 
English Steneck — Mod. German Steinecke. English 
Stkxnell, Stonel. 

patronymics. 

Old Germ. Steining, 10th cent. Eng. Stenning. 

compounds. 

(JBiorn, bear) Old Norse Steinbiorn — English Stainburn. 

{Burg, protection) Old German Stemburga, for Steinburga — 

English Steamburg, Stembridge, Stonebridgk {Ger, spear) 

Old Germ. Staniger, 9th cent. — French Stein acher. {Hard) 

Old German Stainhard, Stanard, 8th cent. — Stannard, 



HaU. 
Stone ? 



480 THE STUFF A MAN IS MADE OF. 

Domesday — Eng. Stannard, Stonard, Stoneheart — Mod. 
Germ. Steinhart. {Hari, warrior) Old Germ. Steinlier, 8th 
cent. — Old JS'orse Steinliar — Eng. Stainer, Stoner, Stonier 
— Mod. Germ Steiner. {Man) Eng. Stoneman — Mod. Germ. 
Steinmann. (Waldj power) Old Germ. Stainold, 8th cent. 
— English Stonhold. 

Miss Yonge, who considers the names derived 

from iron, steel, stone, &;c., as weapon names, takes 

in also the following Old Norse names as derived 

from hallvy stone. But the Old Norse hair, vir 

liber et liberalis, may perhaps intermix. 

simple forms. 
Old Germ. Halo, 8th cent. Old Norse Hallr. English 
Hall, Halley. Mod. Germ. Hahl, Hall. French Hall^ 

Halley. 

compounds. 

{Burg J protection) Old Norse Hallbiorg — English Hall- 
bower — French Hallberg. {Grim, fierce) Old Norse Hall- 
grimr — Eng. Hallgreen — French Hallegrain. {Steinn, 
stone) Old Norse Hallsteinn — Eng. Hailstone. 

From the Old High Germ, proz, gemma, may- 
be the following. 

Proz. simple FORMS. 

Gemma. Qld Germ. Brozo, 9th cent. Eng. Bros. Mod. German 

Brose. French Brosse. 

diminutives. 
Old German Prozila, 9th cent. — Mod. German Brosel — 
French Brossel. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Hard) French Brossard. (Ha/ri, warrior) English 
Prosser — French Brossier. 

Wood can hardly be included among names 
of this class. If the meaning be not, as I have 
previously suggested, in some cases that of spear, 
the sense of sylva is more suitable than that of 
lignum. 



THE STUFF A MAN IS MADE OF. 481 

In what sense Cork, which appears in several 
English names, as Corking, Corkling, Corker, 
CoRKERY, CoRKMAN, &c., all seemingly in Teu- 
tonic forms, is to be taken I cannot say, nor can 
I find any other etymon, if the stem be German, 
as it seems, than English corh. Unless possibly 
we may take it to be the same as Cark and 
Karker (Carker, Lib. Vit.), and think of Ang.- 
Sax. cearcian, to chirp, in a sense similar to that 
of many names in chapter 23. Core was an Old 
Celtic name, but such an origin would not account 
for the above forms. 

Though Iron, Steel, Gold, Stone, &c., seem 
natural for the names of men, as indicating, in a 
sense more or less metaphorical, the stuff they 
were made of, yet even the proverbial partiality 
of a shoemaker would hardly account in this way 
for the name of Leather. And at p. 195 I have 
indicated another origin for this name ; while the 
names Leatherby, Leatherhead, Leather- 
dale, Leatherbarrow, are local, derived as I 
think from the personal name. The last name, 
Leatherbarrow, is probably from a hiU so called 
on the banks of Windermere. 



I 3 



CHAPTER XXVII. 



THE CHRISTIAN ERA. 

I do not propose here to refer to that large class 
of names taken from the holy men of Scripture or 
from the saints of the church, which followed on 
the introduction of Christianity, further than so 
far as in the case of some of them a different 
origin may, more or less strongly, be suggested. 

Thus such names as BoAZ, Enoch, Lot, 
might be referred to the Old German names 
Boezzo, Enneco, Lotto, from roots referred to 
respectively at pages 408, 289, 377. And the 
names Eve, Hagar, and Euth, to the Old 
Germ, names Ivo, Hahger, and Huth, all names 
of men. So Jude, Mark, Saul, Job, are capable, 
as elsewhere noticed, of a different interpretation. 
Something depends on the character of the name, 
and the probability of its adoption. For instance 
— such names as BoAZ, Saul, Lot, scarcely seem 
to have any particular claim on the sympathies 
of a convert. 

But the doubt becomes much stronger in the 
case of names upon which a Christian would 
naturally be disposed to look with horror or 
contempt. Who — for instance — would be called 
Herod, after the child-slayer — or Pharaoh, 
after the stiff-necked king — or Judas, after the 
arch apostate — or Cain, after the first murderer 
— or Ogg, after the king of Basan — or Balaam, 



THE CHRISTIAN ERA. 483 

after the temporizing prophet 1 Esau, the reck- 
less yet open-hearted, may excite our sympathy, 
but scarcely our admiration. The name of 
Pilate recalls the most melancholy story in the 
history of a man. And scarcely even the strong 
patriotism of a Saxon mother would seek for its 
type in the unpitying Jael. While other names 
there are, such as Potiphar, which have nothing 
to kindle reverence, and nothing to excite aversion. 

Yet the whole of the above are family names 
in England or in France. And I have elsewhere 
suggested a different origin for all of them except 
Esau, Judas, and Jael. The first corresponds 
with an Old German Eso, from the root ans, as, 
divus, p. 119, the second, a French name, may 
perhaps, along with JuDiCE and JuDiss^, be a 
diminutive from the stem Jud, p. 305 — the last 
may be the same as Gale, p. 436. 

But though such names might not be volun- 
tarily assumed — yet there are no doubt cases — 
though I hold them to be rare — in which a name 
has been thrust upon a man against his will. 
And there is in Paris a J. Iscariot (the first 
name for aught I know may be Judas), which 
can scarcely be derived otherwise than from the 
traitor.* 

"* Curiously enough — while these sheets are passing through the press — an 
article in the Athenaeum offers a probable explanation of this name. "The 
Marquess ; Michael Imperiale of Genoa) wrote a book to prove that Judas had been 
very unfairly dealt with by his contemporaries and posterity ; and dying, Imperiale 
left a sum to be expended in masses for the benefit of the soul of Iscariot. Those 
who sided with him named their boys INIichael, and some would have ^Ued theirs 
by the name of the traitor, had not the Church authorities stepped in and stopped, 
the scandal." So then the name after all does seem to have been voluntarily 
assumed, and all that we can say is that "there is no accounting for tastes." 



484 THE CHRISTIAN ERA. 

Though it is certain that we have as family 
names the Scriptural John, Thomas, Benjamin, 
Daniel, Simon, &c., I strongly doubt Jack, Tom, 
Ben, Syme, or Simm being, at least in all cases, 
the corresponding diminutives. I include also 
in my objection the supposed diminutives of 
Teutonic names, as Bill, Bobby, Dick, Harry, 
&c. And I not only doubt the supposed diminu- 
tives of female Scriptural names, as Nanny, 
Betty, Sally, and Moll ; but in some instances 

the names themselves. 

* 

It does not seem at all probable that we 
should have names taken from the three sacred 
persons of the Trinity. There are indeed English 
names God and Godhead, the former that of a 
writer about the 1 7th century. But these belong 
to an ancient root, whether god, deus, or good, 
bonus, is not altogether certain, but at any rate 
anterior to Christianity. In Hke manner, and 
not originally in a Christian sense (though a 
Christian sense might afterwards come to be 
attached to them), I take Eng. Lovegod, Love- 
good, Mod. German Liebegott, Gottlieb. So 
also the French names DiEU and Ledieu I explain 
differently pp. 427, 194. 

The name Christ, which is English, French, 
and German, might, according to the opinion of 
Forstemann, be from the second person of the 
Trinity. However, I have made a suggestion 
respecting it, p. 133. The Gothic kriustan, to 
gnash, may also be suggested. But, whatever 



THE CHRISTIAN ERA. 485 

might be the original meaning of the word, 1 - 
cannot but admit that the Frankish converts 
must have looked upon it as referring to Christ. 
In the London Directory for 1832, I find the 
name Messiah, which, along with a French 
Mezia, I place to a root of uncertain meaning 
quoted elsewhere. 

The following names apparently must be re- 
ferred to the Ang.-Saxon lob, Jove, but whether 
in a heathen or a Christian sense I cannot say. 
Forstemann gives no explanation of the ancient 
names. 

SIMPLE FORMS. Job. 

Old German Joppo, 9 th cent. English Job, Jove, Jopp, Jove. 
JuBB. Mod. German Juppe. French Job, Jobb4 Jouve, 
JuBfe. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old German Jovila, 7th cent. — French Jovel, Juville. 
English JoBLiNG, Jopling — French Jubelin, Jublin, 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Hard) French Jovart. (Ha/ri, warrior) Eng. Jobber, 
Jubber. 

There was an Ang.-Sax. priest called Spiritus, 
Cod. Dip. 762, which I before took to be from 
the third person of the Trinity, and to be perhaps 
the origin of Eng. Spirit. But I now take the 
Saxon Spiritus to be only a slight corruption of 
a Gothic Spirit hius. We find the name in the 
corresponding Old High Germ, form of Spiridio 
(dio, thius, servant). So also an Anglo-Saxon 
Electus, Cod. Dip. 98, which I before took to be 
from the Latin, and to signify " elect" as a name 
of Christian import, may only be the same as a 
Goth. Electeus, and an Old High Germ. Electeo, 



486 THE CHRISTIAN ERA. 

from the stem referred to at p. 142. But it is very 
possible in both these cases also that the heathen 
idea may have been superseded by a Christian 
one. There is a present German name Heilig- 
GEIST, but I am much inclined to think that it is 
only a corruption of some ancient name ending in 
gast (hospes), as perhaps Haldegast(es), which 
we find in the 3rd cent. 

In this place, and as a name of Christian 
import, I think that we may in many, if not 
in most cases, class Constable. In the two 
Frankish registers whose titles I have elsewhere 
quoted, the names Constabulus, Constabulis, Con- 
stabula, Constabila, occur rather frequently both 
among men and women. I take the word to be 
derived from the Latin constahulire, and, hke 
another name Firmatus found along with them, 
to signify " established in the faith." 

In the Traditiones Corhejenses occurs in the 
9th cent, the Old Saxon name HoroboUa, which 
Grimm (Gesch. d. Deutsch. Sprach.J conjectures 
to have the meaning of " earthen vessel," in refer- 
ence to a common Christian simile. Whatever 
may be the meaning of the name (which Fdrste- 
mann takes to be that of a woman, though this 
is not certain), it may possibly be suggested as the 
origin of our Arabella, for which no sufficient 
etymon has as yet been proposed — Miss Yonge's 
suggestion of a corruption of the Old Norse female 
name Arnhildur not having even the ordinary 
recommendation of verbal resemblance. 



THE CHRISTIAN ERA. 487 

Names probably dating from crusading times 
are French Jerusalem and Nazareth. More 
uncertain are Eng. and French Sarasin, Germ. 
Sarrazin ; the name Sarzinus occurs in the 
Pol. Rh. Saladin, Mr. Lower observes, was an 
EngHsh surname temp. Ed. 1st. It is not an 
uncommon name in France at present. Perhaps 
English Turk, French Turc, Germ. Turk, may 
be a name of the same class. It would rather 
seem, however, from names of places in the Cod. 
Dip., that Turca was an Ang.-Saxon name. Mr. 
Lower conjectures Turk to be an abbreviation of 
Turketil, which derives some confirmation from 
the name Turk' {sic) in the Liber Vitae. 

While the Eng. Christmas and Pentecost, 
and the French Noel are probably derived from 
nothing more than persons having been born at 
the time of these Christian festivals, the names 
Pask, Pash, &c., seem, at least in some cases, to 
have a deeper root. The word occurs in German 
compounds in some names of the 8th and 9th 
cents. ; Forstemann refers it to the Hebrew 
pascha, and indeed I do not know of anything 
else from which it can be derived. At the same 
time, seeing the remote origin of names, any 
argument based on this ground is necessarily in- 
conclusive. 

SIMPLE FORMS. Pagjj 

Old Germ. Pasco. Eng. Pascoe, Pask, Pash. French Passover. 

Pasche. 

compounds. 

(Hard) French Pascard. (Man) English Paxman 1 
(Wold, power) French Pascault. 



488 THE CHRISTIAN ERA. 

Our names Tiffin and Tiffany, French 
TiEFFiN and Tiphaine, corresponding with a 
Tephonia in the Lib. Vit., seem to be from the 
Old French tiephaine, the feast of the Epiphany, 
{Pott, 699). 

Though the EngHsh Devoll is I think to be 
otherwise accounted for, yet the Germans have 
both Texjfel itself, and also many names formed 
from it, as Teufelskind (Devil's child) ; Teufel- 
SKOPF (Devil's head) ; Schlagenteufel (Fight- 
ing devil) ; Jagenteufel (Hunting devil) ; and 
the most curious of all, Dusendteufel (Thousand 
devils). 

The French have Dieudonn^, Dieulafait, 
Dieuleveut, and Dieutegarde. The last would 
seem to bring before us a pious mother, watching 
over her new-born babe, and looking forward, 
perhaps in a troublous time, to the dangers and 
trials of the days to come. So at first I took it, 
till I was compelled to yield the pleasing theory 
to the claims of an Old Frankish name Teut- 
gard(is). 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 



THEY CALL THEIR LANDS AFTER THIEIR OWN 

NAMES. 

A large proportion of the names of persons 
are derived from the names of places. Again — a 
large proportion of the names of places are derived 
from the names of persons — Dodd acquires a 
property, and it is called " Dodd's worth " — Grim 
builds a village, and it is called "Grim's by." 
Then Doddsworth and Grimsby give surnames 
to other men in after times — it may be to the 
very descendants of the original owners. 

So that the nomenclature to some extent runs 
in a circle, and we have names, such as Mont- 
gomery, in which we are able to trace at least 
four distinct revolutions of the wheel. First — 
Gomerie,* the man, fixes his dwelling on the hill, 
and the place is called after him Mont-Gomerie. 
Secondly — Mont-Gomerie, the place, gives name 
to Roger de Montgomery the man. Thirdly — 
Montgomery the man, following the fortunes of 
the Conqueror, founds and calls after his own 
name, Montgomery, in Wales. Fourthly — Mont- 
gomery the place, again in its turn gives sur- 
names to men. And if we could suppose that 
some of the places called Montgomery, in America, 
are named after a man and not after a town, we 
should be able to add a fifth. 



The Old German Gomerih, p. 59 

J 3 



490 THEY CALL THEIR LANDS 

In many instances we find the original name 
still hovering round the locality called after it. 
Thus, when I find that Winder is not an un- 
common name in Westmorland, it confirms me 
in the opinion that Windermere may be the lake 
or "mere" of a man called Winder. Walking 
through Handsworth, in Staffordshire, and seeing 
the name of Hand upon the shops, I said to 
myself " Handsworth is the worth or estate of a 
man called Hand, and these may be the descen- 
dants of that man.'' 

It is a very characteristic nomenclature — 
that of the Teutonic settler. Thoroughly matter- 
of-fact — he plants his dwelling in the cleft of the 
mountain, with the towering peak above, and the 
rushing torrent below, and he calls it — " Eagle's 
nest T — not a bit of it — " Brown's seat," or 
" Dobb's cot." It is characteristic of individuality 
and independence — individuality of right — in- 
dependence of character. The map of England, 
dotted over with the possessive case, is a standing 
protest against communism. And there are many 
names of places, formed from a single name, which 
show where one man has held his own in solitary 
self-reliance among the lonely valleys and dreary 
mountains. 

The chapter of local surnames must always 
be a large one, though the tendency of my theories 
is very considerably to reduce it. 

In the first place, there are many simple 
names, such as Bank, Beck, Bower, Cross, 



after their own names. 491 

Dale, Frith, Gill, Hedge, Hill, Ing, Moss, 
Orchard, Pitt, Pool, Ridge, Slade, Street, 
Wall, &c., which I take, more or less certamly, 
to be from ancient baptismal names of altogether 
different meaning. 

In the second place, there are no small number 
of names which, though their apparent meaning 
is the real one, are yet from ancient baptismal 
names, and whatever may have been the original 
sense, are certainly not from locality. Such is 
House, of wiiich the meaning can hardly be 
anything else than house, domus. Some of the 
ancient compounds, as Huseburg, Husimunt, 
Husward, all signifying " protection (or pro- 
tector) of the house," are intelligible enough, 
though it is not very clear as to the sense of the 
simple form. 

SIMPLE FORMS. House. 

Old Germ. Huss, Husi, Huozo, 8th cent. Eng. House, Domus. 
Hussey 1 Mod. Germ. Hause. French Housse, Houseau, 

Houze, Houzeau. 

diminutives. 
Old Germ. Husicho, 9th cent. — Eng. HussiCK, Housego. 
Eng. HussELL — French Housel. French Houssez. Old 
Germ. Husito, 8th cent. — French Housset. 

patronymics. 
Old Germ. Husinc, 8th cent. Mod. Germ. Husung. 

compounds. 
(Burg, protection) Old Germ. Huseburg — French Hus- 
BROCQ. (Hard) Eng. Houssart — French Housakd. (Man) 
Old Germ. Huozman, 11th cent. — Eng. Houseman — Mod. 
Germ. Haussmann — French Houssemaine. 

A similar word appears to be inn, which 
Forstemann refers to Ang.-Sax. inn, domus. But 



492 THEY CALL THEIR LANDS 

the verb innian, to entertain, may be suggested. 
To the ancient names in the Altdeutsches Namen- 
huch may be added an Inuald in the Liher Vitce. 

Inn. SIMPLE FORMS. 

Domus. Q2^ German Inno, 9th cent. Anglo-Saxon Ina, king of 

Wessex. Hyni, Lib. Vit. Eng. Hine ? Mod. Germ. Ihn. 
French Hin^ ? 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Frid, peace) Old Germ. Infrid, 9th cent. — Infrith, Lib. 
Vit. — French Infroit. {Man) Eng. Inman, Hinman. {Mar, 
famous) French Inemer. (Ward, guardian) Eng. Inward. 

The Gothic haims, Ang.-Saxon hdm, EngHsh 
" home," is found in a number of ancient names, 
but it is difficult to separate from another stem 
ham, which seems to be of a different meaning, 
though perhaps related. 



Harae. 
Home. 



SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Haimo, Aymo, 7th cent. Ang.-Sax. Hama. 
English Home, Amey ? Mod. Germ. Heim. French Haim, 

AmEY 1 AlME ? 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old Germ. Heimezo, 11th cent. — Eng. Haymes, Ames — 
French Aymes. Old Germ. Haimelin, lOtK cent. — English 
Hamlin — French Hamelin. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Gar, spear) Old German Heimger, 9 th cent. — French 
Hamger. {Hard, fortis) Old Germ. Heimard, Aimard, 8th 
cent. — French Aimard. {Hari, warrior) Old Norse Heimir % 
— English Hamer, Homer, Omer — French Hemar, Aymer, 
Omer. {Mund, protection) Old German Haimund, Hem- 
mund, 8th cent. — Eng. Hemment — French Aymont, Omond. 
{Bad, counsel) Old German Haimrad, 8th cent. — French 
Amurat. (Bic, power) Old German Haimirich, Heinrich, 
Heinrih, 8th cent. — Eng. Henry — Mod. Germ. Heinrich — 



AFTER THEIR OWN NAMES. 493 

French Henri. (Ward, guardian) Old Geiman Heimwart, 
9th cent. — English Homeward. (Wid, wood) Old German 
Haimoidis, 10th cent. — Eng. Homewood 1 (Helm) French 
Amiaume. 

There are also several ancient names derived 
from woody perhaps in the sense of a sacred grove. 
Though as before suggested, the sense of spear 
may in some cases obtain. The following seem 
to be from Goth, vidus, Old High German ivitu, 
Ang.-Sax. wudu, English " wood." But Old High 
German ivit, amplus, is liable to intermix ; also 
Anglo-Saxon iviht, a man, hioit, white, and wit, 
knowledge, understanding. 

simple forms, Wid, Wood. 

Old German Wido, Wieda, Witto, Guido, Quido, 6th ^^^^*- 
cent. Ang.-Sax. Wudda, a.d. 688. Gwido, Lih. Vit. Eng. 
Widow, Weed, Vidy, Withy, With, Witty, Woodey, 
Wood. Modern German Weede, With, Witte. French 
Videau, Yide, ViTEAU, YiTE, YiTTE, YiTTU, YiDUS {Gothic ?), 
Guide, Guidou. Ital. Guido, Guidi. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old German Widucho, Wituch, Widego, 8th cent. — 
Uiduc, Lib. Vit. — Eng. Whytock, Wedge, Yetch — Mod. 
German Wittich — French Yidocq. Old German Widilo, 
Witili, Wital, 8th cent. — English Whitell, Whitley, 
WooDALL — Mod. German Weidel — French Yidel, Yitel. 
Old German Widulin, Witalinc, 8th cent. — Eng. Whitling, 
WooDLiN — Modern German Wittling — French Yidalon, 
YiDALENC. Old Germ. Widomia, 9th cent. — Eng. Whitmee. 
Old German Witiza, West Gothic king, 8th cent. — English 
Whitsey — French Yittiz, Guidez. 

phonetic ending. 

Old Germ. Widen, Wittin, 6th cent. English Witton, 
Weedin, Wooden. Mod. Germ. Witten. French Yidon, 
Yiton, Guidon, Guitton. 



494 THEY CALL THEIR LANDS 

PATRONYMICS. 

Old Germ. Wieding. Eng. Weeding, Whiting, Wood- 
ing. Mod. Germ. Wedding, Wieting. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Cochy p. 27) Eng. Woodcock — French Vitcocq. {Bei% 
bright) Old German Witbert, Witpret — Witbred {Hund, 
Rolls) — Eng. Whitehead ? {Bern, bear) Old Germ. Witu- 
bem, 9th cent. — Eng. Whitburn. (Gar, spear) Old German 
Witgar, Widger, Witker, 9th cent. — Ang. -Saxon Wihtgar, 
Nephew of Cerdic — English Widger, Woodger, Whitecar, 
Whittaker ? {Halt, " hood") Old German Withaidis, 9th 
cent. — Eng. Whitehead, Whiteheat, Woodhead. {Hard, 
fortis) Old Germ. Withard, Witard, 8th cent. — Eng. White- 
hart, WooDARD — French Vidard, Guitard. {Ron, raven) 
Old Germ. Widrannus, 8th cent. — Eng. Witheron, White- 
horn 1 — Mod. Germ. Wiethorn — French Yidron. (Hari, 
warrior) Old German Withar, Witar, 8th cent. — Wither 
{Domesday) — Eng. Whiter, Whitear, Wither, Gwyther, 
WooDYER, Wooder(son) — Mod. German Witter — French 
ViTTiER, Witier, Guitter. {Ring, combat) Old German 
Witering, 8th cent. — English Wittering, Wittewrong. 
{Haus, house) Old Germ. Withaus, 8th cent. — Eng. White- 
house ? Widehose ? WooDHOUSE ? — Mod. Germ. Witthaus. 
{Lag, law) Old Germ. Witlagius, Witleg, 9th cent. — Ang.- 
Saxon Wihtlseg — Eng. Whitelegg, Whitlaw. {Laic, play) 
Old Germ. Widolaic, 8th cent. — Eng. Wedlake, Wedlock, 
Whitelock 1 — Mod. German Wedlich — French ? Witlich. 
(Leis, learned) Old German Witleis, 8th cent. — French 
ViTALis.* (Man) Old German Widiman, Witman, 9th 
cent. — Eng. Wideman, Whiteman, Woodman — Mod. Germ. 
Widmann, Weitmann — French 1 Wideman. {Mar, famous) 
Widiomar (Gothic king, 4th cent.), Widmar, Witmar — 
XJitmer, Lib. Vit. — Eng. Whitmore — Mod. Germ. Widmer 
— French ? Widmer. {Rat, counsel) Old German Widerad, 
Witerat, 6th cent. — English Withered, Whitethread, 
Whiterod, Whitewright. {Ric, power) Old German 

* This seems more naturally from wit, wisdom. 



AFTER THEIR OWN NAMES. 495 

Witirich (Goth, king, 4tli cent.) Witirih — Eng. Witherick, 
Whitkidge — Modern German Wittrich — French Vitrac, 

VlTRY, GUITRY. 

Lund. 

The Old Norse lundry grove, seems to enter orove. 
into some ancient names. Hence may be Eng. 
Lund, Lundy, Lound, Lunt, and French Luond, 
LuNDY, perhaps Luneteau. But there is but 
small evidence in these of a baptismal origin. 

Another word also found in some ancient ^^^^^j^^^"^' 
names is Old Norse skogr, Dan. skoi\ North Eng. 
** shaw," a wood. From this appear to be Eng. 
Scow, Shaw, and Shoe, as simple forms — Skog- 
GIN and Scawen as an extended form — and per- 
haps Shoobert and Shoobrick as compounds. 

In the third place, the coincidence or the 
resemblance between some of the endings of 
ancient names and local terminations must be 
reckoned in diminution of the names apparently 
derived from places. Thus the ending hurg, 
hury^ hrooJcy brick, may be sometimes from birg, 
hire, protection, very common as the termination 
of ancient names, and not from the local hwy or 
borough. I am inclined to think that bridge, in 
a few names such as Drawbridge, Ironbridge, 
Brassbridge, is also from the same origin. 
Though the name Woodbridge would be de- 
rived naturally enough from a locality, yet there 
were no iron bridges in the days when surnames 
were given, and I doubt whether a brass bridge 
exists even in the brain of Dr. Fairbairn. 

So burn is sometimes from bern, a bear, and 



496 



THEY CALL THEIR LANDS 



not from hurv, a brook. Head is sometimes 
from haid, state, condition, and not from the local 
word. Ing I take as a general rule to be the 
patronymic, and not from ing, a meadow. So 
gate, gill, house, cot, lake, land, more, wall, wick, 
with, wood, in certain cases I have throughout 
these pages taken to be from ancient terminations. 

In like manner I take it that present German 
names ending in hof are in some cafes from the 
ancient endings olf, ulf, wolf, and not always from 
the local hof, couit. That this is so, will I think 
be clear from the following comparative list of 
ancient German and present German names, all 
of which latter are classed by Pott as local. But 
it must be remembered that Pott's work was 
written before the Altdeutsches Namenbuch had 
brought many of these ancient names to light. 



Old Germ. 


Mod. Germ. 


Old Germ. 


Mod. Germ 


Botolf 


Potthoff 


Jungolf 


Junghoff 


Burgolf 


Berghoff 


Lindolf 


Lindliof 


Duomolf 


Dumhoff 


Morolf 


Morhof 


Ekkulf 


Eckhoff 


Sandolf 


Sandhoff 


Eudolf 


Ulithoff 


Steinolf 


SteinhofF 


Fisculf 


Fischhof 


Sundarolf 


Sundrehof 


Geldulf 


Kalthoff 


Thiholf 


Teichhof 


Grasulf 


Grashoff 







In the fourth place, a very considerable 
number of the names of places are simply the 
names of men, unqualified by any geographical 
term whatever. Mr. Kemble (Saxons in England) 
was the first in this country to point out that 



AFTER THEIR OWN NAMES. 497 

many names of places, as Hailing and Cooling in 
Kent, Patching in Surrey, Brightling in Sussex, 
were in Anglo-Saxon a nominative plural — Hsel- 
lingas, Culingas, Peaccingas, Byrhtlingas, signify- 
ing respectively, " the Hallings," " the Coolings," 
" the Packings," " the Brightlings." These then 
are the names of family communities, being, as 
Latham observes, " poHtical or social, rather than 
geographical terms." 

In the names of places in Germany, especially 
in Bavaria, the nominative plural in ingas is com- 
paratively rare, and we have most commonly a 
form in ingen or ingum, which, according to 
Forstemann, is a dative plural, but according to 
Max Mtiller,* an old genitive plural. Hence 
Gottingen, Tubingen, Leiningen, Gruningen, Har- 
lingen, from the families of the Gottings, Tubings, 
Leinings, Griinings, and Harlings. Also very 
commonly a form in inga or inge, which may be 
either a dative singular or a genitive plural ; in 
the opinion of Forstemann sometimes the one and 
sometimes the other. In Anglo-Saxon names of 
places the form ingum also occurs, though not 
frequently. Thus Godalming in Surrey was 
anciently Godelmingum, a settlement of the sons 
or descendants of Godhelm. Sometimes the same 
place in various charters appears in both the 
forms ingas and ingum. Thus Mailing in Kent 
was in Anglo-Saxon variously Meallingas and 

* Lectures on the Science of Language. Second Series. 
K 3 



498 THEY CALL THEIR LANDS 

Mallingum. Mr. Taylor, in " Words and Places/^ 
has carried this subject still further, and instituted 
a comparison, of the highest interest and import- 
ance, between the Teutonic settlements as indi- 
cated by these forms in England, Germany, and 
France. 

In the last-named country there appears to 
be found a different — perhaps a later form. We 
have Les Henrys, Les Bernards, Les Roberts, 
Les Guillets, Les Guillemottes, Les Girards, Les 
A mauds, &c., all of which, like the foregoing, 
seem to contain the names of family communities. 

But I go further than this, and take the 
ground that many names of places, both in France 
and England, are nothing more than the name of 
a single man. When we find in France some- 
thing like 6,000 places called after saints, without 
any geographical term whatever, as St. Omer, 
St. Leonard, &c., it naturally occurs to us that 
just on the same principle places might be called 
after men who were not saints. No one I think 
would doubt that the places called Fitz James, 
Bobinson, David, Taillefer, are simply from the 
names of men. And as certainly do I take to 
be from the same origin Angelard, Audembert^ 
Arnoult, Audiracq, Bertric, Bertrand, Blanchard, 
Brunembert, Folcarde, Folckling, Francillon, Fer- 
ando, Gandolphe, Guillaume, Guiscard, Godisson, 
Girouard, Godinand, Jacque, Jacquelin, Josse, 
Jossehu, Jossenard, Humbert, Lambert, Mero- 



AFTER THEIR OWM >;AMES. 499 

bert, Willeman. These, which I have selected 
from Duclos '' Dictionnaire general des villes, 
hourgSy villages, hameaux et fermes de la France,* 
are all simply Teutonic names of men. In some 
cases there is a le or la prefixed, as Le Frank, Le 
Guidault, Le Bernard, Le Guildo, La Godefroy, 
La Caroline. There is one place called Fille- 
Guecelard, while we have also Guecelard by 
itself Some names, however, as Les Allemands, 
Les Juifs, Les Innocents, Les Boutilliers, Les 
deux freres, Le Bras-de-fer, Le Grenadier, may 
perhaps only be derived from the signs of taverns. 

So also in England, many names of parishes 
and places, such as Landulph in Cornwall, Bid- 
dulph in Staffordshire, Goodrich in Hereford- 
shire, Haytor in Devon, Hicks in Gloucestershire, 
Burnard, Guthrie, Jellybrands, Lockhart, Osburn, 
Sibbald, and Thorbrand in Scotland, I take to be 
simply from the names of men. In some cases 
as that of Coldred in Kent, and Catmere in Berks, 
we can perceive one of the principles upon which 
such names have arisen. Thus the former place 
was in Anglo-Saxon Colredinga gemaere, "the 
boundary of the descendants of Colred," and the 
latter was Catmeres gemaere, " Catmere's bound- 
ary." The inconvenient length of these titles has 
caused the whole to be dropped except the name 
of the individual. Thus then, even if our names 
Catomore and Catmore are directly from the 
place, yet the place itself is simply the name of 
an Anglo-Saxon. And as such, it furnishes the 



500 THEY CALL THEIR LANDS 

link between our names and the Catumerus of 
Tacitus. 

Many of the local terminations, such as ton, 
ham, bury, &c., speak for themselves — I subjoin 
a list of those most commonly occurring which 
seem to require an explanation. 

By. Dan. b^, a village or small collection of houses. This 
is the word which, more than any other, distinguishes 
the Danish settlements from the Saxon. 

Den. Ang.-Sax. de7i, a valley. Leo thinks the word adopted 
from the Celtic. 

Force. Old Norse /ors, a waterfall. Hence Wilberfoece, 
probably from the name Williber or Williberg, the 
latter anciently rather common. 

Garth. Ang.- Saxon geard, Old Norse gardr, a place guarded 
by a fence, a farm-stead. Liable to intermix with 
gard as an ancient ending of personal names. 

Gate. In the South of England an opening, Ang.-Sax. geatj 
but in the North also a road or way, Old Norse gata. 
Liable to intermix with an ancient termination gaud 
or gat, which JForstemann takes to mean Goth. 

Gill. Old Norse gil, a small ravine, not necessarily, as some* 
times stated, containing water. Liable to intermix 
with an ancient termination gil, which is probably a 
contraction of gisal, hostage. 

Holt. Ang.-Sax. and Old Norse holt, a grove. Though this 
word is sometimes found in ancient names, see p. 281, 
yet as a termination there is no reason to think it in 
any case other than local. 

Hope, Op. Anglo-Saxon hopu, a mound. Or sometimes in 
the Danish districts probably from Old Norse hop, a 
recess. 

How. Old Norse haugr, a mound, in particular a grave- 
mound. 



AFTER THEIR OWN NAMES. 501 

Hurst. Anglo-Saxon hyrst, a grove. 

Over. Anglo-Saxon dfer, shore, border. 

Sliaw. Old Norse skogr, Danish skov, a wood. Hence 
Bradshaw = Broad WOOD. Though tliis word is 
found in a few ancient personal names, yet as a 
termination we may take it to be in all cases local. 

Sted. Ang.-Sax. stede, Danish sted, a fixed place, a " farm- 
stead," a " house-stead." 

Stow. Ang.-Sax. stoWy a place. 

Ster. Old Norse stadr, same as sted above, confined to the 
Norwegian districts of the North of Scotland. 

Thorp. Anglo-Saxon and Old Norse thorp, German dor/, a 
village. Frequently, both in England, Germany, and 
Denmark, corrupted into drup or trup. 

Thwaite. Norwegian thveit, Dan. tved, a clearing in a forest, 
Ang.-Sax. thwitan, to cut. Most common in Cumber- 
land and Westmorland. 

Toft. Ang.-Sax. to/t, Old Norse tdjt. Its present meaning 
seems to be a small home field. But the original 
sense appears to have been that of a spot where a 
decayed messuage has stood, "area domus vacua," 
Haldorsen has it. The Norwegian and Swedish form 
tdmt, from tomr, empty, seems to point to this. 

"Wick. Ang.-Sax. wtc, a dwelling-place. Also a bay, which 
is the usual, if not the invariable Scandinavian sense. 
Apt to intermix with wig, wic, war, a common ending 
of ancient names. 

With. Old Norse vidr, a wood. It is confined to the 
Danish part of England, and corresponds with wood 
in the Saxon. Sometimes confounded with worth, 
an altogether different word. With or wood is also a 
common termination of ancient personal names. 

Worth, Worthy. Ang.-Sax. worth, worthig, an estate, farm, 
field. 



502 THEY CALL THEIR LANDS 

The names of France do not appear, as far as 
I can judge, to contain such a variety of local 
terminations as those of England. The most 
common are ville and cour — also iere, the etymo- 
logy of which I cannot explain. It is very fre- 
quently formed from a personal name. Thus from 
Robert, Bernard, Josserand, we have as names of 
places E-obertiere, Bernardiere, Josserandiere. 

As a prefix hois and mont are very common, 
and very frequently combined with a personal 
name. Thus in the Annuaire de Paris we 

have BOISGARNIER, BOISGAULTIER, BoiSGELIN, 
BOISGONTIER, BOISGTJILBERT, BoiSGUYON, BoiS- 

RENAUD ; and in the same volume we have 
Garnier, Gaultier, Gelin, Gontier, Guil- 
BERT, GuYON, Renaud, from which the above 
local names have been formed. So we have Mont- 

GERARD, MoNTGOLFIER, MoNTGOBERT, MoNTAU- 

FRAY, Moistangerand, Montmorency, Mont- 
AURIOL, MoNTALEMBERT — and the corresponding 
Gerard, Golfier, Gobert, Aufray, Angerand, 
MoRENZO, AuRiOL, and Elambert, most, if not 
all, of which, as well as the foregoing, are of 
Teutonic origin. 

There are some names, such as Eng. Water- 
fall, German Wasserfall, which it is difficult 
to know whether to ascribe to a local origin or 
not. They might belong to a class of nnmes like 
the Eng Drinkwater, Drawwater (both of 
which Mr. Lower finds in the Hundred Bolls), 
and the Germ. Kaltwasser, Gutwasser, Spar- 



AFTER THEIR OWN NAMES. 503 

WASSER (Cold water, Good water, Save water). But 
another German name Stobwasser (Dustwater), 
reminding us of the Staubbach, seems to point 
more to a local name. 

The number of Enghsh names derived from 
places has in my opinion been greatly overrated. 
As an approximation, I should be disposed to 
estimate them at about one third of the whole. 



CHAPTER XXIX. 



OLD SAXONS AND ANGLO-SAXONS. 

It may seem a curious fact that we have 
more of Old Saxon than we have of Ang.-Saxon 
names. I use the word Old Saxon in its wide 
sense, and I mean to say that we have at the 
present day more of those names such as the early 
invaders — Angles, Saxons, Jutes, or Frisians — 
brought over with them to this country, than we 
have of those regular compound names which 
were current in the height of the Anglo-Saxon 
power. And further — that if we turn to the 
ancient seats from which those early settlers 
came, we shall find that still the same names are 
current there. There is a people — or rather a 
remnant of a people — who once owned a large 
portion of the German sea-board — now much 
broken up and intermixed, but still in some in- 
sulated places holding their nationality with little 
change — very near relatives of ours — though few 
know more of them than the name. Of all the 
ancient dialects none has a more close connection 
with the Anglo-Saxon than the Old Friesic — of 
aU the modern dialects perhaps none has such 
strong points of resemblance to the English as 
the New Friesic. On all the wide continent of 
Europe they alone use the word " woman" like 



OLD SAXONS AND ANGLO-SAXONS. 505 

ourselves. " It is generally," observes Mr. Latham, 
" the first mstance given of the peculiarity of the 
Frisian language. * Why can't they speak pro- 
perly, and say kone f says the Dane. ' Weih is 
the right word,' says the German. * Who ever 
says woman '? cry both." (Ethnology of the British 
Islands.) 

Mr. Halbertsma, in the article written by him 
in Bosworth's " Origin of the English and Ger- 
manic languages," observes that there are few of 
the early Saxon names which are not in use 
among the present Frisians, though by time a 
little corrupted or abbreviated. The same writer 
remarks upon the connection between Friesic 
names'" and those in use in England, quoting a 
few examples, which might be greatly increased 
by a reference to Outzen's Glossary, and to Was- 
senberg's " Eigennaamen der Friesen." 

How tlien is the fact to be accounted for that 
while we have so many of these names which 
were common to all the Germanic races, and 
which are still found so numerously on the shores 
from which our early settlers came, we have com- 
paratively very few of the regular Anglo-Saxon 
compound names, such as Athelstan, Athelhard, 
Ethelbald, Ethelred, &c. 1 It occurs to me as 
rather probable that the pure Ang. -Saxon system 
of compound names might be somewhat of a 
fashion, confined for the most part to the nobler 
classes (whose names of course it is that appear 

* Such as Watse, Eitse, Hodse, Gibbe, Ac 
L 3 



506 



OLD SAXONS AND ANGLO-SAXONS. 



chiefly before us in history), and not pervading 
the mass of the people, who still held on mainly 
to the old names to which they had been accus- 
tomed. Hence, the Saxon nobility being in part 
extinguished, and in part Normanized at the 
Conquest, a reason may be found for the scanti- 
ness of names of this class at the present day. 

But in fact we find, all through Anglo-Saxon 
times, many names which were German but not 
Anglo-Saxon, and Mr. Kemble, in his valuable 
treatise on " The Names, Surnames, and Nic- 
names of the Anglo-Saxons," has, I think, dealt 
with them from rather too exclusive a point of 
view. Some of these names he thinks can only 
be explained by reference to Cymric or Pictish 
roots — such, for instance, as Puch, Padda, Uel- 
hisc, Theabul, Pechthelm, and Pehthat. The two 
former are only variations of German forms, 
pp. 378, 166 — the third compares with a Willis- 
cus, p. 123 — the fourth seems only a corruption 
of Theobald — and the two last, though probably 
from the name of the Picts, are yet formed on a 
common Teutonic principle as noticed in chap. 1 6. 

Others, such as Podda, Dudda, Bubba, Tudda, 
Odda, Obe, Offa, Ibe, Bed a, Becca, Beonna, Acca, 
Hecca, Luila, he thinks were probably nicnames. 
But, as I have shewn throughout these pages, 
names of this class pervade the whole system of 
Teutonic nomenclature, and they are just the sort 
that are especially common in Friesland at the 
present day. The remarks of Mr. Haig upon 



OLD SAXONS AND ANGLO-SAXONS. 507 

this subject are so much m accordance with my 
own views that I re-produce them here. " I 
beheve that these simple names are the most 
ancient, that they belong originally to periods 
beyond the reach of history. They prevail in the 
dawn of our annals, as the compounds do in their 
noon ; and it seems to me quite as probable that 
many of them were given from motives of associa- 
tion with the memory of persons who had gone 
before, as that they were given on account of 
personal peculiarities. Thus in the 8th century 
when almost all the sovereigns in the Heptarchy 
bore compounded names, one of these simple 
names appears almost alone, and that belonging 
to the most illustrious prince of his time, Offa. 
His name had been originally Winifrid, but he 
received that of Offa, in memory of one who had 
ruled over the Angles, his ancestors, before their 
coming into Britain ; a name which had already 
been borne by a King of the East Saxons, and 
perhaps for a similar reason, for he also counted 
an Offa among his ancestors." 

It occurs to me, then, as possible, in the case 
of some of these personages who appear before 
us with a regular compound name and also with 
a simple name — the latter being in Mr. Kemble's 
opinion a nicname — that it may have been in 
fact the real original name, and the former only 
assumed in accordance with the prevailing fashion. 
Instances of these double names are Athelwold, 
also called Mol, king of Northumbria ; Aldwine, 



508 OLD SAXONS AND ANGLO-SAXONS. 

also called Wor, bishop of Mercia ; Hrothwaru, 
also called Bucge ; and Adelberga, also called 
Tata. 

There is another class of names to which 
something of a similar principle may apply. We 
find an archbishop of Canterbury whose name 
was Eadsige, but who was also called j^ti, and 
signs by that name. So there was a bishop of 
Selsey who was generally called Sicgga, but 
whose name seems to have been properly Sige- 
frith. And there was an ^Ifwine, bishop of 
Lichfield, who was also called ^Ue — a Torht- 
helm, bishop of Leicester, who is called by nearly 
every contemporary authority Totta — an Ead- 
wine, duke of the Northumbrians, who also 
appears as Eda. Mr. Kemble considers all these 
short names to be merely contractions, answering 
in fact to our Tom, Bob, Bill. I do not doubt 
that this may in some instances have been the 
case, but seeing that these short names are in 
reality older Teutonic names than the others, I 
would just suggest the possibility of a simple 
name being in some cases — as for instance, when 
a man had received an accession of dignity — 
lengthened out to correspond with his increased 
importance. The following remarks by Dr. Doran"^^ 
bear upon this point. " Length, too, is supposed 
to have added dignity to a name. Diodes, the 
man, expanded into Diocletian, the emperor ; a 
parvenu, on acquiring wealth, developed fi:om 

* "Notes on Names and Nicnames." Universal Review, May, 1860. 



OLD SAXONS AND ANGLO-SAXONS. 509 

Simon into Simonides ; and when the lady, whose 
name signified Brown (Bruna), became Queen of 
France, she added a train to that cognomen as 
ladies at court do to their dresses, and thenceforth 
swept loftily across records and registers as Queen 
Brunehault." In such a manner might perhaps 
Sicgga become Sigefrith, and Eada Eadwine. 
This is a theory, however, that must be stated 
with caution and reserve. 



CHAPTEE XXX. 



THE SCANDINAVIAN VIKINGS. 

It must already have been made apparent to 
the reader, of how high importance, in the ex- 
planation of Teutonic names, are the languages of 
the Scandinavian North. We find many names, 
borne by Germans, which cannot be explained by 
a reference to any German dialect, and of which 
we find the etymons in the Old Norse. The 
reason of this is two-fold. In the first place, it 
cannot fail to be the case that any ancient lan- 
guage, with a scanty Hterature, must have had 
many words which have not come down to modern 
times. This is the case with all the ancient 
German dialects ; and the Old Norse, which 
amid the stern and desolate rocks of Iceland has 
preserved a treasure of ancient lore more abundant 
than the rest, being a language closely cognate, 
then comes in to their assistance. 

In the second place, following out the theory 
which I have already laid down, that anciently 
names were bestowed, at least to a considerable 
extent, not with any reference to their meaning, 
but simply as having been borne by men who 
had gone before, it follows that in many cases 
they have survived dialects, and may often be 
carried back to a time when the two great 
branches of the German and the Scandinavian 
were as yet unsevered. 



THE SCANDINAVIAN VIKINGS. 511 

In any case it will be apparent that etymo- 
logy alone would cause us vastly to over-rate the 
amount of the Scandinavian element in our nomen- 
clature, and that we must take other circum- 
stances into consideration in attempting to form 
even an approximate estimate. 

In the year 787, according to the Ang.-Saxon 
Chronicle, the first three ships of the Northmen 
visited our shores. And the reeve of the shire, 
little knowing what manner of men they were, 
rode over to take them, and there they slew him. 
" These were the first ships of Danish men which 
sought the land of the EngHsh nation.'' But the 
Icelandic records take notice of earlier Scandina- 
vian invasions of Britain, and the opinion of some 
of our ablest ethnologists is in favour of this 
belief Mr. Latham, referring to the statements 
of the Ang.-Saxon Chronicle, makes the following 
remarks: — "For the fact of Danes having wintered 
in England a.d. 787, they are unexceptionable. 
For the fact of their never having done so before, 
they only supply the unsatisfactory assertion of a 

negative The present writer believes 

that there were Norsemen in Britain anterior to 
787, and also that these Norsemen raay have 
been the Picts." 

The extent of the Scandinavian colonization 
of England, and the characteristic features which 
distinguish it, have been described by Mr. Wor- 
saae in his work on the Danes and Norwegians 
in England. Its head-quarters were in Lincoln- 



512 THE SCANDINAVIAN VIKINGS. 

shire, and that part of Yorkshire round the estuary 
of the Humber. It extended across the island to 
Chester, and as far north as Cumberland, where 
it might probably be met by a more purely Nor- 
wegian stream from the Isle of Man — Cumberland 
and Westmorland being more Scandinavian than 
Northumberland and Durham. The Watling 
Street formed a boundary to the south-west, 
which it rarely passed. To some — though, as it 
seems to me, not to any very marked extent — 
names of Scandinavian origin are more prevalent 
in this district than in the rest of England. 

There are two classes of names which we may 
fairly ascribe to the influence of the Northern in- 
vasions. The first class consists of names which are 
in themselves Scandinavian rather than German 
— that is, names which we find to have been 
borne by Northmen and not by Germans. The 
second class consists of names which though in 
themselves as much German as Scandinavian, 
yet do in point of fact appear to have been intro- 
duced into this country by the Northmen. Neither 
of these two classes are numerous, and there 
remains a much larger class in which we cannot 
attempt to draw any distinction. 

In the first class are to be included many of 
the compounds of Thor, as noticed at p. 128. 
Also Ketell and its compounds, as English Thur- 
KETTLE and AsHKETTLE, and French Turquetil 
and Anquetil. Likewise English Turkle and 
EosKELL, from the Old Norse Thorkell and 



i 



THE SCANDINAVIAN VIKINGS. 513 

Hrosskel, contractions, as Grimm thinks, of Tlior- 
ketell and Hrossketel. And English Blunkell, 
which seems to be a similar contraction of the 
Old Norse Blundketell. Ulph and Orme, as 
contrasted with Wolf and Worm, exhibit the 
Scandinavian form as compared with the German. 
Though the elision of w in the final syllable of 
names was common in some German dialects, it 
was not so at the beginning. The well-known 
Danish name Sweyn (EngHsh Swain and Swain- 
son), is one not found among the Germans. 
Among other names which may be ascribed 
to the Northmen are English Otter, Oliff, 
Hacon, Gunner, Brother, Havelock, Dol- 
phin, Sturla, Schooley,'" all of which appear 
in our early history. 

In the second class of names are such as 
Harold, which, though in itself as much German 
as Scandinavian, yet, as Mr. Kemble has observed, 
does not make its appearance in our annals until 
introduced by the Northmen. I include also 
Howard, which also then first makes its appear- 
ance. So that there may be a foundation of strict 
truth for Lord Duiferm's remark in a lecture on 
the Northmen, that " some sturdy Haavard, the 
proprietor of a sixty-acre farm, but sprung from 
that stock the nobility of whose blood lias become 
proverbial, may be successfully opposing a trifling 
tax at Drontheim, while an illustrious kinsman 
of his house is the representation of England's 
majesty at Dubhn." 

* The Old Norse Skftli, from skyln, to protect 

M 3 



514 THE SCANDINAVIAN VIKINGS. 

Among our Irish names are also to be found 
some trace of the Scandinavian colonization. 
We have Mc.Auliffe (Olaf), Mc.Gary (Geiri), 
Mc.OscAR (Asgeir), Mc. Vicar (Vikar), Mc. 
SwiNEY (Sweyn), Mc.Caskill (Askell). " Even 
to the present day/' observes Mr. Worsaae, " we 
can follow, particularly in Leinster, the last traces 
of the Ostmen through a similar series of pecuhar 
family names, which are by no means Irish, but 
clearly original Norwegian names ; for instance, 
Mac Hitteric or Shiterjc (son of Sigtryg), 
O'Bruadair (son of Broder), Mac Ragnall 
(son of Ragnvald), Roaill (Rolf),* Auleef 
(Olaf), Manus (Magnus), and others. It is even 
asserted that among the families of the Dublin 
merchants are still to be found descendants of the 
old Norwegian merchants formerly so numerous 
in that city. The names of families adduced in 
confirmation of this, as Harrold (Harald), Iver 
(Ivar), Cotter or Mac Otter (Ottar), and others 
which are genuine Norwegian names, corroborate 
the assertion." 

It does not seem probable that we have many 
Scandinavian names derived indirectly through 
the Normans. For even in Normandy names of 
Scandinavian origin seem to be much less common 
than they are with us, though it may be owing 
in part to the greater tendency of the language 
to disguise or corrupt them. A notable instance 
is the name of the first duke of Normandy, 
changed from Hrolf into Rollo. 

* Eather Hroald? 



THE SCANDINAVIAN VIKINGS. 515 

In Norway and Denmark at the present day 
the ancient names are more commonly used as 
christian than as surnames. They have Oluf, 
Haruld, Knud, Iver, Steen, Eskild, Else, 
Arnold, Gunde, Hille, Terkel, and Torben, 
some of which are more corrupted from their 
original forms than they are with us. 



CHAPTER XXXI. 



A CHAPTER OF FRAGMENTS. 

There are several groups which I have found 
it difficult to bring in under any of the heads 
into which I have divided this work. And there 
are some others, overlooked in their proper places, 
which, along with the first-named, will be intro- 
duced here. 

There is a class of words which seem to have 
the force of an intensitive, such as all, omnis, 
which is common as a prefix. But though we 
can account for such names as compounds, there 
is an evident difficulty with regard to the simple 
forms, and unless we can suppose the word to 
have had the sense of the Celtic all, magnus, 
celsus, eximius, we must, I think, assume such 
forms in the first instance to have been con- 
tractions of compound names. 

SIMPLE FOKMS. 

Omnis. Old German Alio, Alia, 5tli cent. English Allo, Aloe, 

Alley, Awl. Mod. Germ. Alle. French Ale, Allie. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Bert, illustrious) Old Germ. Alabert, 9th cent. — Anglo- 
Saxon Aluberht — Eng. Albert, Allbright — Mod. German 
Albrecht — French Alabert, Albert. {Frid, peace) Old 
German Alafrid, 8th cent. — English Allfrey. (Ger, spear) 
Old German Alager, 10th cent. — Ang.-Sax. Algar — English 
Alger — Modern German Alker — French Algier, AlIgre. 
{Hard, fortis) Ang.-Sax. Ealhard — English Allard — Mod. 
(ierman Alert — French Allard — Ital. Alardo. {Hari, 
warrior) Old German Alaher, 8th cent. — Ang.-Sax. Ealhere 



All. 



I 



A CHAPTER OF FRAGMENTS. 51 7 

— French Allaire. (Mag, might*) Eng. Allmack. (Man) 
Old Germ. Alaman, 11th cent. — Eng. Allman — Mod. Germ. 
Ahlmann. {Mar, famous) Old Germ. Alamar, 9th cent. — 
Eng. Almar — Mod. Germ. Allmer. (Moth, moz, courage) 
Old Germ. Alamoth, 6th cent. — French Allemoz. (Mund, 
protection) Old Germ. Alamunt — English Almond. (Noth, 
bold) Ang.-Sax. ^Inoth — Eng. Allnutt — French Alinot. 
{Ric, power) Old German Alaric (Gothic king, 5th cent.), 
Alarih — French Alricq, Allery. (Run, companion) Old 
German Alarun, 8th cent. — French Alleron. (Ward, 
guardian) Old Germ. Aloard, 8th cent. — Eng. Allward — 
Mod. Germ. Ahlwardt — French Allouard. {Wid, wood) 
Old German Aluid, 9th cent. — Eng. Allwood. {Wig, war) 
Old Germ. Alawig, Alawih, 8th cent. — Ang.-Sax. Alewih — 
Eng. Allaway, Allvey — French Allevy. {Wine, friend) 
Old German Alio win, 7 th cent. — English Alwin — French 
Alavoine. 

Of the same meaning I take to hejil, which 

Forstemann calls " a yet unexplained root, in 

which we can scarcely venture to think of Jilu 

(multus)."t There does not appear to me to be 

any difficulty other than that which exists in the 

previous case. The Saxon form ful intermixes 

in a few instances. 

SIMPLE forms. 
Old Germ. Filla, 8th cent. English Fill, Filley, File, ^^ ^'''• 
Full. Mod. Germ. Full. French Phily, Fiala, Feuille. 

DlinNUTIVES. 

Eng. FuLLECK — French Filocque. Eng. Filkin. 

PATRONYMICS. 

Old German Filing. English Filling. 

* We only find one Old Germ, name in which this appears as a termination. 
Of course there may be others, which have not come down to us, and of which the 
above seems very probably to be one. See also Tallesla.ch, p. 376. 

t In the name FeologUd, of the 16th archbishop of Canterbury, it appears as 
if from /eo?o, yellow, and it is very probable that the Anglo-Saxons did take it in 
that sense. 



518 A CHAPTER OF FRAGMENTS. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Baud, hot, pot, messenger) Old German Philibaud, 7th 
cent. — Eng. Filpot* — French Philippot, Philippoteaux. 
{Bert, illustrious) Old German Filibert, 7th cent. — English 
Filbert — Mod. Germ. Filbert — French Philibert. {Hard, 
fortis) Eng. Fullerd — French Filard, Feuillakd. {Hari, 
warrior) Eng. Filer, Fillary — Fr. Philery. {Liuh, dear) 
Old Germ. Filuliub, 9th cent. — Eng. Fullalove. {Mam) Old 
Germ. Filiman, 9th cent. — English Fileman — Mod. German 
Fielmann — French Fillemin. (Mar, famous) Old German 
Filomar, 5 th cent. — Eng. Fillmer, Phillimore, Fullmer — 
Mod. Germ. Fillmer. (Die, thew, thius, servant) Old Germ. 
Feletheus, king of the Rugii, 5th cent. — English Filldew, 
Feltoe, Feltus, Felthouse ? Fieldhouse % (Ga/r, spear) 
EngHsh Fullagar. 

Perhaps of a similar meaning may be gans, 
(German ganz, totus, integer.) Or it may be, as 
Forstemann thinks not improbable, only another 
form of gaud, p. 74. The name of the Vandal 
king Genserich, Grimm derives from ganserich, 
a gander. It may, however, only be from this 
stem, with the common termination ric, power. 
There is, however, uncertainty about the correct 
form, see p. 204. 

Q^g simple forms. 

Totus. Old Germ. Genzo. Mod. Germ. Gentz, Gans. French 

Cance, Cancy. 

diminutives. 
Old German Gansalin — Mod. German Ganzlen — French 
Cancalon. 

compounds. 
{Hari, warrior) Old German Gentsar, 9th cent. — French 
Gantzere. (Man) English Gansman. 

* Generally assumed to be a diminutive of Philip — which may be the case— 
the French having several similar forms, aa Robbrtsit and Henrbqukt , 




A CHAPTER OF FRAGMENTS. 519 

Possibly to the above may belong the Cauncy 
or Chauncy in the Roll of Battle Abbey, English 
Caunce, Chance, Chancey, French Chanceau. 

I have referred, p. 66, to the ending heit, 
English hood, as in Adalheid, &c. This, as an 
ending, may be reasonably explained, but when 
we find apparently the same word as a prefix 
and even as a simple form, it becomes difficult to 
say in what manner we should interpret it. Wein- 
hold (Deutschen Frauen) refers to Old High 
Germ, haitar, serenus. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Haito, Haido, Haida, Eid, 8th cent. Engliah Halt. 
Height, Hayday, Ade, Adie. Mod Germ. Haid, Heydt. ^°^- 
French Aide. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

Old Germ. Heidilo, Aitla, 8th cent. — English Hately — 
Mod. Germ. Heidel — French Chatel. English Haydock. 

PHONETIC ENDING. 

Old Germ. Heidin, 9th cent. English Haydon. Mod. 
Germ. Heyden, Haydn. French Adin. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(ffari, warrior) Old German Haitar, 9 th cent. — English 
Hayter — Mod. German Heiter — French Hetier. (Bad, 
counsel) Old Geim. Aitrada, 9th cent. — Eng. Hatred.* 

What the meaning of horn is in men's names 
seems very doubtful. If from horn, cornu, there 
are two senses of which we might think — ^first, 
that of a sharp point, like so many of the names 
in chapter 13 — secondly, that of those feats of the 
drinking-horn on which the Northmen especially 
so much prided themselves. But Forstemann, in 
the name Hornung, (he has not the simple form 

* If it be prononnced like our wtrd hatred. 



520 A CHAPTER OF FRAGMENTS. 

Horn,) refers to Ang.-Sax. hornung, spurius, filius 
naturalis. I am inclined to think, however, that 
Hornung is nothing more than the patronymic 
of Horn ; the form in which it is found in Anglo- 
Sax, names of places, as Horningaden and Horn- 
ingamsere, " the valley of the Hornings'^ and " the 
boundary of the Hornings,'^ seems inconsistent 
with any other supposition. Unless, therefore, 
Horn itself may be taken to mean illegitimate, 
that meaning ought not to be given to the patro- 
nymic Horning. Horn was the hero of one of 
the most popular of the early romances. 

SIMPLE FOEMS. 

Horn. Anglo-Saxon Horn, found in Hornesheorh,'^ Cod. Dip, 

Cornu? 1309. Aid win Horn, a tenant before Domesday. English 
Horn. Mod. Germ. Horn, French Horne. 

DIMINUTIVES. 

English HoRNiDGE — Mod. German Horneck, Hornig. 
Mod. Germ. Hornlein. 

PATRONYMICS. 

Old German Hornung, 8th cent. Ang. -Saxon Horning, 
found in Horningeshceth, now Horningsheath in Sussex. 
English Horning. Mod. Germ. Hornung. 

compounds. 

(Hard) Mod. Germ. Hornhard. {Hari, warrior) Eng. 
Horner ? (Man) Eng. Hornman, Horniman — Mod. Germ. 

HORNEMANN. 

If the word horn may be taken to have the 
meaning of illegitimate, there is another word, 
heliSy also occurring in men's names, which accord- 
ing to Grimm, has the opposite meaning. It is 
found in the name of Belisarius, the Gothic 
general under the emperor Justinian, and there 

— — — m — 

* The surname Hoknsby is from a similar origin (Dan. by, village). 



ft 



A CHAPTER OF FRAGMENTS. 521 

are eight other instances of the same name, witli 
some unimportant variations, in the Altdeutsches 
Namenbuch. Grimm (GescJi. d. Deutsc. spr.J 
refers to Gothic vcdis, legitimate, and makes 
BeHsar = a Gothic Vahshar {hai^i, warrior). The 
following modern names are with some diffidence 
introduced here. 

SmPLE FORIklS. 

Belis. 

English Belliss,* Bellies, Bellows, Pallace. Mod. Legitimate. 
Germ. Pallas. French Pelosse, Palisse. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Hari, warrior) Old German Belesar, 6th cent. English 
Belser, Palliser. French Belliscer, Belseur, Pelissier. 
Ital. Belisario. 

I doubt very much the explanation of our 
name Lovechild as meanmg an illegitimate 
person. Luuecild is an early name in the Liher 
VitcB — it seems to be more probably an epithet 
of affection. 

The Eng. Twiss, Twice, corresponding with 
an Old Germ. Zuizo, 9th cent., (High Germ. z = 
Ang.-Sax. t,) appears to have the meaning of 
geminus, twin. So also English Tway, Twine 
whence the patronymic Twining. Perhaps also 
TwiGG, with which appears to correspond an 
Anglo-Saxon Tuica, found in Tuicanham, now 
Twickenham. Or the last may have the sense 
of spear, Hke many other words of the same class 
elsewhere referred to. Twyman, however, I 
should rather compare with the Old Norse tweg- 
giamahi, a double man, i.e., of twice the ordinary 
size or strength. 

* See also p. 269. 

N 3 



Mass. 
Mess. 



522 A CHAPTER OF FRAGMENTS. 

Our name Lammas might be supposed to be 
derived from the season, like Christmas, Noel, 
&c. But Lammasse occurs in the Hundred Rolls 
without prefix ; Lamas is also a French name ; 
and there was a king of Lombardy in the 5th 
cent, called Lamisso or Lamissio — the name, 
according to the old chroniclers, being derived 
from lama, water, on account of his having in 
childhood been rescued from a pond. 

The following stem seems somewhat obscure 
— Forstemann refers to Old High German mez, 
modus, or maz, cibus. 

SIMPLE FORMS. 

Old Germ. Mazzo, Masso, 8th cent. Ang.-Sax. Msessa,* 

found in Mcessanuyrth, Cod. Dip. 721. English Massie, 

Messiah. Mod. Germ. Mass, Mess. French Masse, Masse, 

Masseau. 

diminutives. 

Old Germ. Massila, father of Maldra or Masdra^ hing of 
the Suevi, 5th cent., Mezli, 9th cent. — Massilia, Lib. Vit. — 
English Massall, Measel — Mod. Germ. Massl, Massel. 
Old Germ. Mazelin, bishop of Wurzburg, 11th cent. — English 
Maslin — French Massillon, Mazelin. 
phonetic ending. 

Old Germ. Massana, wife of the Lombard king Cleph, 6th 
cent. English Massina, Messeena, Masson. Mod. Germ. 
Massen. French MAssENA,t Masson. 

PATRONYMICS. 

Old Germ. Messinc. Eng. Messing. French Mesenge. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Hard) French Massart. (Hari, warrior) Eng. Mas- 
sure, Measure — Mod. German Messer — French Mazier, 

* And Mfessings, found in Msossingaham, now Massingham. 

t " Mr. D'Israeli (Coningsby, 2, 203) says that Massena, as well as other 
French marshals, was a Hebrew, and that his real name was Manasseh. He was a 
native of Nice. Now in the Piedmontese dialect, nidsena signifies a child. . . 
I.s there any foundation for Mr. D'Israeli's statement ?" E. O. B. in Notes and 
Queries. Vol. 10, «. 147. , i 



i.^- 



A CHAPTER OF FRAGMENTS. 523 

Messier, Meziere. {Man) English Mashman — Mod. Germ. 
Massman — French Massemin. 

phonetic intrusion of n. 
{Bert, famous) Eng. Massingberd — French Masimbert.* 

The stem ivagy way, is difficult to separate 
from the stem ivac, p. 362. But it seems to me 
that there is a separate word, probably having 
the meaning of waving or brandishing, as in the 
Waegbrand (Wave-sword) in the genealogy of 
the kings of Northumbria. 

simple forms. ^^.^g ^^y 

Old Germ. Wago, Waggo, 9 th cent. Waga, second from wave, 
Woden in the genealogy of the Mercian kings. Wege brandish. 
{Domesday). English "Wagg, Wegg, Vague, Way. Mod. 
Germ. Wage, Wege. French Yaghi, Vege, Vee, Wey. 

diminutives. 
English Waylen. French Wegelin. 

PHONETIC ending. 

Old Germ. Vagan, 8th cent. Old Norse Vagen, English 
Wain. French Vagney, Vaganay, Weyn. 

COMPOUNDS. 

(Gaud, Goth) English Waygood. (Hari, warrior) Old 
Germ. Wagher, 8th cent. — English Wager — Mod. German 
Wager, Weger. {Man) English Wagman, Wayman — 
Mod. Germ. Weymann — French ? Wegman. (Bert, famous) 
Old Germ. Wagpraht, 9th cent. — English Weybret. 

Respecting the root aus, aur, I quote the 
following remarks of Forstemann. "We must 
assume such a German root with the meaning of 
light, brightness ; and see it in the German form 
of the Sanscrit root uscJi, as we also find it in the 
Latin aurum, aurorciy uro ; in the Greek tjw?, and 

* There is an Old Prankish name Masembold, 8th cent., similarly formed 
from this stem.' 



524 A CHAPTER OF FRAGMENTS. 

in the Ang.-Sax. edrendel, a star. Here appears 
the simple form of the root, of which we have an 
extension in aust, auster (oriens).'^ 

Aus, Aur. SIMPLE FORMS. 

Brightness. Engllsli Ore, Ousey. French Aureau, Auray, Aury, 
OuRY, Ory, Aussy, Usse. 

diminutives. 
Old Germ. Ausilas, 6th cent. — English Auriol, Oriel — 
French Auzolle, Aureille^ Oriolle. Old German Orizo, 
10th cent. — English Orriss. 

phonetic ending. 
Old German Orein, 11th cent. English Orrin. French 
Auzon. 

compounds. 

(Bert, famous) Old German Auripert, 7th cent. — French 
AusBERT. (Gan, magic) English Organ — French Auregan. 
(Gar, spear) English Orger — French Auriger. {Hari, 
warrior) Old German Ausari, 9th cent. — French Aussiere. 
(Wald, power) Old German Ausvold, Ausold, 9th cent. — 
English Household ? 

In the Haupts zeitschrift of Weinhold he 
refers to the name Ochon, of a king of the HeruH, 
6th cent., deriving it from the Goth, auhns, oven, 
in the older meaning of fire. Should this deriva- 
tion obtain, the English Oven, as well as the 
Modern German Oken, and the French Ochin, 
may be similarly explained. 

A stem of uncertain meaning is gad, which 
Forstemann refers to a lost verb gadan,^ in the 
sense of uniting. But various other words are 
so liable to intermix that I will not attempt to 
give any general meaning to the group. 

* Hence, I pre.sume, the Mod. Germ, gatten, to unite, gatte, spouse, <fec. 

II 



A CHArTER OF FRAGMENTS. 525 

Probably the form cat would come in more 
properly here than as introduced at p. 168. 

SIMPLE FORMS. Gad. 

Old Germ. Gaddo, Gatto, Geddo, Getto, 7th cent. Eng. 
Gadd, Gatty, Gedd, Get, Getty, Caddy. Mod. German 
Gade, Gede, Kade. French Gady, Gad^ Gateau, Gath^ 
Gette, Cadeau. 

DniINUTIVES. 

English Caddick — Modern German Gaedcke. English 
Cadell. French Gatillon, Cadilhon. 

COMPOUNDS. 

{Hariy warrior) English Getter — French Cadier, {Leaf, 
dear) English Gatliffe, Getlive. {Man) Anglo-Saxon 
Csedmon — English Cadman, Gettman. (Niw, young) Old 
Germ. Gatani, 8th cent. — Eng. Gedney. (Walah^ stranger) 
Old German Kaduwalah, Cadualus, 8th cent, — Ceadwalha,* 
king of Wessex — English Cad well. 

phonetic intrusion op ?.t 
(Hariy wari'ior) Old German Gadelher, 11th cent. — Mod. 
Germ. Kettler — French Gatellier. 

* Ought, perhaps, rather to be brought in here than along with hath, war, 
p. 169. 

t As well as the form gadel, there is also a form gader, which might account 
for such names as English GAXHERaooD, (in the 13th cent, found as Gadregod). 



CHAPTER XXXII. 



CONCLUSION. 

I might — ere taking leave of the subject — 
amuse the reader by many instances of the curious 
relation in which names sometimes stand to 
avocations. Thus of nine Mash's in the London 
directory, five are dealers in potatoes. Porte, 
Claret, and Champagne are wine-merchants in 
Paris, Verjus is a doctor, and Virgile keeps the 
hotel Byron. On the other hand Clovjs and 
Odin are tailors, Saladin is a hair-dresser. 
Milord is a grocer, and Minerve sells lemonade. 
Madame Thais watches over the morals of a 
religious order ; Madame Mizery keeps an hotel, 
and I dare say makes people very comfortable. 

Again — as I have throughout these pages 
advocated the opinion that many curious-sounding 
names are only corruptions of ancient names, so 
I may give a few instances of others which we 
might have had. We have many which seem 
to be from beverages — we might also have had 
Ice-and-Cream — the Old Germ. Isancrim (Iron- 
fierce.) We have Goodenough, and I have taken 
it to be from an Old Prankish name Godenulf — 
so we might have had Badenough, from an Old 
German Badanulf The termiaation wif, woman, 
common in ancient female names, might have 



I 



CONCLUSION. 527 

given us, without any corruption, Egg-wife, 
Angel-wife, Silly-wife, and Cold-wife. The 
Old Germ, names Austrigosa and Wisegoz (Ostro- 
goth and Visigoth) would naturally have become 
Easter-goose and Wisegoose. 

Many other examples I might introduce, but 
I prefer to close the subject with a more serious 
train of thought. My aim has been to vmdicate 
the antiquity, and to assert the nobility, of our 
common EngHsh names. I have endeavoured to 
show that very many of those which seem the 
meanest and the most vulgar, are in reality the 
most ancient — that, philologically speaking, the 
Norman territorial seigneurs are the parvenus — 
the Babbs and the Bubbs and the Dadds, the 
Raggs, the Buggs, and the Wiggs, the Potts, the 
Juggs, and the Tubbs, the grand old nobility. 
And in the names of our great rivals by sea and 
land, I have sought to trace the forgotten rela- 
tionship of two thousand years. 

An eminent modern scholar, the late Dr. 
Donaldson, has remarked of English names, that 
" though generally very much corrupted in ortho- 
graphy and pronunciation, they often preserve 
forms of words which have been lost in the ver- 
nacular language of the country, and so constitute 
a sort of living glossary/^ This is true, but it is 
not the whole truth. They contain words which 
have been lost in the whole cycle of Teutonic 
languages — they contain senses which have 
perished, though the words are still extant — 



528 



CaNCLUSION. 



they contain all forms of ancient dialects, and all 
forms of transition between one dialect and 
another. 

Nor is their value less as a record of past 
modes of thought. There is not one of them but 
had a meaning once — they are a reflex of a bye- 
gone age — a commentary on the life of our fore- 
fathers. 



ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS. 



P. 24. The ending ma in Friesic names, which I have 
taken to be a diminutive, is considered by Pott and 
Ru2")recht to be the same as jnan. In that case it 
would not be the same as the ending ma, mia, <fec., 
in Old Frankish names with which I have compared 
it, as many of these names are feminine. 

P. 26. The name Erasmus I have taken to be a latinized 
form of a Friesic Erasma. But in default of finding 
it in any case in the latter form, the derivation of 
Pott from the Greek Erasmios must perhaps be pre- 
ferred. 

P. 105. HouLET, HuLETT, &c., might also be the same as a 
Hugolot in the Liber Yitae, a diminutive or com- 
pound of hug, p. 357. 

P. 125. I have to apologise for the name Crimson. I 
found it in Mr. Bowditch's index, and concluded 
that there was such a name. Subsequently, refer- 
ring to the text, I found that it ran — " we have no 
Crimson !" 

P. 135, The name Albruna, of the wise woman of the old 
Germans, (from alf, elf, and run, wisdom or mystery, 
p. 364) was probably derived from her supposed 
character of soothsayer. From the same origin 
comes Oberon, the name of the fairy king. We 
have AuBERON as a Christian name, but I do not 
know it as a family name. 

P. 151. Nefflen is, I think, a German, not an English 
name. 

P. 256. Nestle, Nestling, &c. Grimm, (Gesch. d. Deutsche 
SpracKJ refers, in the case of an Old German name 
Nestica, to nest, torques, nesfUa, fibula. 

P. 261. Friday might also be derived from an Ang.-Saxon 
Frigedseg, (found in Frigedseges treow. Cod. Dip. 
1221). So Frebout, also Freebody, might be the 

o 3 



530 ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS. 

same as an Old German Friobaudes, 6th cent., from 
fri^ liber. Hence also Friar and Friary, Modern 
German Freier, from an Old German Friher, 8th 
cent. And Freeman, corresponding with a Friumon 
in the Liber Vitae. 

P. ^^% SiEVEWRlGHT "would be better placed along with 
Searight, to an Old German Seuerit, p. 322, from 
Goth. saivSj Ang.-Sax. sae, mare. 

P. 263. The introduction of the name Gwynn here may be 
liable to misconstruction. I merely mean to ask 
the question whether — comparing it with an Old 
German Guuine — a Teutonic name can in any case 
be mixed up with the Celtic. 

P. 310. Dandelyon. The family of this name became 
extinct in the reign of Edward IV. 

P. 313. The name Picture might be from Pictor as a 
latinization of painter. 

P. 317. .The most certain instance of Scot as a baptismal, 
and not as a descriptive name, is a Scot Agumdes- 
sune (for Agemundessune %) in the Liber Yitse. 

P. 349. Our name Kecknell is more probably the same as 
the German Eecknagel, p. 221. 

P. 382. The Ang.-Sax. Uhtred ought not, I think, to come 
in here ; the stem act^ p. 450, is more suitable. 

P. 397. The authority for the statement that the name of 
the Maid of Orleans was properly Dare, not D'Arc, 
is her latest French biographer, whose name I do 
not at present remember, and whose information 
was derived from an examination of ancient docu- 
ments. 

P. 425. Pott has Grove and Grovemann as Low German 
names. 

P. 464. Our name Grassick corresponds with a Garsic in 
the Liber Vitae, Ang. -Saxon gmrs, another form of 
grafts. 



INDEX OF FRENCH NAMES. 



Abault, 61 
Abavid, 61 
Abbadie, 61 
Abbe, 60 
Abbette, 61 
Abert, 61 
Abit, 61 
Acar, 210 
Acart, 210 
Accault, 210 
Aclocque, 210 
Adde, 287 
Adee, 287 
Adeline, 337 
Adelon, 337 
Adhemar, 288 
Adin, 519 
Admant, 288 
Adolphe, 72, 288 
Adoul, 337 
Adour, 288 
Aeschimann, 217 
Agasse, 193 
Agenet, 210 
Agis, 193 
Ag^and, 210 
Agon, 211 
Agoult, 210 
Agram, 210 
Agron, 210 
Aide, 519 
Aigle, 94 
Aigoin, 210 
AiguiUe, 94, 154 
AiUard, 154 
Ailleret, 154 
AiUy, 154 
Aimard, 492 
Aime, 492 
A j albert, 154 
Ajasse, 193 
Alabert, 516 
Al^gre, 516 
Alavoine, 517 
Albaret, 135 
Albenque, 135 
Albert, 516 
Albin, 134 
Albo, 134 
Albrand, 299, 418 
Alby, 134 
Aldebert, 418 
Aldon, 418 
Ale, 516 
Alecan, 418 



Alely, 426 
Alfred, 135 
Algier, 516 
Aligrot, 427 
Alinot, 517 
AUx, 142 
Alkan, 418 
Allain, 238 
Allard, 516 
Allaire, 517 
AUais, 300 
Allaume, 38 
Alleaume, 38 
Allemoz, 517 
AUengi-y, 239 
Aileron, 517 
Allery, 517 
Allevy, 517 
AUie, 516 
AUien, 238 
AUonier, 239 
Allouard, 517 
Alphonse, 338 
Alquier, 142 
Alricq, 517 
Altaii-ac, 419 
Altaroche, 418 
Alteriet, 418 
Amade, 284 
Amadeuf, 284 
Amblard, 143 
Amail, 143 
Amedee, 284 
Amelin, 143 
Ameling, 143 
Amette, 284 
Amey, 492 
Amis, 284 
Amiaume, 493 
Amory, 130 
Ampaire, 312 
Aniurat, 492 
Anceau, 119 
Anceaume, 119 
Ancel, 119 
Ancelin, 119 
Ancement, 120 
Andraud, 300 
Andro, 300 
Andry, 300 
Anery, 289 
Anfray, 289 
Ange, 212 
Angel, 213 
Angelier, 213 



Angerand, 502 
Angevin, 212 
Angibert, 292 
Angibout, 292 
Anglement, 213 
Anglade, 213 
Anglard, 213 
Angouard, 293 
Anguy; 212 
Anicker, 289 
Anjubault, 292 
Anne, 289 
Anne, 289 
Annee, 289 
Anquetil, 52, 512 
Ansart, 119 
Anselin, 119 
Anselme, 119 
Ansmann, 120 
Ansmant, 120 
Ansel, 119 
Antlieaume, 432 
Antier, 432 
Antiq, 432 
Antraygues, 300 
Anty, 432 
Appay, 60 
Appert, 61 
Aran, 95 
Ai-ago, 387 
Arbogast, 50, 386 
Arbeau, 386 
Arbey, 386 
Arbomont, 386 
Arbre, 386 

Archambault, 12, 432 
Archereau, 388 
Archinard, 432 
Ardier, 250 
Aidouin, 251 
Arfort, 386 
Argand, 388 
Argy, 387 
Arioli, 95 
Arlouin, 340 
Armandeau, 147 
Armandet, 147 
Armengaud, 50 146 
Armente, 147 
Armeny, 146 
Armet, 147 
Armez, 147 
Arnault, 95 
Arnold, 95 
Arnou, 95 



532 



INDEX OF FRENCH NAMES. 



Arnould, 95 
Arondel, 152 
Arpin, 386 
Arqviin, 432 
Arrault, 95 
Arranger, 95 
Arrivetz, 95 
Arrondeau, 95 
Artault, 251 
ArteU, 250 
Artus, 250 
Arveuf, 386 
Arvier, 386 
Ascoli, 216 
Asperti, 119 
Astel, 216 
Astier, 216 
Astorgis, 303 
Astruc, 216 
Asse, 89, 119 
Assegond, 119 
Asselin, 119 
AsseU, 119 
Assuerus, 120 
Atloff, 288 
Atys, 288 
Aubard, 135 
Aube, 134 
Aubel, 134 
Aubery, 135 
Aubez, 134 
Aubier, 135 
Aubigny, 134 
Aubin, 134 
Aubineau, 134 
Aiibouer, 135 
Aubouin, 135 
Aubriet, 135 
Aubrun, 135 
Auchard, 142 
Aude, 381 
Audebrand, 382 
Audemars, 382 
Audevard, 52, 282 
Audibert, 52, 381 
Audier, 382 
Audiffred, 382 
Audiflfret, 382 
Audiganne, 382 
Audiguier, 52, 382 
Audille, 381 
Audin, 381 
Audis, 381 
Audiquet, 381 
Audouard, 52, 382 
Audoin, 382 
Audouin, 52 
Audouy, 382 
Audri.n, 382 
Audy, 381 
Aucr, 290 
Aufray, 502 
Auger, 382 



Auray, 524 


Badou, 166 




Aureau, 524 


Bady, 166 


Auregan, 524 


Baffert, 291 


Aureille, 524 


Bagard, 172 


Auriger, 524 


Bagary, 172 


Ausbert, 524 


Bagier, 172 


Aussiere, 524 


Baglan, 172 


Auspert, 119 


Bague, 172 , 




Auteroche, 382 


Bail, 192 1 




Autheland, 382 


Bailla, 192 i 




Authier, 382 


BaiUiard, 192 1 




Autie, 381 


Bailiere, 192 1 




Amtin, 381 


BaiUieu, 192 f 




Autier, 382 


BaiUy, 172, 192 f 




Autran, 382 


Baissin, 181 




Autrique, 382 


Balay, 192 




AuzoUe, 524 


Balcoq, 27 




Auzon, 524 


Balde, 241 




Avare, 290 


Baldeveck, 242 


Avart, 290 


Balery, 192 


AveHne, 290 


Baldi, 241 h 




Avi, 290 


Ballard, 192 '{ 




Avisseau, 290 


Balle, 192 




Avisse, 290 


Balleret, 192 




Avizard, 290 


BaUoche, 192 ^1 




Avizart, 290 


BaUy, 192 




Avizeau, 290 


BaUu, 192 




Aycard, 210 


Balsan, 242 




Ayel, 154 


Balsemine, 241 




Aymer, 210, 492 


Baltar, 131, 241 




Aymes, 492 


Baltard, 241 




Aymont, 210, 492 


Baltazard, 241 




Ayrault, 95 


Balzac, 241 




Azard, 169 


Banc, 182 




Azan, 169 


Bance, 235 




Aze, 169 


Bancelin, 235 




Azema, 169 


Banie, 175 




Azemar, 169 


Bannielle, 175 




Azibert, 169 


Bannier, 175 




Azille, 169 


Banouard, 175 




Azimon, 169 


Bangy, 182 . ' 
Bansard, 236 




Babault, 291 


Baraban, 70 




Babe, 291 


Barault, 61 




Babeau, 291 


Barachin, 61 ' 




Babeuf, 291 


Bard, 222] ' 




Babin, 291 


Barde, 222 i 




Bablin, 291 


Bardeau, 222 ! 




Babonneau, 291 


Bardelle, 222 




Babouard, 291 


Bardillon, 222 


1; 


Baboulene, 291 


Bardon, 222 if 


t 


Babuleau, 291 


Bardonneau, 222 J 




Bac, 172 


Bardy, 222 T 


( 

I 


Baccaud, 172 


Barelle, 61 A 


Bach, 172 


Barnay, 423 '■ B 


Bacliimcnt, 172 


Barnet, 423 ■ 


Bacqua, 172 


Barnich, 423 ■ 


Bac(iuart, 172 


Barnier, 423 |H 


Eaciiue, 172 


Barnouvin, 423 W^ 


Bacquct, 172 


Baroin, 62 m^ 


Bade J, 1<;6 


Barratte, 62 [^ | 


Bader, 1(36 


Barre, 61 ' 


Badier, 166 


Barre, 61 





INDEX OF FRENCH NAMES. 



533 



Barrean, 61 
Barret, C2 
Barris, 61 
Barteau, 222 
Bartel, 222 
Barry, 61 
Bassaget, 181 
Basse, 181 
Bassee, 181 
Basso, 181 
Basta, 183 
Bastard, 183 
Baster, 183 
Bastie, 183 
Bastier, 183 
BataiUe, 166 
Batard, 167 
Batavdt, 167 
Batel, 166 
Bathery, 167 
Bathilde, 167 
Batte, 166 
Battu, 166 
Baud, 241 
Baudeau, 241 
Baudement, 241 
Baudeuf, 242 
Baudichon, 241 
Baudier, 241 
Baudin, 242 
Baudouin, 242 
Baudiand, 241 
Baudrit, 241 
Baudro, 242 
Baudron, 241 
Baudiy, 241 
Bauduer, 241 
Bavard, 291 
Bebert, 414 
Bee, 222 
Bechade, 222 
Bechinan, 222 
Beck, 222 
Becker, 222 
Beckle, 222 
Becquemie, 222 
Becquet, 222 
Becquey, 222 
Bedard, 167 
Bede, 166 
Bedeau, 166 
Bedel, 166 
Bedier, 167 
Bedmar, 167 
Bednec, 166 
Bedouin, 167 
Bedu, 166 
Befort, 414 
Belac, 269 
Belaize, 269 
Belet, 269 
Belhomme, 269 
BeHn, 270 



Belissent, 270 
BeUamy, 24, 192 
Bellart, 269 
Bellavoine, 270 
BeUeau, 192 
Bellee, 192 
Bellemar, 192 
Bellemain, 269 
Bellemare, 269 
BeUenot, 269 
BeUetre, 219 
BeUhomme, 192 
Belli, 192 
Bellicard, 269 
BeUier, 269 
Belligard, 269 
Belliscer, 521 
BeUoc, 269 
BeUu, 192 
Belment, 269 
Belnot, 269 
Belsevir, 521 
Bek, 269 
Bena, 176 
Benard, 177 
Bence, 177, 235 
Benech, 176 
Benecke, 176 
Benda, 235 
Bender, 236 
Bengel, 182 
Benier, 177 
Benz, 177, 235 
Ber, 68 
Berard, 69 
Beral, 69 
Beranger, 70 
Berault, 69 
Bercher, 69 
Beer, 68 
Berge, 279 
Bergeau, 279 
Berger, 69, 279 
Bergerat, 279 
Berguerand, 279 
Berheaume, 69 
Bericli, 69 
Berille, 69 
Berillon, 69 
Beringer, 70 
Berjeault, 279 
Berl, 69 
Berly, 69 
Bermard, 69 
Bermond, 69 
Bermont, 69 
Bernard, 26, 71 
Bernardet, 26 
Bernardin, 26 
Bernault, 71 
Berne, 70 
Bernelle, 70 
Berney, 70 



Bernier, 71 
Berot, 69 
Berquier, 279 
Berquin, 69 
Berryer, 69 
Berta, 370 
BertaU, 370 
Bertault, 370 
Berte, 370 
Berteau, 370 
Bertel, 370 
Bertey, 370 
Bertheaume, 370 
Berthelin, 370 
Berthier, 370 
Bertier, 370 
Bertin, 370 
Berfcomier, 370 
Bertrand, 370 
Bertrant, 370 
Bertray, 370 
Bertron, 370 
Bestault, 183 
Best, 183 
Bestel, 183 
Bessard, 181 
Bessay, 181 
Besse, 181 
Beslay, 181 
Besson, 181 
Bessona, 181 
Bessoneau, 181 
BetaU, 166 
Bethery, 167 
Betou, 166 
Bette, 166 
Bevaii-e, 91 
Bibal, 414 
Bibaut, 414 
Biber, 91 
Bibert, 414 
Bibus, 414 
Bical, 177 
Bichard, 178 
Bicheron, 178 
Bidault, 167 
Bied, 166 
Biere, 68 
Biffaut, 414 
Biffe, 414 
Bige, 177 
Bigeard, 178 
Bigey, 177 
Bigle, 177 
Bigot, 178 
Bigre, 178 
Billard, 269 
BiUault, 270 
Bilbault, 269 
Bilco, 269 
Bilhet, 269 
Bilken, 269 
BiUe, 269 



534 



INDEX OF FRENCH NAMES. 



Billecoq, 27 
BiUet, 269 
Billequin, 269 
BUley, 269 
BiUez, 269 
BiUiard, 269 
Billiere, 269 
Billing, 269 
Billion, 270 
Billoteau, 219 
Bina, 176 
Binant, 177 
Binard, 177 
Binda, 235 
Binder, 236 
Bineau, 176 
Biney, 176 
Bing, 178 
Binge, 178 
Binier, 177 
Binnecher, 177 
Binoch, 176 
Binz, 177 
Biron, 70 
Bisard, 181 
Biseau, 181 
Bissay, 181 
Bissen, 181 
Bitcher, 178 
Bivert, 414 
Blacher, 395 
Blachier, 395 
Blad, 376 
Bladier, 376 
Blain, 396 
Blaive, 184 
Blanc, 392 
Blanca, 392 
Blancard, 393 
Blanchard, 393 
Blanche, 392 
Blancheron, 393 
Blanchet, 393 
Blanchin, 392 
Blandin, 397 
Blangeard, 393 
Blangy, 392 
Blanquart, 393 
Blanque, 392 
Blanquet, 393 
Blanquier, 393 
Blanzy, 397 
Blaque, 395 
Blatin, 376 
Blatte, 376 
Blatter, 376 
Blavier, 184 
Blavin, 184 
Blech, 393 
Bled, 376, 440 
Blee, 396 
Blein, 396 
Blenner, 396 



Blequier, 393 
Bless, 440 
Blesseau, 440 
Blesser, 441 
Blessing, 440 
Blet, 376, 440 
Bletel, 376, 440 
Bletery, 376 
Bleton, 376, 440 
Blequier, 393 
Bleu, 396 
Blevanus, 184 
Bleve, 184 
Blin, 396 
Bloc, 214 
BlocaiUe, 215 
Blomard, 465 
Blome, 465 
Blond, 397 
Blonde, 397 
Blondeau, 397 
Blondel, 397 
Blondin, 397 
Bloquel, 215 
Bloquiere, 215 
Blou, 396 
Blum, 465 
Bobant, 422 
Bobee, 421 
Boblet, 422 
Bobiere, 422 
Bobin, 422 
Boboeufif, 422 
Bobot, 422 
Boch, 224 
Bochard, 225 
Bochin, 225 
Bochmer, 225 
Bodard, 455 
Bodart, 455 
Bodasse, 454 
Bodeau, 454 
Boder, 455 
Bodevin, 455 
Bodichon, 454 
Bodier, 455 
Bodin, 454 
Bodo, 454 
Boffin, 422 
Boeuf, 421 
Bognard, 225 
Bognier, 225 
Bohard, 225 
Bohne, 225 
Boimer, 225 
Boin, 225 
Boiron, 314 
Boisgarnier, 602 
Boisgaultier, 502 
Boisgelin, 502 
Boisgontier, 502 
Boisguilbert, 502 
Boisguyon, 502 



Boisrenaud, 502 
Bola, 281 
Boler, 281 
BoU, 281 
BoUack, 281 
BoUe, 281 
BoUey, 281 
Bompart, 176 
Bon, 175 
Bonnafous, 176 
Bonald, 176 
Bonamy, 24, 177 
Bonaparte, 55, 176 
Bonardi, 176 
Bonasseaux, 175 
Bondeau, 235 
Bondy, 235 
Bonfils, 176 
Bonheur, 176 
Bonichon, 175 
Boniface, 176 
Bonier, 176 
Boninc, 175 
Bonnaire, 176 
Bonnard, 176 
Bonnardet, 176 
Bonnaud, 175 
Bonnay, 175 
Bonne, 175 
Bonneau, 175 
Bonnefons, 176 
BonneU, 175 
Bonnelye, 175 
Bonnemain, 176 
Bonnement, 176 
Bonnery, 176 
Bonni, 175 
Bonningue, 175 
Bonnissent, 176 
Bonno, 175 
Bonny, 175 
Bonnyaud, 175 
Bonome, 177 
Bonpard, 176 
Bonte, 235 
Bonys, 175 
Bonze, 175, 235 
Borda, 229 
Borde, 229 
Bordery, 229 
Bordier, 229 
Bordmann, 229 
Bos, 408 
BoseUi, 408 
Bossard, 408 
Bosse, 408 
Bossuroy, 408 
Bossy, 408 
Bost, 409 
Bottelin, 454 
Bottemer, 455 
Bothey, 454 
Botti, 451 



INDEX OF FRENCH NAMES. 



535 



Bottler, 455 
Bottin, 454 
Boucard, 379 
Boucart, 379 
Boucasse, 379 
Bouchard, 379 
Bouche, 378 
Boucheny, 379 
Boucher, 379 
Boucherie, 379 
Boucheron, 379 
Boucherot, 379 
Bouchet, 379 
Bouchez, 379 
Bouchon, 379 
Boucly, 379 
Boucon, 379 
Boucry, 379 
Boudard, 455 
Boudault, 455 
Boudeau, 454 
Boudevin, 455 
Boudier, 455 
Bougavdt, 379 
Bougie, 379 
Bouglon, 379 
Bougon, 379 
Bougrain, 379 
Bougueret, 379 
Bouhier, 379 
Bouillac, 281 
BouiUard, 281 
BouiUe, 281 
Bouillerie, 281 
Bouillien, 281 
Bouillier, 281 
Bouilly, 281 
Boulan, 281 
Boulas, 281 
Boulay, 281 
BouHgaud, 281 
BouUer, 281 
Boullard, 281 
BouUery, 281 
BouUoche, 281 
Boulmier, 281 
Boulo, 281 
Boulu, 281 
Bouneau, 416 
Bouquerot, 379 
Bouquet, 379 
BouquiUon, 379 
Bout, 452 
Bourard, 452 
Bourdeau, 329 
Bourdel, 329 
Bourdelande, 330 
Bourdelon, 329 
Bourdet, 330 
Boudier, 330 
Bourdin, 329 
Boure, 452 
Boureau, 452 



Bourg, 279 
Bourges, 279 
Bourgery, 279 
Bourla, 452 
Bourrel, 452 
Bourrillon, 452 
Bourquard, 279 
Boussiere, 408 
Bout, 454 
Boutard, 455 
Boutaric, 455 
Boutel, 454 
Boutelon, 454 
Bouthey, 454 
Boutier, 455 
Boutrais, 455 
Boutron, 455 
Boutung, 454 
Bouty, 454 
Bouvard, 422 
Bouvelet, 422 
Bouvier, 422 
BouviUe, 422 
Bouvin, 422 
Bouvry, 422 
Boy, 313 
Boyard, 313 
Boye, 313 
Boyer, 313 
Boyreau, 313 
Boyron, 314 
Brachard, 185 
Brafiher, 185 
Brack, 185 
Bracq, 184 
Brag, 130 
Brahy, 184 
Brainne, 185 
Brame, 371 
Bramma, 371 
Brand, 198 
Brandao, 198 
Brandau, 198 
Brandely, 198 
Brandes, 199 
Brandy, 198 
Braquelonne, 185 
Braquemin, 185 
Brasa, 443 
Brassac, 443 
Brassart, 443 
Brasserie, 443 
Brassier, 443 
Braud, 218 
Brault, 185 
Bray, 184 
Brayer, 185 
Brayoud, 185 
Brazier, 53 
Brazy, 443 
Breard, 185 
Breau, 184 
Brechard, 185 



Brechemin, 185 
Breck, 184 
Bree, 184 
Bregand, 185 
Brcgeard, 185 
Bregere, 185 
Bregevin, 185 
Breht, 370 
Bremard, 371 
Bremond, 371 
Bremont, 371 
Bresillon, 186 
Bressand, 186 
Bresse, 186 
Bresseau, 186 
Bressel, 186 
Bresser, 186 
Bressy, 186 
Bret, 185 
Bretar, 185 
Breteau, 185 
Bretel, 185 
Bretocq, 185 
Breucq, 193 
Breyer, 185 
Breysse, 186 
Brezol, 186 
Briant, 185 
Briard, 185 
Bricaire, 185 
Bricard, 185 
Brichard, 185 
Bricon, 185 
Bride, 185 
Brideau, 185 
Brigaud, 185 
Brimeur, 371 
Brimont, 371 
Brioude, 185 
Brique, 184 
Brisac, 186 
Brise, 186 
Brissard, 186 
Brissaud, 186 
Brisay, 186 
Brizard, 186 
Broc, 193 
Broca, 90 
Brocard, 191 
Brocq, 90 
Brodin, 218 
Brodu, 218 
Broet, 218 
Brondel, 198 
Bronder, 199 
Brossard, 480 
Brosse, 480 
Brossel, 480 
Brossier, 480' 
Brot, 218 
Brousse, 186 
Brucy, 186 
Bruezier, 186 



536 



INDEX OF FRENCH NAMES. 



Brugiere, 194 
Bruhiere, 194 
Brun, 399 
Brunache, 399 
Brunant, 400 
Brunard, 400 
Bruneau, 399 
Brunei, 399 
Bruner, 400 
Brunet, 400 
Brunnarius, 400 
Brunner, 400 
Bruno, 399 
Bruny, 399 
Bruzelin, 186 
Bubeck, 422 
Bucaille, 379 
Bucker, 379 
Buckle, 379 
Buddicom, 455 
BudiUon, 454 
Budin, 454 
Buffault, 422 
Buffet, 422 
Buffier, 422 
Bufifon, 422 
Buisman, 407 
Bulard, 281 
Bulla, 281 
Bulle, 281 
BuUeau, 281 
BuUier, 281 
BuUy, 281 
Buloz, 281 
Bunet, 416 
Bunon, 416 
Bunzel, 235 
Burc, 279 
Burchard, 279 
Burckel, 279 
Burde, 329 
Burdet, 330 
Burdin, 329 
Burgal, 279 
Burgard, 279 
Burq, 279 
Burt, 370 
Burtard, 370 
Burthe, 329 
Burthe, 329 
Burty, 370 
Bui-vevin, 279 
Bussard, 407 
Busse, 407 
Busser, 407 
Bussiere, 407 
Bussy, 407 
Bustault, 409 
Butheau, 454 
Buttez, 454 
Butti, 454 
Buttin, 454 



Cabe, 285 
Cadeau, 525 
Cadier, 525 
Cadilhon, 525 
Caffort, 248 
Cagin, 174 
Cagnard, 174 
Cahen, 174 
Caillant, 437 
Caillard, 437 
Caillault, 437 
Caille, 436 
CaiUeau, 436 
CaiUebotte, 437 
Caillelau, 437 
CaiUer, 437 
OaiUier, 437 
CaiUiez, 437 
CaiUon, 437 
Caillouee, 437 
Cain, 174 
Calaret, 437 
Callebaut, 437 
Gallery, 437 
CaUier, 437 
CaUon, 437 
Calvo, 83 
Cam, 436 
Camard, 436 
Camaret, 436 
Camier, 436 
Camin, 436 
Campy, 171 
Canal, 444 
Canard, 101, 444 
Canault, 444 
Cancalon, 518 
Cance, 518 
Cancy, 518 
Cauda, 74 
Candelle, 74 
Candre, 74 
Candy, 74 
Canier, 444 
Canivet, 201 
Canneva, 201 
Canon, 444 
Cantel, 74 
Cantier, 74 
CantiUon, 74 
Caraman, 203 
Cardon, 277 
Careau, 202 
Carel, 202 
Carey, 202 
Carlin, 202 
Carment, 203 
Carnot, 203 
Carod, 203 
Carol, 59 
Carraz, 202 
Carre, 202 
Carrette, 339 



Carriere, 203 
Cart, 276 
Cartault, 277 
Carteau, 276 
Carteret, 277 
Carthery, 277 
Cartier, 53, 277 
Carton, 277 
Carquin, 202 
Castaing, 296 
Castaldi, 296 
Castan, 296 
Castel, 296 
Casterat, 296 
Castier, 296 
Castrique, 296 
Casty, 296] 
Cat, 168 
Catal, 168 
Catala, 168 
Catau, 168 
CatiUon, 168 
Catty, 168 
Catu, 168 
Cauchard, 307 
Cauche, 307 
Cauchy, 307 
Caudron, 477 
Causin, 309 
Caussade, 309 
Caussat, 309 
Causse, 309 
Cauzard, 309 
Cauzique, 309 
Cavel, 285 
Cazalong, 205 
Caze, 205 
Cazel, 205 
CeUard, 308 
Cellerin, 308 
Cellier, 308 
Celesse, 308 
Cels, 308 
Cendre, 456 
Cent, 456 
Ceremonie, 230 
Cesac, 272 
Ceysson, 272 
Cezard, 272 
CeziUe, 272 
Chabault, 168 
Chabot, 168 
Chabrand, 199 
Chadinet, 168 
Chadirac, 168 
Chaft, 219 
Chamel, 419 
Champagne, 526 
Champeau, 171 
Chami^lon, 171 
Champy, 171 
Chancoau, 519 
Chandel, 74 



INDEX OF FRENCH MAMES. 



537 



Chanteau, 74 
Chanterac, 75 
Chautier, 74 
Chantrot, 74 
€hapt, 219 
Charavay, 233 
Charey, 231 
Charfe, 356 
Charier, 232 
Chario, 231 
Charle, 59 
€liarmond, 50, 233 
Charmont, 50, 233 
Charmotte, 233 
Charoin, 233 
Charot, 339 
€harpin, 357 
Charpy, 356 
Chartier, 250 
Charton, 251 
Charue, 231 
Charvey, 233 
Charvin, 233 
Chassard, 307 
Chastaing, 296 
Chatel, 519 
€hateliii, 168 
Chaumer, 60 
Chaussee, 307 
Chaussier, 307 
Chaussy, 307 
Chefter, 219 
Chely, 322 
Chemery, 423 
Cheneveau, 201 
Chereau, 223 
Cheri, 223 
Chesneau, 459 
Chesney, 459 
Ohesse, 459 
Chevy, 285 
Chicard, 358 
Chieze, 459 
Chilman, 163 
Chimay, 423 
Chimel, 423 
Chimene, 423 
Chipier, 286 
Chippard, 285 
Chiquet, 358 
ChobiUon, 227 
Chocart, 341 
Chochon, 340 
Chocquet, 341 
Chomeau, 59 
Chon, 327 
Chonez, 327 
Chonneaux, 327 
Chopard, 227 
Choqier, 307 
Choquart, 341 
Choque, 307, 340 
Choquet, 341 



Choquier, 341 
Chorey, 223 
Chottard, 360 
Chotteau, 360 
Choupe, 227 
Christ, 133, 484 
Christel, 133 
Christy, 133 
Ciceri, 272 
Cinna, 327 
Cinquin, 327 
Cintrat, 456 
Ciza, 272 
Clabaut, 183 
Clabbeeck, 183 
Cladung, 435 
Clarenc, 374 
Claret, 526 
Clarey, 374 
Clair, 374 
Clairin, 374 
Claparede, 183 
Clapeyron, 183 
Clapier, 183 
Clapisson, 183 
Clariat, 374 
Classen, 392 
Claude, 377 
Claudel, 377 
Claudin, 377 
Clave, 183 
Claveau, 183 
Clavel, 183 
Claverie, 183 
Clavey, 183 
Clavier, 183 
Clavrot, 183 
Claye, 352 
Clayette, 352 
Clech, 352 
Clenchard, 199 
Cler, 374 
Clerambault, 374 
Clerambourg, 374 
Cleret, 374 
Clerin, 374 
Clerisse, 374 
Clermont, 374 
Clery, 374 
CUver, 414 
Clodomir, 46, 50, 377 
Cloquemin, 352 
Cloquet, 352 
Clotilde, 46, 377 
Clouet, 352 
Clovis, 46, 378, 526 
Cocard, 446 
Coccoz, 446 
Cochard, 446 
Coche, 446 
Cochelin, 446 
Cochevy, 446 
Cochin, 416 



Cochinart, 446 
Coclin, 446 
Coderet, 116 
Codini, 116 
Codron, 116 
Coffard, 248 
Coffin, 249 
Coffineau, 249 
Coffy, 248 
Cogez, 446 
Cognard, 446 
Cogny, 446 
Coiffard, 248 
Coindret, 328 
Colbert, 226 
Colere, 226 
Coli, 226 
CoUnard, 226 
CoUange, 226 
Collard, 226 
CoUe, 226 
CoUeau, 226 
CoUery, 226 
CoUichon, 226 
Collier, 53, 226 
CoUman, 226 
Colombert, 226 
Com, 59 
Come, 296 
Comont, 60 
Commeny, 297 
Commun, 297 
Conard, 328 
Conchan, 327 
Congs, 329 
Congy, 329 
ConU, 327 
Conilleau, 327 
Coninx, 329 
Conneau, 327 
Connerat, 328 
Connes, 327 
Connier, 328 
Conord, 328 
Conort, 328 
Conrad, 328 
Conseil, 163 
Conte, 163 
Conti, 163 
Conter, 164 
Continant, 164 
Contour, 164 
Copeau, 248 
Copel, 248 
Coppez, 248 
Coq, 446 
Coqueau, 446 
Coquelin, 446 
Coquet, 446 
Coquille, 446 
Coquin, 44() 
Cora, 202 
Coram, 202 



538 



INDEX OF FRENCH NAMES* 



Corich, 202 
Cornay, 433 
Comely, 433 
Cornichon, 433 
Cornibert, 433 
CorniUeau, 433 
Comillon, 433 
Corsain, 409 
Corta, 409 
Cortel, 409 
Cortier, 409 
Com, 202 
Cosmene, 310 
Cosne, 310 
Cosnuau, 310 
Cosquin, 309 
Cosse, 309 
Cosse, 309 
Cosseret, 310 
Cossin, 309 
Costa, 360 
Costard, 360 
Costaz, 360 
Coste, 360 
Costel, 360 
Costes, 360 
Costey, 360 
Costnie, 360 
Cote, 115 
Coteau, 115 
Cotel, 115 
Coteret, 116 
Cothrune, 116 
Cotta, 115 
Cottance, 115 
Cottard, 116 
Cotte, 115 
Cottey, 115 
Couard, 336 
Couardeau, 336 
Coubart, 336 
Couder, 116 
Coudert, 116 
Coudoin, 117 
Coudy, 115 
Cone, 336 
Couenne, 336 
Coiimon, 337 
Coune, 327 
Course, 409 
Course!, 409 
Courson, 409 
Coursseraiit, 409 
Coursy, 409 
Court, 409 
Courteau, 409 
Courtier, 409 
Courtin, 409 
Courty, 409 
Cousin, 309 
(>>us8y, 309 
CouHtard, 360 
Cousteau, 360 



Coutance, 115 
Coutanseau, 115 
Coutard, 116 
Couteau, 52, 115 
Coutem, 115 
Coutier, 116 
Coutin, 117 
Coutray, 116 
Coutrot, 116 
Couty, 115 
Coutz, 115 
Couzineau, 309 
CoviUe, 248 
Coze, 309 
Cozic, 309 
Cozzi, 309 
Cramm, 97 
Crenier, 465 
Crepe, 188 
Crepeau, 188 
CrepeUe, 188 
Crepy, 188 
Crespin, 404 
Crespel, 404 
Cresson, 401 
Creucy, 404 
Creusard, 404 
Creuse, 404 
Creuze, 404 
Cria, 170 
Cribier, 188 
Crispin, 404 
Croco, 253 
Crobey, 425 
Crochard, 253 
Crochet, 253 
Cron, 465 
Croneau, 465 
Cronier, 465 
Croppi, 425 
Croquart, 253 
Crossard, 406 
Crosse, 405 
Crotte, 371 
Croue, 253 
Crousse, 404 
Crousi, 404 
Croutelle, 372 
Crouts, 372 
Croutsch, 372 
Ci'oze, 405 
Crozier, 406 
Criiice, 404 
Cruq, 253 
Crussiere, 404 
Crussy, 404 
Cruz, 404 
Cruzcl, 404 
Cucu, 105 
Cudey, 115 
Cufay, 248 
Cuit, 115 
Cunicngo, 297 



Cumon, 297 
Cunault, 328 
Cuny, 327 
Cuqu, 105 
Curnier, 433 
Curtelin, 409 
Curty, 409 

Dabeau, 428 
Dabee, 428 
Dabert, 428 
Dablin, 428 
Dabrin, 428 
Dacbert, 50, 391 
Daces, 390 
Dachery, 391 
DacUn, 390 
Dacquin, 391 
Dado, 291 
Daffy, 428 
Dafrique, 428 
Daga, 390 
Dagand, 390 
Dages, 390 
Dagest, 391 
Dagiu, 338 
Dagneau, 338 
Dagoin, 391 
Dagomet, 391 
Dagoury, 391 
Dagrin, 391 
Dagron, 391 
Daguerre, 391 
Dailly, 390 
Dalbert, 375 
Dalerac, 376 
Dalger, 375 
Dalibon, 375 
Dalle, 375 
Dallemagne, 376 
Dallery, 375 
Dalliard, 375 
Dalloz, 375 
Dally, 375 
Dalon, 375 
Dalvi, 376 
Damas, 365 
Damay, 364 
Damazy, 365 
Dame, 364 
Dame, 364 
Darnel, 365 
Damelon, 365 
Darner, 365 
Dameron, 365 
Damet, 365 
Damez, 365 
Damm, 364 
Damotte, 365 
Daniour, 365 
Dan, 311 
Dancoine, 359 
Dancourt, 359 



INDEX OF FRENCH NAMES. 



539 



Dancla, 359 
Dandou, 310 
Danel, 311 
Danelle, 311 
Daney, 311 
Dangla, 359 
Dangouelle, 359 
Danguis, 359 
Daiiin, 311 
Danne, 311 
Danneberg, 311 
Danquin, 359 
Dansard, 310 
Danse, 310 
Dantier, 310 
Danton, 310 
Danty, 310 
Danvin, 310 
Danzel, 310 
Dappe, 428 
Dapy, 428 
Darche, 397 
Darclon, 397 
Dard, 209 
Dardenne, 209 
Dardie, 209 
Dardier, 209 
Dargaud, 208 
Dargenne, 208 
Daridan, 209 
Darier, 208 
Darnay, 398 
Darnet, 208 
Darnis, 398 
Darque, 397 
Darquier, 397 
Darralde, 208 
Darru, 208 
Darte, 209 
Dary, 208 ^ 
Dasset, 385 
Dassier, 385 
Dassy, 385 
Davach, 428 
Davault, 428 
Daval, 428 
Daveron, 428 
Davin, 428 
DavT, 428 
Dechard, 391 
Dechaume, 391 
DechiUy, 390 
Decker, 391 
Decla, 390 
Decle, 390 
Decline, 390 
Decori, 391 
Decq, 390 
Decrand, 391 
Decret, 391 
Decuve, 391 
Dedouve, 333 
Dedron, 333 



Degalle, 390 
Degay, 390 
Deglane, 390 
Degobert, 50, 391 
Degof, 391 
Degola, 390 
Degory, 391 
Degrand, 391 
Delabaud, 375 
Delaire, 375 
Delamothe, 376 
Delaniotte, 376 
Delamarre, 376 
Delan, 375 
Delanneau, 375 
Delay, 375 
Deleau, 375 
Delemer, 376 
Delery, 375 
Delesse, 375 
Delimiei', 376 
Delinge, 375 
Dellac, 375 
DeUe, 375 
Delmer, 376 
Delmon, 376 
Delmotte, 376 
Deloffre, 375 
Delocre, 375 
Deloger, 375 
Delouard, 376 
Delrocq, 376 
Demait, 457 
Demanne, 457 
Demar, 365 
Demart, 365 
Demante, 457 
Demay, 364 
Demelun, 365 
Demey, 364 
Dernier, 365 
DemoUn, 365 
Demolle, 365 
Demoisy, 365 
Demoque, 365 
Demotte, 365 
Demory, 365 
Demoidin, 365 
Denaigre, 311, 338 
Denaiffe, 312 
Denant, 311 
Denard, 311 
Denechau, 311 
Denechaud, 311 
Denecher, 311 
Dencre, 311, 338 
Denefif, 312 
Denert, 311 
Denier, 311 
Denin, 311 
Dennery, 311 
Dentu, 310 
DenuUein, 310 



Derche, 397 
Demi, 398 
Derquenne, 397 
Desaint, 385 
Desert, 385 
Desrat, 385 
Dessant, 385 
Dessollc, 385 
Detang, 332 • 
Detuncg, 332 
Devay, 428 
Devenne, 428 
Devert, 428 
Devicque, 428 
DeviUe, 428 
Devy, 428 
Dewamin, 428 
Dewulf, 428 
Dhios, 457 
Dhomet, 457 
Diache, 457 
Dianand, 457 
Diard, 457 
Diehard, 407 
Dicharry, 407 
Dida, 332 
Didard, 333 
DideUe, 332 
D idler, 333 
Didron, 333 
Die, 457 
Diebolt, 332 
Diegot, 333 
Diericks, 333 
Diesch, 229 
Dietrich, 333 
Diette, 332 
Dieu, 427 
Dieudonne, 488 
Dieulafait, 488 
Dieuleveut, 488 
Dieutegard, 333 
Dieutegarde, 488 
Diey, 457 
Digard, 407 
Dilhac, 189 
Dille, 189 
Dillery, 189 
Dillet, 189 
Dillon, 190 
DiUy, 189 
Dime, 364 
Dimey, 364 
Dimier, 365 
Dinguel, 367 
Disand, 352 
Disant, 352 
Discry, 229 
Dissard, 352 
Ditte, 332 
Dittmer, 333 
Dizain, 352 
Dize, 351 



540 



INDEX OF FRENCH NAMES. 



i 



Dizy, 351 
Dobbe, 103 
Dobel, 103 
Dobeliii, 103 
Doche, 427 
Dodard, 273 
Dode, 273 
Dodeman, 273- 
Dodin, 273 
Dodo, 273 
Doermer, 208 
Domairon, 364 
Domard, 364 
Domart, 364 
Dombey, 363 
Dome, 363 
Domecq, 364 
Domer, 364 
Doraez, 364 
Dommel, 364 
Dommey, 363 
Domicile, 364 
Donay, 129 
Doncker, 130 
Donne, 129 
Donne, 129 
Donnellan, 130 
Dor, 208 
Dorchies, 208 
Dore, 208 
Doreau, 208 
Dorel, 208 
Dorin, 208 
Dorvault, 208 
Dory, 208 
Dothee, 273 
Dotin, 273 
Douaxe, 428 
Douault, 428 
Doubey, 103 
Doudan, 274 
Doudeau, 273 
Doudelle, 274 
Done, 427 
Doiiet, 427 
Douelle, 427 
Donilly, 427 
Doumet, 364 
Douraic, 364 
DourneL 190 
Doussamy, 26 
Doussan, 274 
])oussarry, 332 
Dousse, 273 
Doussoulin, 274 
Douiey, 273 
Doziere, 273 
Dozon, 273 
Drach, 413 
Drache, 100 
Dracci, 100, 413 
Drain, 413 
Drege, 413 



Dreo, 413 
Dreyss, 242 
Drevault, 196 
Dreyfus, 413, 429 
Drier, 429 
Driou, 429 
Dromery, 243 
Drou, 195 
Drouard, 196 
Drouen, 1\96 
Droulin, 195 
Drouyn, 196 
Droz, 249 
Druault, 429 
Drubay, 441 
Drucquer, 196 
Drude, 270 
Druey, 195 
Drugeon, 196 
Drumond (note), 243 
Druveau, 441 
Dubeau, 103 
Due, 427 
Ducel, 427 
Ducber, 427 
Ducoing, 427 
Ducoroy, 427 
Dugard, 427 
Dugelay, 427 
Dugenne, 427 
Dugland, 428 
Duhomme, 363 
Duick, 427 
Dulong, 427 
Dumain, 428 
Dumaire, 364 
Dumas, 364 
Dumay, 363 
Dumery, 364 
Dumez, 364 
Dumolin, 364 
Dumoulin, 364 
Duquet, 427 
Duquin, 427 
Durand, 197 
Durandard, 197 
Durandeau, 197 
Durant, 197 
Dureau, 208 
Durel, 208 
Durey, 208 
Durney, 190 
Durr, 208 
Duru, 208 
Dutacq, 332 
Dutard, 333 
Dutc, 332 
Duthy, 332 
Dutil, 332 ^ 
Duveau, 103 

Plberli, 76 
Eberlin, 76 



Ebert, 61 
Ebrard, 76 
Ecbanbard, 211 
Echement, 210 
Ecbinard, 211 
Echivard, 210 
Edard, 288 
Edel, 337 
Edelin, 337 
Edmond, 382 
Edouard, 382 
Egalin, 209 
Egalon, 154 
Egasse, 193 
Egaze, 193 
Egle, 154 
Egly, 154 
Egon, 211 
Egrot, 210 
Eisele, 475 
Elambert, 23&, 502 
Elcke, 142 
EUies, 300 
Elmerick, 143 
Elmire, 299 
EUouin, 299 
Elluis, 299 
Eloffe, 419 
Embry, 312 
Erne, 253 
Emelin, 143 
Emeric, 254 
Emericque, 254 
Emmel, 143 
Emmery, 254 
Emmon, 254 
Empaire, 312 
Emy, 253 
Enault, 289 
Enard, 289 
Encelain, 213 
Enfre, 289 
Eng, 292 
Engel, 213 
Enguebard, 292 
Enique, 289 
Enne, 289 
Enouf, 289 
Enslen, 119 
Entragues, 300 
Erambert, 95 
Erard, 95 
Erckener, 432 
Ernie, 95 
Ernouf, 95 
Ernoult, 95 
Erouard, 95 
Erouart, 95 
Escalin, 216 
Escarc, 217 
Escayrac, 217 
Esnault, 475 
Esnouf, 475 



INDEX OF FRENCH NAMES. 



541 



Eiquille, 216 
Esser, 119 
Essique, 119 
Estixvard, 21G 
Este, 210 
EsteUe, 216 
Estocq, 216 
Etey, 287 
Ethee, 287 
EttUng, 337 
Eude, 282 
EudeUne, 282 
Eve, 3G6 
Eveque, 366 
Everickx, 76 
Evrard, 76 
Evratt, 76 
Eyclienne, 211 
Eymond, 210 
Eyraud, 210 
Eysen, 474 

Fagard, 435 
Fage, 435 
Fagel, 435 
Faget, 435 
Fagnier, 435 
Faguer, 435 
Fahy, 435 
Fain, 435 
FaiUe, 307, 435 
Fajon, 435 
Falcimaigne, 334 
FaUou, 307 
Fandard, 417 
Fane, 2M 
Fanniere, 234 
Fannoii, 234 
Fano, 234 
Fanton, 417 
Faquet, 435 
Farachon, 323 
Faraguet, 324 
Faral, 323 
Farau, 323 
Farcis, 324 
Farcot, 324 
Fare, 323 
Farenc, 323 
Farine, 323 
Fame, 324 
Farran, 323 
Fary, 323 
Fastier, 252 
Fastou, 251 
Fastre, 252 
Fath, 62 
Faubert, 333 
Fauclie, 333 
FauchiUe, 333 
Faucille, 333 
Faucillon, 333 
Fauleau, 307 



Faulle, 307 
Faulou, 307 
Fauciue, 333 
Fayard, 435 
Faye, 435 
Fayet, 435 
FayoUe, 435 
Feche, 435 
Fechner, 435 
Fege, 435 
Feiner, 435 
Feinert, 435 
Fenaille, 234 
Fenelon, 234 
Ferafiat, 323 
Feragut, 324 
Ferant, 323 
Feray, 323 
Ferdinand, 325 
Ferdman, 325 
Ferment, 50, 324 
Fermery, 215 
Fermin, 215 
Fermond, 50, 324 
Fernie, 324 
Fernier, 324 
FernH, 324 
Ferning, 324 
Fernique, 324 
Feron, 323 
Ferouelle, 324 
Ferrand, 323 
Ferrer, 324 
Ferrier, 324 
Ferry, 323 
Fert, 325 
Ferte, 325 
Fessard, 247 
Fessy, 246 
Feste, 251 
Fester, 252 
Festu, 251 
Feuillard, 518 
Feuille, 517 
Feydeau, 256 
Feytou, 256 
Fiaia, 517 
Ficatier, 257 
Ficlier, 249 
Fidele, 430 
Fideiy, 430 
Fiesclii, 247 
Figeau, 249 
Figuier, 249 
Filard, 518 
Fillemin, 518 
Filocque, 517 
Finbert, 315 
Fink, 104 
Firmin, 324 
Fissart, 247 
Fisteberg, 251 
Fisq, 247 



Fitte, 430 
Fity, 430 
Fix, 247 
Fixon, 247 
Fixary, 247 
Fizeau, 246 
Fizel, 247 
Flad, 393 
Flachat, 411 
Flambert, 220 
Flammgar, 220 
Flan, 220 
Flanneau, 220 
Flaton, 394 
Flatraud, 394 
Flaud, 393 
Fie, 411 
FlecheUe, 411 
Fleck, 411 
Fleig, 411 
FUchy, 411 
FKck, 411 
FUcourt, 411 
Fliquet, 411 
Flocard, 411 
Flohn, 220 
Floquet, 411 
Flosi, 412 
FociUon, 93 
Foissac, 246 
Foissy, 246 
Foncier, 246 
Forget, 324 
Forme, 215 
Fornachon, 324 
Forney, 324 
Fort, 325 
Forteau, 325 
Fortel, 325 
Fortier, 325 
Fortin, 325 
Fortune, 325 
Fortune, 325 
Fossard, 246 
Fosse, 246 
Fossier, 246 
Fossy, 246 
Foucart, 334 
Foucault, 334 
Fouclie, 333 
Fouche, 333 
Foucher, 334 
Fouchet, 334 
Fouchez, 333 
Fouchy, 333 
Foucron, 334 
Foucrot, 334 
FouUey, 93 
Fouque, 333 
Fouquere, 334 
Fouquet, 334 
Fouquier, 334 
Fournel, 324 



542 



INDEX OF FREXCH NAMES. 



Fonrny, 324 

FoiissiU'd. 240 
Fousse, 24o 
Foiissier, 24(.i 
Fraiuibaiilt, 215 
Fi-auc, i>i>6 
France, 30t3 
Francey. 306 
Fi-auche. 306 
Fiancia, 306 
Francillon. 306 
Franco, 306 
Frankaeit. 306 
Franque, 306 
Franqueliu, 306 
Franqniu, 306 
Fz-anz, 306 
Frasey, 312 
Frasier. 313 (note) 
Fraysso, 312 
Frebaiilt. 261 
Frecal, 449 
Freoault. 132 
Freeh, 132 
Fredeau, 261 
Frederick, 261 
Frediere. 261 
Fredoille, 261 
Frelou, 261 
Freuiancour, 216 
Fremeaux. 215 
Fremery, 215 
Freniier, 215 
Freniin, 215 
Freuiinean, 215 
Fremont. 215 
Fremiuiger, 216 
Fremy, 215 
Frepa't, 261 
Fi-escal. 449 
Fresco. 449 
Fresier, 313 (note) 
Fi-e$lon, 449 
Fress;vrd, 449 
Fresson, 313 
Fi-ete. 261 
Freteau, 261 
Friand, 263 
Friant. 263 
Fricanlt. 132 
Fricq. 132 
Friede, 261 
Friker. 132 
Frioud. 350 
Frise, 312 
Frison, 313 
Fritel, 261 
Froger, 350 
Froid. 350 
Froidure, 350 
Froidoval, 350 
Frois&ud, 449 
Fromain, 215 



Fromeut, 215 
Fromillou, 215 
Fi-ouime, 215 
Frot, i>50 
Frotter. 350 
Frottin. 350 
Fruit, 350 
Fruitier, 350 
Fidclxirou. 334 
Fnlcran. 334 
Fusch. 247 
Fusier. 246 
Fusil. 246 
Fusy, 246 

Gabalda. 2S6 
Gabaret. 286 
Gabe. 285 
Gabin, 285 
Gade. 525 
Gady, 525 
Gagin. 174 
Gaguard. 174 
Gagne, 174 
Gagne, 174 
Gagneau. 174 
G-agner, 174 
Gagnery, 174 
Gagniere, 174 
Gagny, 174 
Galde'. 206 
Gaignaud. 174 
Gailliabaud, 437 
Gailtiraud. 437 
Gaillard. 437 
Gaimard. 436 
Gaime. 436 
Gain. 174 
Gainard, 174 
Gail-el. 202 
Gaissard. 205 
Gaitte. 206 
G;Uabert. 4o7 
Galand, 437 
Galant. 437 
GaUe, 4;^ 
Galle. 436 
Gallibour, 437 
Galibonrg. 437 
Galicher, 437 
Galichon. 437 
Galino, 437 
Galliss^int. 437 
Galisse, 437 
Galotfre, 437 
Galon, 437 
Gaily, 436 
Ganiache, 436 
Ganiard. 436 
Ganibelon, 419 
Ganie, 436 
Giimeu, 436 
Gamichon, 436 



Ganard, 101, 444 

Gand. 74 
Gandell. 74 
Gandillon. 74 
Gan^iier. 74 
Gandolphe. 72, 75 
Gandoin. 75 
Ganie, 444 
Ganier, 444 
Ganil, 444 
Ganivet, 201 
Ganne. 444 
Ganuean. 444 
Ganter, 74 
Gantzeiv, 518 
Gapv. 285 
Garand, 203 
Garavilt. 204 
Garay. 202 
Gaice. 4l>4 
Garceau. 464 
Gai-cia, 464 
Giu-d, 276 
Gi\rdey, 276 
Gaxdere, 277 
Gai-din, 277 
Gareau, 202 
Gtvrella, 202 
Garev. 202 
Garibal, 203 
G;mel, 202 
Gai-in, 204 
Garliu, 202 
Gai-nier, 502 
Giu-not, 203 
Givrre, 202 
Gaxrel. 202 
G;irrelon. 202 
G.irrier. 203 
Gar\in. 204 
Garzend. 204 
Ga5C, 205 
Gasche. 205 
Gaslonde, 296 
Gass.vrt, 296 
Gasselin, 296 
Gastal. 296 
Ga^te, 296 
Gastier, 296 
Giistine. 296 
Gasty, 296 
Gateau, 525 
Gatechiiir. 206 
Gatellier, 525 
Gatillon. 525 
Gathe, 525 
Gattebon, 206 
Gaudermen, 29, 117 
Gaudib^rt, 115 
Gaudiveau, 116 
Gauduchon. 115 
GaiUofret, 437 
I Gault, 477 



INDEX OF KIIKN(MI NAMKS. 



d43 



Oftultier, 477, 502 
OausBon, MYi) 
GausHiraii, MO 
Gautrot, IIG 
Guiut'V, 3()*J 
Guvaliltt, UStt 
(JaTuult, L'SG 
liavuriii, 'JS5 
Guvi'au, -85 
Gavel, 2S5 
Gavellc, 285 
(Jayttf, 200 
Gaze, 2(>r> 
Gazel, 205 
((uzeliutt, 205 
(}ehel, 285 
(Jelin, 502 
Gelle, 436 
Gelle, 43<) 
Gellez, 437 
Gellynck, 437 
Gelpy, HH, 442 
Gen, 444 
Geimril, 444 
Gendrot, 74 
Geiulry, 75 
Geneau, 444 
Geuelle, 444 
Generat, 444 
Genctte, 444 
Genevee, 444 
Genin, 444 
Genique, 444 
GeHne<iuin, 444 
Gente, 74 
Gentil, 74 
Gentilion, 74 
Genty, 74 
Geny, 444 
(}eiaii»le, 203 
(JemnI, 2(5, 203, 502 
(iciftult, 204 
Gei-uy, 202 
(ieihMi.l, 203 
(Jiihanlt, 30, 203 
Gtrhuut. 203 
Gerbet, 203 
Gerhej t, 203 
Gerdolle, 270 
Geidy, 27<; 
(feruiite, 203 
Gerez, 202 
Geriijuin, 203 
German, 203 
Geriuoiul, 203 
Gerrier, 203 
Gery, 202 
Gervaise, 204 
Geuhcrt, 459 
GcHol, 458 
Genii n, 458 
Gesiiiauhae, 459 
OeMiomrne, 459 



Gosto, 296 

Gentelli, 296 
GeMtuii, 296 
Gette, 525 

Gheerbrant, 199, 203 
Ghillet, 458 
GtuHlaiii, 458 
Ghy8, 458 
Gihault, 286 
Gibert, 285 
(Jiblin, 285 
GiV>oin, 286 
(Jibon, 285 
Gibory, 28 6 
Gibou, 285 
Giboz, 285 
Gibuu, 285 
Gide, 438 
Gitlel, 438 
Giduiii, 438 
Gitlouart, 438 
Giese, 458 
Gieneler, 458 
Gif, 285 
Giffard, 285 
Gilan, 458 
Gilbault, 458 
Gilbe, 442 
Gilbert, 458 
Gilblain, 442 
Gillard, 458 
Gille, 458 
(}illeron, 458 
Gillier, 458 
Giliy, 458 
Gilmer, 458 
Gil<iuiii, 458 
Gimbert, 444 
Gin, 444 
Ginaud, 419 
(jinier, 444 
Girard, 203 
Girunlin, 26, 203 
Girauld, 204 
(fiibal, 203 
Girier, 203 
Girod, 203 
Girou, 202 
Girouard, 204 
Girv, 202 
Gi.Hbert, 459 
GiMxieu, 459 
Giteau, 4.38 
Gittard, 4.38 
Gitton, 438 
Giverne, 285 
Giverny, 28.5 
Gbidunfi, i'.Vt 
GlaeHer, .53, 392 
Glaine, 392 
GhiM, .3!)2 
GluMHun, 392 
Glatard, 4.35 



Glatigny, 435 
(J laze, 392 
(Jluchet, :i52 
(Jloux, ;iV2 
Gluck, :i52 
Gobert, .502 
Guclul, 446 
(Jod.le, 115 
((odeau, 115 
(}o<lefroid, 116 
(Jodefroy, 116 
(iodel, 115 
(Jodelier, 29, 117 
(iodfiin, 116 
(ioddlon, 115 
(iodJn, 117 
Goduieau, 117 
(jrodcjuin, 115 
Godry, 116 
Goer, 202 
Goibault, 'SM't 
Goldber, 477 
Goltier, 502 
Gom, 59 
Gomant, 60 
Gombault, .50, 164 
Gombrich, 60 
Gomer, (JO 
Gomme, 59 
Gon, l<i3 
Gondal, 163 
Gonde, l(i.3 
Gondhard, 164 
Goadolo, 163 
Goiidouin, ICA 
Gondret, 164 
Gouelle, 163 
GouMMe, 16,3 
Gontard, 164 
Gonthiei, 164 
Gontier, 164, 502 
Gorand, 203 
(jforez, 202 
(iorre, 202 
GorriHMe, 202 
(ioHMai'd, 309 
(ioHHart, 309 
GoHMo, .309 
(ioHHeljji, 1(X), 309 
(ioMHet, 309 
GonHiu, 309 
GoMMioine, 310 
GoHt«;au, lU'tO 
Gottuiig, 115 
Gouuy, Xii't 
Goudnl, 115 
Goudaid, 116 
Goudclmu, 115 
Goudftau, 115 
Goudemant, 116 
Goudoin, 117 
Goue, .336 
Gouel, 336 



544 



INDEX OF FUENCH NAMES. 



Gouellain, 336 
Gouerre, 336 
Gouet, 336 
Gouliier, 336 
Gouillon, 336 
GouiUy, 336 
Gouin, 336 
Goulay, 478 
Goulette, 479 
Goumain, 337 
Gousse, 99, 309 
Goussery, 309 
Gout, 115 
Goute, 115 
Goutliierre, 116 
Goutmann, 116 
Gouy, 336 
Goy, 336 
Goyard, 336 
Goyer, 336 
Goyet, 336 
Goyon, 336 
Graesle, 401 
Gramain, 401 
Grass, 464 
Grassal, 464 
Grassart, 464 
Grasset, 464 
Grassi, 464 
Grasso, 464 
Grau, 401 
Grault, 401 
Greel, 196 
Grellier, 198 
Gregy, 401 
Grehier, 170 
Greiling, 401 
Greinn, 465 
Greme, 125 
Gremeau, 125 
Grenard, 465 
Grenier, 465 
Grenuz, 465 
Gresland, 401 
Gresle, 401 
Greslon, 401 
Gressier, 401 
Gresy, 401 
Gresy, 401 
Griere, 170 
Griess, 401 
Griessen, 401 
Grigault, 170 
Grigi, 170 
Grill, 196 
GriUy, 196 
Grim, 125 
Grimal, 125 
Grimar, 125 
Grimault, 50, 125 
Griinbert, 125 
Grimblot, 125 
Grimoard, 125 



Grimoin, 125 
Grimont, 125 
Grisard, 77, 401 
Griselin, 401 
Grisier, 401 
Grisol, 77, 401 
Grison, 401 
Gronier, 465 
Grossard, 406 
Grosse, 405 
Grosselin, 406 
Groseille, 406 
Grossier, 406 
Grouvelle, 425 
Grub, 425 
Gruby, 425 
Grumay, 59 
Grune, 465 
Grunelle, 465 
Grusse, 405 
Gruselle, 406 
Guala, 298 
Gude, 115 
Gudin, 117 
Guenard, 394 
Guenault, 264, 395 
Gueneau, 263 
Gueneau, 394 
Guenebault, 394 
Guenee, 263 
Guenerat, 264, 395 
Guenu, 263 
Gueniii, 264 
Guerand, 203 
Guerard, 203 
Guerbet, 203 
Guerico, 202 
Guerin, 204 
Guerin, 305 
Guerineau, 204 
Guermont, 203 
Guerne, 305 
Guernet, 203 
Guernier, 305 
Gueroult, 204 
Guerre, 202 
Guerrier, 203 
Guerry, 202 
Guersant, 204 
Guessard, 244 
Guestier, 296 
Gueurel, 202 
Guiard, 165 
Guibald, 105 
Guibaud, 165 
Guibert, 165 
Guichard, 165 
Guiche, 164 
Guichot, 165 
Guide, 493 
Guidez, 493 
Guidon, 493 
Guidou, 493 



Guiet, 165 
Guieu, 164 
Guilaine, 123 
Guilbaut, 123 
Guilbert, 123, 502 
Guiler, 124 
Guilet, 124 
Guilhem, 124 
Guilhermy, 124 
Guilhery, 124 
Guillard, 124 
Guillaume, 124 
Guille, 123 
Guillemain, 124 
Guillemant, 124 
Guillemont, 124 
GuiUemot, 124 
Guilles, 123 
Guillie, 123 
Guillochin, 123 
Guillon, 123 
Guillot, 26 
Guillotin, 26 
Guimbal, 264 
Guindre, 316 
Guinery, 264 
Guinier, 264 
Guitard, 494 
Guitter, 494 
Guitton, 493 
Guitry, 494 
Guizot, 47, 459 
Gunckel, 419 
Gutel, 115 
Gutman, 116 
Guttin, 117 
Gutron, 116 
Guy, 336 
Guyard, 336 
Guybert, 336 
Guyon, 336, 502 

Habay, 60 
Habert, 61 
Habdey, 61 
Habez, 61 
Habich, 60 
Habit, 61 
Haby, 60 
Hache, 209 
Hacq, 209 
Hacquart, 210 
Hacquin, 211 
Hadamar, 168 
Hadingue, 168 
Hadol, 168, 337 
Hadrot, 168 
Hagard, 210 
Hage, 209 
Hagene, 211 
Hagucnoer, 211 
Hailig, 426 
Ilaiin, 492 



INDEX OF FRENCH NAMES. 



545 



Hain, 211 
Hainfray, 211 
Haistault, 448 
Halevy, 427 
Halinbourg, 239 
HaUberg, 480 
HaUe, 480 
Hallegrain, 480 
HaUey, 426, 480 
Hallu, 426 
Haiiiger, 492 
Hamelin, 492 
Hamoir, 130 
Handus, 417 
Hanne, 289 
Hannebert, 289 
Hannequin, 289 
Hannicque, 289 
Hannier, 289 
Hanno, 289 
Hannong, 289 
Hannz, 119 
Hans, 119 
Hany, 289 
Happe, 60 
Happert, 61 
Happey, 60 
Happich, 60 
Harand, 232 
Harang, 232 
Harbez, 386 
Haibly, 386 
Hardele, 250 
Hardi, 250 
Hardier, 250 
Hardoin, 251 
Hardon, 251 
Hardouin, 251 
Hardy, 250 
Harel, 231 
Hariel, 231 
Harlay, 231 
Harle, 231 
Harlet, 232 
Harlez, 340 
Harmand, 232 
Harmant, 232 
Harmier, 232 
Harnault, 95 
Haro, 231 
Hart, 250 
Hartard, 250 
Hartmann, 251 
Hany, 231 
Hassan, 307 
Hasse, 307 
Hastier, 448 
Hatte, 168 
Haudebourg, 280 
Haudibert, 280 
Hault, 282 
Haye, 209 
Hazard, 169 



Hebert, 61 
Heckle, 209 
Hector, 450 
Hedelin, 168 
Hedou, 168 
Hedouin, 169 
Hellion, 238 
Hely, 426 
Hemar, 492 
Henard, 289 
Henault, 289 
Hendle, 417 
Henique, 289 
Henne, 289 
Hennebert, 289 
Hennecart, 289 
Hennecy, 289 
Hennel, 289 
Hennequin, 289 
Henning, 289 
Henno, 289 
Henoc, 289 
Henrequet, 518 (note) 
Henri, 493 
Hem'iot, 26 
Henriquet, 26 
Herard, 232 
Herbault, 39, 232 
Herbecq, 386 
Herbel, 386 
Hei'belin, 386 
Herber, 232 
Herbert, 232 
Herbette, 232 
Herbin, 386 
Herbut, 232 
Herce, 79 
Herczegy, 339 
Herdevin, 251 
Hereau, 231 
Herel, 231 
Heriche, 231 
Heriez, 231 
Herincq, 232 
Hering, 232 
Herlan, 231 
Hermagis, 147 
Hermain, 232 
Herman, 232 
Hermand, 232 
Herme, 147 
Herniel, 147 
Hermeline, 147 
Hermes, 147 
Hermet, 233 
Hermier, 147, 232 
Hermy, 147 
Herny, 95 
Herody, 339 
Herold, 233 
Herot, 339 
Herou, 231 
Herouard, 233 

Q 3 



Herouin, 233 
Heroult, 233 
Herpin, 386 
Heir, 231 
Herrincq, 232 
Herrisse, 231 
Heriy, 231 
Herse, 79 
Hersent, 233 
Herterich, 251 
Hervier, 386 
Hervieu, 233 
Hervy, 233 
Hesse, 307 
Hesteau, 216, 448 
Hesz, 307 
Hetier, 519 
Heude, 282 
Heudebert, 282 
Heudel, 282 
Heudier, 282 
Heudin, 282 
Heure, 83 
He\Te, 76 
Heymen, 210 
Hibert, 61 
Hickell, 357 
Hieckmann, 358 
Hienne, 357 
Higlin, 357 
Hilaire, 162 
Hilber, 162 
Hildebrand, 162, 199 
Kilger, 162 
Hillairet, 163 
Hiller, 162 
Hilpert, 162 
Himely, 140 
Hine, 492 
Hingue, 292 
Hinque, 292 
Hitier, 450 
Hipp, 60 
Hiver, 76 
Hocart, 341 
Hocde, 341 
Hocede, 341 
Hochard, 341 
Hochart, 341 
Hoche, 340 
Hocher, 341 
Hocheid, 341 
Hocq, 340 
Hocquart, 341 
Hocquet, 341 
Hocquigny, 340 
Hogan, 357 
Hognet, 358 
Hoin, 357 
Holacher, 282, 427 
Hole, 282 
HoUande, 282 
HoUier, 282 



546 



INDEX OF FRENCH NAMES. 



Honache, 314 
Honfray, 314 
Hongre, 314 
Honacker, 314 
Honnard, 314 
Honorat, 315 
Hontang, 84 
Hordequin, 217 
Horliac, 340 
Home, 520 
Horteloup, 218 
Hortus, 217 
Houard, 341 
Hoube, 227 
HoudaiUe, 280 
Houdart, 280 
Hoade, 280 
Houdelin, 334 
Houdemare, 280 
Houdouin, 280 
Houelleur, 53 
Houlard, 106 
Houlet, 105 
Hoiilie, 105 
HouUier, 106 
Houplon, 227 
Houppe, 227 
Hour, 83 
Hourlier, 340 
Housard, 491 
Houseau, 491 
Housel, 491 
Hotisse, 491 
Houssemaine, 491 
Housset, 491 
Houssez, 491 
Houze, 491 
Houzeau, 491 
Hozdez, 217 
Hu, 357 
Hua, 357 
Huan, 357 
Huard, 357 
Huart, 357 
Huault, 358 
Hubac, 227 
Hubard, 227 
Hubault, 357 
Hubel, 227 
Hubert, 357 
Hublin, 227 
Hue, 357 
Huchard, 357 
HucViery, 358 
Huchette, 358 
Hudault, 280 
Hudo, 280 
Hud(!lo, 280 
Hudibert, 280 
Hue, 357 
Huel, 357 
FTuct, 358 
Hug, 357 



Hugard, 357 
Huge, 357 
Hugelin, 357 
Hugla, 357 
Hugnot, 358 
Hugo, 357 
Hugon, 357 
Hugot, 358 
Huguelin, 357 
Hugues, 357 
Hulbert, 105 
Hulek, 358 
Hulot, 105 
Humann, 358 
Humbert, 314 
Humblot, 314 
Hummel, 468 
Hunault, 315 
Huppe, 227 
Hurard, 83 
Hurault, 83 
Hureau, 83 
Hure, 83 
Hurel, 83 
Hurey, 83 
Hurez, 83 
Hurler, 83 
Husbrocq, 491 
Husch, 442 
Husquin, 442 
Hutteau, 280 
Hux, 442 
Hyacinthe, 468 

Ibert, 61 
Ignard, 211 
Igouf, 210 
Imard, 254 
Imbault, 254 
Imbert, 254 
Imbs, 254 
Imei', 254 
Inemer, 492 
Infroit, 492 
Inge, 292 
Ingel, 213 
Inger, 292 
Inghelbrecht, 213 
Ingisch, 292 
Ingold, 293 
Ingouf, 293 
Ingrain, 292 
Ingray, 292 
I lie, 339 
Isambert, 50 
Tsar, 475 
T.sl)crt, 475 
Iscai-iot, 483 
Iselin, 475 
Isnard, 475 
I Hoard, 475 
Itaquc, 449 
ItasHC, 449 



Iteney, 449 
Ivorel, 76 
Ivry, 76 
Izambert, 474 
Izard, 475 

Jaccaz, 452 
Jacquart, 452 
Jacquault, 453 
Jacque, 452 
Jacquee, 452 
Jacqueau, 452 
Jacquelin, 452 
Jacquemain, 453 
Jacquemar, 453 
Jacquemier, 453 
Jacquemin, 453 
Jacquier, 452 
Jacqx, 452 
Jaffa, 285 
Jager, 452 
Jahyer, 452 
Jaillant, 437 
JaiUard, 437 
JaiUon, 437 
Jal, 436 
Jaley, 436 
Jallerat, 437 
Jallibert, 437 
Jalvy, 437 
Jam, 436 
Jamault, 436 
Jame, 436 
Jameau, 436 
Jamin, 436 
Jan, 444 
Janac, 444 
Janin, 444 
Janliu, 444 
Jannair, 444 
Janny, 444 
Janquin, 444 
Janus, 143 
Japy, 285 
Jaquiery, 452 
Jaquin, 452 
Jarlan.l, 203 
Jarrier, 203 
Jarry, 202 
Jauge, 244 
Jaugeard, 245 
Jaugey, 244 
Javel, 285 
Jayr, 202, 452 
Jazeraud, 205 
Jeanpot, 444 
Jeanray, 444 
Jegon, 452 
Jokel, 452 
Jennecpiin, 444 
Jeoffry, 437 
Jerusalem, 487 
Jezc, 205 



INDEX OF FRENCH NAME8. 



547 



Job, 4a") 
Jobbe, 48;") 
Jokin, 45*2 
Jonchery, 419 
Joniere, 420 
Jounard, 420 
Jonnart, 420 
Jordery, 139 
Jordy, 139 
Josse, 309 
Josseau, 309 
Josseaume, 310 
Josselin, 309 
Josseiand, 310 
Josset, 309 
Jossier, 309 
Jossu, 309 
Jotrat, 306 
Joualt, 367 
Jouard, 245 
Jouault, 245 
Joubert, 245 
Jouet, 245 
Jougaud, 245 
Jouhaud, 245 
Jouisse, 244 
Joumar, 245 
Jovinault, 420 
Jounneaux, 420 
Jourdan, 140 
Jourde, 139 
Jourdier, 139 
Jourdy, 139 
Jouruaiilt, 433 
Jouine, 433 
Jousse, 309 
Jousselin, 309 
Jousserand, 310 
Jouve, 485 
Jouvin, 306 
Jovart, 485 
Jovel, 485 
Jozan, 309 
Jozeau, 309 
Jube, 485 
Jubelin, 485 
Jublin, 485 
Jude, 305 
Judeau, 305 
Judice, 483 
Judisse, 483 
Judlin. 305 
Jue, 244 
Jue, 244 
Juery, 245 
Juge, 244 
Jugier, 245 
Jugla, 244 
Jui, 244 
Juigne, 245 
Juin, 245 
Julia, 244 
Juncal, 419 



Jung, 419 
Juny, 420 
Juquin, 245 
Justault, 429 
Juste, 429 
Juteau, 305 
Juticr, 306 
Juttel, 305 
JuviUe, 485 

Kennebei-t, 328 
Kilbc, 442 
Kleber, 183 
Krier, 53, 170 
Kunemann, 328 
Kunrath, 328 
Kuntzle, 163 
Kunze, 163 

Labe, 387 

LabeUe, 387 
Labiche, 387 
Labie, 387 
Labitte, 387 
Laborie, 387 
Labour, 387 
Labric, 387 
Lac, 366 
Lachelin, 366 
Lack, 366 
Lacquet, 366 
Lade, 195 
Ladret, 195 
Laduron, 195 
Laederich, 195 
Lafitte, 387 
Lafou, 387 
Lagesse, 366 
Laget, 366 
Lagier, 366 
Lagueau, 366 
Lagny, 366 
Lague, 366 
Laguerre, 366 
Laine, 366 
Laine, 366 
Laitie, 194 
Laity, 194 
Lamart, 26 
Lamartine, 26 
Lamballe, 86 
Lambelin, 86 
Lambert, 335 
Lambie, 86 
Lambla, 86 
Lamblin, 86 
Lambret, 335 
Larofroy, 86 
Lampy, 86 
Lamqum, 86 
Lamy, 86 
Lance, 335 
Lancel, 335 



Lancelin, 335 
La 111 la, 335 
Laudard, 335 
LiUuUlle, 335 
Landeniar, 336 
Landier, 335 
Landon, 335 
Landron, 335 
Landry, 336 
Lanfray, 335 
Lanier, 335 
Laniesse, 335 
Lanne, 335 
Lanneau, 335 
Lansard, 335 
Lantat, 335 
Lante, 335 
Lantheaume, 335 
Lantier, 335 
Lautiez, 335 
Lantin, 335 
Lanty, 335 
Lanvin, 336 
Lanzac, 335 
Lanzarick, 336 
Lanzberg, 335 
Lanzi, 335 
Larivay, 356 
Larmier, 356 
Laroque, 356 
Larouy, 356 
Larra, 356 
Larre, 356 
Larrieu, 356 
Lars, 356 
Larue, 356 
Laruelle, 356 
Las, 353 
Laseque, 353 
Lasne, 353 
Lassaigne, 353 
Lassalie, 353 
Lassarat, 353 
Lassay, 353 
Lasseive, 353 
Lassenay, 353 
Lasseray, 353 
Lassier, 353 
Lassimonne, 353 
Lassuere, 353 
Lasteyi'ie, 355 
Lastret, 355 
Latard, 195 
Laterrade, 195 
Latour, 195 
Latry, 195 
Latte, 195 
Laude, 377 
Laudier, 377 
Laudon, 377 
Laudy, 377 
Laullie, 284 
LauU, 284 



548 



INDEX OF FRENCH NAMES. 



Laumain, 366 
Laur, 356 
Laureau, 356 
Laurey, 356 
Lautemann, 378 
Lautier, 377 
Lautten, 377 
Lavalle, 387 
Lavalley, 387 
Lavault, 387 
Lavenay, 387 
Laverne, 387 
Lavier, 387 
Laviron, 387 
Lazard, 353 
Laze, 353 
Leban, 387 
Lebeau, 387 
Lebeault, 387 
Lebel, 387 
Lebey, 387 
Lebiez, 387 
Lebocq, 387 
Leboeuf, 387 
Lebreck, 387 
Lebret, 387 
Lebuffe, 387 
Ledagre, 195 
Lede, 194 
Ledier, 195 
Ledieu, 194, 484 
Ledo, 194 
Ledoux, 194 
Leduc, 194 
• Leflon, 387 
Legal, 366 
Legat, 366 
Legault, 366 
Legay, 366 
Lege, 366 
Legeley, 366 
Legier, 366 
Lehman, 366 
LeUv, 470 
Leiy, 470 
Lender, 110 
Lendormi, 100, 110 
Lene, 274 
Lenegre, 274 
Lenique, 274 
Lente, 110 
Leo, 87 
Leonard, 87 
Leotard, 331 
Lepi^e, 205 
Leppich, 265 
Lereux, 356 
Lerrc, 356 
Lesacq, 353 
Lesaec, 353 
Lesenne, 353 
Lesne, 353 
Lestello, 355 



Lesteur, 355 
Lestienne, 355 
Lestoing, 355 
Lestrade, 355 
Letac, 194 
Letaille, 194 
Letalle, 194 
Letang, 194 
Le Thiere, 195 
Letho, 194 
Letocq, 194 
Letoile, 194 
Letteron, 195 
Lettu, 194 
Leutert, 331 
Levard, 387 
Leve, 387 
Leveau, 387 
Leveque, 265 
Levick, 265 
Levier, 265 
Levite, 387 
Levrat, 387 
Lewy, 87 
Leys, 353 
Leysard, 353 
Lezard, 353 
Leze, 353 
Lezer, 353 
Lezeret, 353 
Libault, 265 
Libec, 265 
Libert, 265 
Liboz, 265 
Liebherre, 265 
Liefquin, 265 
Liepi^e, 265 
Lieutaut, 331 
Lillo, 470 
Linard, 274 
Lindemann, 110 
Linder, 110 
Linet, 104 
Linge, 109 
Linge, 109 
Linget, 109 
Link, 87 
Linnee, 274 
Linotte, 104, 274 
Lion, 87 
Liontz, 87 
Liot, 330 
Liotard, 331 
Loittet, 331 
Loittier, 331 
Lioult, 87 
Lippei-t, 265 
Lip.s, 265 
Lire, 356 
Lisse, 353 
Lister, 355 
Litteau, 330 
Livio, 265 



Liza, 353 
Lize, 353 
Lizeray, 353 
Lizon, 353 
Locard, 446 
Loch, 131 
Lochart, 446 
Loche, 446 
Locque, 131, 446 
Locquet, 446 
Locret, 446 
Lodde, 377 
Loeder, 377 
Lolly, 284 
Loque, 131 
Lora, 356 
Lore, 356 
Loreal, 356 
Loreau, 356 
Loreille, 356 
Loremy, 356 
Lorez, 356 
Lorichon, 356 
Lorimier, 356 
Lorique, 356 
Lormier, 356 
Lorsa, 356 
Lory, 356 
Louauld, 87 
Loue, 87 
Loudun, 377 
Louin, 87 
Louis, 331 
Loup, 265 
Louva, 265 
Louveau, 265 
Louvel, 265 
Louvier, 265 
Lovy, 265 
Loysel, 335 
Lubac, 2G5 
Lucard, 331 
Lucas, 331 
Luce, 331 
Lucy, 331 
Ludet, 331 
Ludger, 331 
Ludon, 330 
Ludovic, 331 
Ludwig, 331 
Luez, 331 
Luling, 284 
Lully, 284 
Lunardi, 139 
Lunaud, 139 
Lundy, 495 
Luneau, 139 
Lunel, 139 
Luneteau, 495 
Luona, 495 
Luppe, 265 
Lusquin, 331 
Lussy, 331 



INDEX OF FRENCH NAMES. 



549 



Luthe, 330 
Luton, 330 
Lutteroth, 331 
Lutz, 3;U 
Luyt, 330 
- Luzier, 331 

* MabiUon, 471 
Machu, 410 

»Macquaid, 410 
Macquart, 410 
Macquin, 410 
Macron, 410 
Mactier, 411 
Madamon, 342 
Madin, 341 
Madoulaud, 361 
Madron, 342 
Mady, 341 
Magnabal, 410 
Magnard, 410 
Magne, 410 
Magney, 410 
Magnier, 410 
Magron, 410 
Mahault, 410 
Maheu, 410 
Mahier, 410 
MaiUey, 410 
Mainboui-g, 410 
Mainfroy, 410 
Maingault, 410 
Maingot, 410 
Malamy, 179 
Malapert, 179 
Malaquin, 178 
Malaret, 179 
Malbot, 179 
Maleco, 178 
Malingue, 178 
Mallac, 178 
MaUard, 179 

; MaUe, 178 
MaUe, 178 
Malo, 178 
Malory, 179 

: Malrait, 179 
Malsang, 180 
Maltaire, 1^0 
Malteaux, 180 
Malzac, 180 
Malzar, 180 
Manalt, 58 
Manceau, 434 
Mancel, 434 
MandeU, 434 
Mandon, 434 
Mandouce, 434 
Maneau, 58 
Manec, 58 
Manfray, 58 
Mangal, 58 
Maningne, 58 



l\Ianley, 58 
Maun, 58 
JMannier, 58 
]\Iansard, 434 
Mansey, 434 
Mansion, 434 
Mansou, 434 
Mansoz, 434 
Manteau, 434 
Mantion, 434 
Many, 58 
Marbot, 369 
Marc, 80 
Marclie, 80 
Marchire, 80 
Marcillon. 80 
Marcol, 80 
Maiicot, 369 
Marcq, 80 
Marcuard, 80 
Marcus, 80 
Margot, 369 
Marielle, 368 
Marin, 369 
Marinie, 369 
Marinier, 369 
Alarion, 369 
Maris, 368 
Marizy, 368 
Marland, 369 
Marie, 368 
Marlin, 368 
Marne, 369 
Marneuf, 369 
Marnier, 369 
Maroger, 369 
Marolla, 368 
Marquery, 80 
Mars, 143 
Marvy, 369 
Mascar, 448 
Masimbert, 48, 523 
Massart, 522 
Masse, 522 
Masse, 522 
Masseau, 522 
Massemin, 523 
Massena, 522 
Massillon, 522 
Masson, 522 
Matagrin, 342 
Materne, 342 
Matban, 342 
Matbe, 341 
Matberet, 342 
Matberon, 342 
Matbey, 341 
Matbie, 341 
Matbis, 341 
Matblin, 341, 361 
Matisse, 341 
Maton, 342 
Matraud, 342 



Matre, 342 
Matrod, 342 
Matry, 342 
Mats, 341 
Mattar, 342 
Matte, 341 
Mattelain, 341 
Mattrat, 342 
lyiaturin, 342 
Maty, 341 
Maubert, 180 
Maudemain, 181 
Mauduit, 181 
JMauger, 181 
Maulde, 180 
Maull, 178 
JMaur, 402 
Maurel, 402 
Maurenque, 402 
Maurey, 402 
]\laurier, 402 
Maurin, 402 
May, 410 
Mayer, 410 
Maylin, 410 
Maynard, 410 
Maynier, 410 
Mayran, 410 
Mazelin, 522 
Mazier, 522 
Medard, 342 
Meder, 342 
Melaye, 179 
MeUck, 179 
MeHer, 180 
Melique, 179 
Melle, 179 
Menault, 58 
Mendez, 434 
Meueau, 58 
Menel, 58 
Menier, 58 
Menne, 58 
Mentel, 434 
Mention, 434 
Meny, 58 
Mera, 368 
Merard, 369 
Merault, 369 
Mereau, 368 
Merelle, 368 
Merey, 368 
Merger, 369 
Merigot, 369 
Merigout, 369 
Meriq, 368 
Merland, 369 
Merly, 368 
Merman, 369 
Mesenge, 522 
Messier, 522 
Metay, 341 
Metge, 341 



550 



INDEX OF FRENCH NAMES. 



Methlin, 361 
Methorie, 342 
Metman, 342 
Metton, 342 
Mezia, 485 
Meziere, 523 
Micard, 406 
Micault, 406 
Michault, 406 
Miche, 406 
Michy, 406 
Micol, 406 
MicoUier, 406 
Micquelard, 406 
IMicouin, 406 
Midi, 379 
Midiere, 380 
Midocq, 379 
Midol, 379 
INIieton, 380 
Miette, 379 
mide, 283 
Miley, 179 
Milhomme, 179 
Milisch, 179 
IVmi, 179 
MiUange, 179 
IMiUard, 179 
MiUaux, 179 
MiUe, 179 
MiUer, 53, 180 
MiUery, 180 
Milly, 179 
IVIilord, 180, 526 
Milsent, 180 
Minaclion, 266 
Minard, 266 
Minart, 266 
Mine, 266 
Minel, 266 

Minerve, 143, 144, 526 
Mineret, 206 
Miueur, 266 
Minich, 266 
Minier, 266 
Miime, 266 
Minnette, 266 
IVIii-ambaut, 369 
Miramon, 369 
Misard, 380 
Missier, 380 
Miton, 380 
Mizery, 380, 526 
Modelonde, 237 
Molay, 178 
Moitie, 237 
Moitier, 237 
Moitry, 237 
Mole, 92, 178 
Molique, 178 
Moll, 92, 178 
Mollard, 179 
MoUe, 178 



Monard, 58 
Monde, 276 
Mondehard, 276 
Mondiere, 276 
MoncUn, 276 
Mondo, 276 
Monfrat, 58 
Monneau, 58 
Monnier, 58 
l\lonny, 58 
Montagne, 276 
Montagny, 276 
Montalembert, 502 
Montangerand, 502 
Montaufray, 502 
Montault, 276 
Montauriol, 502 
Montee, 276 
Montel, 276 
Montgerard, 502 
Montgobert, 502 
Montgolfier, 502 
Montier, 276 
Montmorency, 502 
Morard, 402 
Morda, 258 
Mordaque, 258 
Mordret, 258 
More, 402 
INIoreau, 402 
Morel, 402 
Morenzo, 502 
Moriame, 402 
Morihalm, 403 
Morillon, 402 
Morsaline, 258 
Mort, 258 
Mortemard, 259 
Mortemart, 259 
Mortier, 258 
Mortieu, 258 
Morziere, 258 
Mosson, 238 
Mossy, 237 
Motard, 237 
Moteau, 237 
MoteUe, 237 
Motheron, 237 
Mothu, 237 
Motte, 237 
Motte, 237 
Mouge, 406 
Mouillard, 179 
Mounie, 359 
Mounier, 359 
Mourceau, 258 
Monrlaque, 402 
Mourlon, 402^^ 
Mourzelas, 258 
Mousac, 237 
Mouson, 238 
Mousse, 92, 237 
MouBBel, 237 



Mousseron, 237 
Moussey, 237 
Mossu, 237 
Moussy, 237 
Moustier, 238 
Mousty, 238 
Moutard, 237 
]\Ioutie, 237 
Moutier, 237 
Moutiy, 237 
IMoiizard, 237 
Mozin, 238 
Mukleman, 406 
Mundel, 276 
Munie, 359 
Munier, 359 
Musard, 237 
IMussey, 237 
Musson, 238 
Mustel, 238 
INlutel, 237 

Naba, 422 
Nadaud, 275 
Nadault, 275 
Naef, 420, 422 
Nagel, 220 
Nalbert, 220 
NaUard, 220 
Nancy, 239 
Nant, 239 
Nanta, 239 
Nanteau, 239 
Nanteuil, 239 
Nantier, 239 
Nantiez, 275 
Natier, 275 
Natte, 275 
Natter, 275 
Naud, 240 
Naudeau, 240 
Naudier, 240 
Naudy, 240 
Naury, 300 
Navault, 421 
Naveau, 420 
Navier, 421 
Navry, 421 
Nebout, 255 
Nee, 420 
Neel, 220 
Negre, 421 
Nely, 220 
Nenard, 239 
Nenning, 239 
NeoUier, 220 
Nesseler, 256 
Nestle, 256 
Nestlen, 256 
Netter, 255 
Neu, 420 
N6ve, 420 
Newiger, 421 



I 



INDEX OF FRENC H NAMES. 



551 



Key, 420 
Neyman, 297, 421 
Neyret, 421 
Neyrey, 421 
Niard, 255, 421 
Nibart, 255, 421 
Nibault, 255, 421 
Nibelle, 151 
Nicaise, 126 
Nicard, 126 
Nicaud, 126 
Nick, 126 
Nicour, 126 
Nidelay, 256 
Niedre, 255 
Nisard, 255 
Nitot, 255 
Nivard, 421 
Niveau, 420^ 
Nivelleau, 151 
Nivert, 421 
Niviere, 421 
Nizard, 255 
Nizey, 255 
Nizolle, 256 
Node, 240 
Nodier, 240 
Nodler, 240 
Noel, 487 
Nony, 439 
Norbert, 301 
Norest, 301 
Nourigat, 301 
Nortier, 301 
Nory, 300 
Notaire, 54, 240 
Notre, 240 
Notte, 240 
NotteUe, 240 
Noulin, 420 
Novel, 151 
Noziere, 240 

Oberle, 76 
Obry, 76 
Ochin, 524 
Ode, 381 
Odelin, 334 
Odigier, 382 
Odilon, 334 
OdiUard, 334 
Odin, 52, 121, 526 
Odoul, 334 
Ofin, 385 
Offman, 385 
Ofifny, 385 
Og, 193 
Oge, 193 
Oger, 193 
Ogier, 193 
Olacher, 418 
Olbei-t, 418 
Olding, 418 



Olefia, 471 
Oliffe, 471 
Oliva, 471 
Olive, 471 
Olivert, 471 
Omer. 492 
Omond, 492 
Oriolle, 524 
Orsay, 79 
Orsel, 79 
Orth, 217 
Ortiguier, 217 
Ortolan, 217 
Osmont, 120 
Osselin, 119 
Ostard, 302 
Ouachee, 362 
OuaUe, 298 
Ouamier, 305 
Oudard, 382 
Oudin, 381 
Ouellard, 383 
Oulif, 71 
Oulnian, 106 
Oury, 83 
Oustria, 302 
Outi, 381 
Ouvrard, 76 
Ouvre, 76 
Ozouf, 120 

Pacaud, 172 
Pacault, 172 
Paccard, 172 
PaciUy, 172 
Pacquement, 172 
Pacquier, 53, 172 
Pader, 166 
Pagelle, 172 
Paillard, 192 
PaiUe, 192 
PaiUerie, 192 
Pailleur, 192 
PaiUey, 192 
PaiUiart, 192 
Palisse, 521 
PaUanque, 192 
Pallu, 192 
Pabiiier, 192 
Panart, 175 
Panay, 175 
Panchaud, 182 
Panckouke, 182 
Panel, 175 
Panhard, 175 
Panisse, 175 
Pannier, 175 
Pansin, 236 
Pansu, 235 
Pantel, 235 
Panthou, 235 
Pantiche, 235 
Pantoii, 235 



Papau, 291 
Papault, 291 
Pape, 291 
Paper, 291 , 
Papillon, 291 
Papin, 291 
Pappert, 291 
Papy, 291 
Paquel, 172 
Pai-ade, 62 
Paradis, 62 
Pardaillon, 222 
Pardon, 222 
Pariseau, 61 
Parisse, 61 
Parly, 61 
Parra, 61 
Parrette, 62 
Parseval, 453 
Party, 222 
Pascard, 487 
Pascault, 487 
Pasche, 487 
Passard, 181 
Passe, 181 
Passy, 181 
Paste, 183 
Pasteau, 183 
Pastier, 183 
Pastre, 183 
Pasty, 183 
Pataille, 166 
Patard, 167 
Patay, 166 
Pate, 166 
Pathe, 166 
Patlii, 166 
Pathier, 167 
Patoche, 166 
Patry, 167 
Patte, 166 
Pattu, 166 
Paty, 166 
Paultre, 241 
Pautrat, 241 
Pavard, 291 
Pavin, 291 
Pavy, 291 
Pech, 222 
Pecquery, 222 
Pecquet, 222 
Pelabon, 219 
Pelcot, 269 
Pelez, 269 
PeUgri, 269 
Pelissier, 521 
PeUagot, 269 
PeUard, 269 
PeUe, 192 
PeUe, 192 
Pellecat, 269 
PeUegrin, 269 
Pellenc, 192 



552 



INDEX OF FRENCH NAMES. 



PeUeteret, 219 
Pellin, 270 
Pellier, 269 
Pellu, 192 . 
Pelman, 269 
Pelosse, 521 
Pelte, 219 
Peltier, 219 
Peltiet, 219 
Peltzer, 219 
Pelvey, 270 
Penabei-t, 177 
Penant, 177 
Penaud, 177 
Pence, 177 
Penel, 177 
Penicaud, 177 
Peniere, 177 
Penigot, 177 
Pennequin, 177 
Penquier, 182 
Pensard, 236 
Pense, 235 
Peny, 176 
Pepin, 414 
Perard, 69 
Perault, 69 
Pere, 68 
Periche, 69 
Perichon, 69 
Perigault, 69 
PeriUa, 69 
Perjeaux, 279 
Perlin, 69 
Pernelle, 70 
Perny, 70 
Perocheau, 69 
Perody, 69 
Perol, 69 
Perreau, 68 
Perrelle, 69 
Perrier, 69 
Perrin, 70 
Perronin, 69 
Perrot, 69 
Peis, 453 
Perseval, 453 
Persil, 453 
Persoz, 453 
Pestel, 183 
Pestre, 183 
Pesty, 183 
Pertat, 370 
Petard, 167 
Petel, 167 
Petry, 167 
Pettex, 166 
Pettier, 167 
Peuvrelle, 91 
Peyre, 68 
Peyredicu, 69 
Philibert, 518 
Philery, 518 



Philippot, 518 
Philippoteaux, 518 
Phily, 517 
Pical, 177 
Picaud, 178 
Picault, 178 
Pichard, 178 
Pichaud, 178 
Picher, 178 
Piciiery, 178 
Pichi, 177 
Pichou, 177 
Pick, 177 
Pickard, 178 
Picory, 178 
Picque, 177 
Picquet, 178 
Pidault, 167 
Piefer, 91 
Pielard, 291 
Piella, 219 
PieUe, 219 
Piffault, 414 
Pigault, 178 
Pigeard, 178 
Pigeat, 178 
Pigeau, 178 
Pigeory, 178 
Pigeron, 178 
Pilate, 269 
PiUard, 269 
Pillas, 269 
Pille, 269 
Pillette, 269 
Pilley, 269 
Pillien, 270 
Pilot, 269 
Piole, 219 
Piolenc, 219 
Pilte, 219 
Pin, 176 
Pinau, 176 
Pinaud, 177 
Pinault, 177 
Pinchon, 178 
Pineau, 176 
Pinel, 177 
Pingard, 178 
Pingeon, 178 
Pinhard, 177 
Pinsard, 236 
Pinseau, 177, 235 
Pinsonncau, 236 
Pinson, 236 
I'ipard, 414 
Pipre, 91 
Pirnier, 71 
Piron, 70 
Pissard, 181 
Pissin, 181 
l*iver, 91 
Pi vert, 414 
Plaideur, 376 



Plain, 396 
Plait, 376 
Planchard, 393 
Planche, 392 
Plancher, 393 
Planer, 396 
Planier, 396 
Planker, 393 
Planque, 392 
Planquet, 393 
Planry, 396 
Plantard, 397 
Plantier, 397 
Plantin, 397 
Platret, 376 
Plaity, 397 
Planus, 396 
Platard, 376 
Plateau, 376 
Platel, 376 
Platret, 376 
Platte, 376 
Plattel, 376 
Plessier, 441 
Plet, 376 
Plivard, 184 
Plocque, 214 
Ploquin, 215 
Plou, 214 
Plougoulm, 215 
Plouin, 215 
Plouvier, 184 
Ployer, 215 
Plu martin, 465 
Plumeray, 465 
Plumier, 465 
Pluquin, 215 
Pochard, 225 
Podevin, 455 
Poge, 224 
Poggiale, 224 
Poignard, 225 
Pol, 281 
Polac, 281 
Polart, 281 
Pold, 241 
Poltfer, 281 
Polleau, 281 
Pollisse, 281 
Poly, 281 
Pon, 175 
Ponceau, 235 
Poncel, 235 
Pond, 235 
Ponnelle, 175 
Ponsard, 236 
Ponsery, 236 
Ponson, 236 
Pont, 235 
Ponteau, 235 
I»onthieu, 235 
Ponti, 235 
Pontier, 236 



INDEX OF FRENCH NAMES. 



553 



Popnrd, 422 
Popelin, 422 
Popet, 422 
Popuii, 422 
Popvilus, 422 
Port, 229 
Porta, 229 
Porte, 526 
Portevin, 229 
Posez, 408 
Possac, 408 
Posselt, 408 
Possesse, 408 
Posso, 408 
Postel, 409 
Poitrat, 455 
Potage, 454 
Potard, 455 
Poteau, 454 
Potefer, 455 
Potel, 454 
Potemont, 455 
Poterie, 54, 455 
Potevin, 455 
Potey, 454 
Pothe, 454 
Pothier, 455 
Potier, 455 
Potin, 454 
Potonie, 455 
Potron, 455 
Pettier, 53, 54 
Potvin, 455 
Poucha, 378 
Pouchard, 379 
Pouchet, 379 
Pougeault 379 
Pougin, 379 
Fougny, 379 
roulain, 281 
louUn, 281 
louUard, 281 
PouUe, 281 
Poure, 452 
Pourreau, 452 
Poussard, 408 
Poussif, 408 
Povel, 422 
Poy, 313 
Poyard, 313 
Poyart, 313 
Poye, 313 
Poyer, 313 
Prand, 198 
Pray, 181 
Prax, 185 
Preau, 184 
Preault, 185 
PrecUn, 185 
Pregniard, 185 
Premier, 371 
Premy, 371 
Presne, 453 



Pr6tard, 185 
Prete, 185 
Pretre, 185 
Prcyer, 185 
Priiuard, 371 
Primault, 371 
Prodin, 218 
Prot, 218 
Proteau, 218 
Prothaut, 218 
Prout, 447 
Prouteau, 447 
Pruce, 447 
Pruede, 447 
Prunel, 399 
Prunet, 400 
Prunier, 400 
Prunzelle, 186 
Pulin, 281 
Pulle, 281 
Puniet, 416 
Pupier, 422 
Pupil, 422 
Pussy, 407 
Puteau, 454 

Quandelle, 317 
Quantier, 316 
Quantin, 316 
Queck, 164 
Quenard, 264 
Quenault, 264 
Quenay, 263 
Queneau, 263 
QueneUe, 263 
Quenemer, 264 
Quenessen, 263 
Quentin, 316 
Querrey, 278 
Quetil, 128 (note) 
Quezin, 244 
Quickerat, 165 
Quierot, 165 
Quillac, 123 
QuiUard, 124 
Quille, 123 
Quillier, 124 
Quilleiet, 124 
Quilleri, 124 
QuQlet, 124 
Quin, 263 
Quinard, 264 
Quinavdt, 264 
Quincey, 263 
Qui eau, 263 
Quinier, 264 
Quinty, 316 
Quyo, 164 

Kaba, 187 
Raban, 97 
Rabeau, 187 
Rabeuf, 187 



Rabier, 187 
Rabigot, 187 
Rabillon, 187 
Rabiueau, 97 
Rabon, 97 
Rabot, 89 
Rabotte, 89 
Riibou, 187 
Rabouin, 187 
Raby, 187 
Racle, 362 
Raccurt, 363 
Radanne, 348 
Rade, 347 
Radsl, 348 
Radet, 348 
Radez, 348 
Radi, 347 
Radigue, 347 
Radouan, 349 
Radoult, 348 
Radulphe, 349 
Raffard, 187 
Raffin, 97 
Rafflin, 187 
Rafiford, 187 
Raftier, 228 
Raffy, 187 
Ragan, 349 
Ragaiie, 363 
Rager, 363 
Ragneau, 349 
Ragoin, 363 
Ragon, 349 
Ragonneau, 349 
Ragot, 363 
Rainal, 349 
Rainaud, 350 
Rainbeaux, 137 
Raine, 349 
Rain fray, 349 
Rain go, 349 
Rainot, 350 
Rambert, 97 
Randier, 228 
Randouin, 228 
Rangheard, 230 
Ranoe, 189 
Raoul, 52 
Rape, 187 
Raphel, 187 
RapiUy, 187 
Rapin, 97 
Rapineau, 97 
Rapp, 187 
Rat, 347 
Rataboul, 348 
Rateau, 347 
Ratel, 348 
Ratheau, 347 
Rathery, 348 
Rathier, 348 
Ratie, 347 



R 



554 



INDEX OF FRENCH NAMES. 



Raton, 348 
Eatott, 348 
Eatouin, 349 
Eatouis, 349 
Eatte, 92, 347 
Eatter, 348 
Eattier, 348 
Eattisseau, 348 
Eaucour, 253 
Eavanne, 97 
Eavard, 187 
Ravault, 187 
Eaveau, 187 
Eaveaud, 187 
Eavel, 187 
Eaveneaix, 97 
Eavier, 187 
Eavon, 97 
Eavou, 187 
Eay, 362 
Eayard, 363 
Eaybaud, 362 
Eayer, 363 
Eaymbault, 349 
Eaymond, 363 
Eayna, 349 
Eaynard, 349 
Eayner, 350 
Eead, 347 
Eebard, 188 
Eebel, 188 
Eebillon, 188 
Eebold, 188 
Eecamier, 344 
Eeclus, 344 
Recurat, 344 
Eedaut, 254 
Eeder, 348 
Eedet, 348 
Redier, 348 
Redmer, 348 
Redon, 348 
Regimbeau, 137 
Regnard, 349 
Regnart, 349 
Regnauld, 350 
Regnault, 350 
Regner, 350 
Regnie, 349 
Regnier, 350 
Reine, 349 
Reinert, 349 
Renard, 349 
Renauld, 350 
Renault, 350 
Rene, 104, 189 
Reneaume, 350 
Renel, 189 
Renesson, 189 
Rcnnecon, 189 
Renny, 189 
Renom, 350 
Renouard, 350 



Renouf, 350 
Reston, 448 
Rety. 347 
Reveil, 188 
Revel, 188 
Revelin, 188 
Eeverd, 188 
Ee\Ti, 188 
Eeynier, 350 
Eeyneval, 350 
Eibail, 188 
Eibault, 188 
Eibier, 188 
Eibiere, 188 
Eible, 188 
Eiboni, 188 
Eibou, 188 
Eibun, 188 
Ricard, 343 
Ricci, 343 
Richard, 343 
Richault, 344 
Riche, 343 
Riche, 343 
Richebourg, 343 
Eicheme, 343 
Eichemont, 344 
Eicher, 343 
Eichez, 343 
Eichier, 343 
Eichin, 343 
Eichomme, 343 
Eichy, 343 
Eicque, 343 
Eicquier, 343 
Eidde, 254 
Eideau, 254 
Eidel, 254 
Eidiere, 254 
Eiette, 254 
Eiedle, 354 
Eiedling, 254 
Eif, 188 
Eiffaud, 188 
Eiffault, 188 
Eigal, 343 
Eigaubert, 343 
Eigault, 344 
Eingard, 230 
Eingel, 230 
Eingier, 53, 230 
Eipard, 188 
Eipault, 188 
Eipaut, 188 
Eicjuet, 343 
Eifjiiic/, 343 
Eist, 193 
Eitaud, 254 
Rivain, 188 
Rivaid, 188 
Rivau, 188 
Rivaud, 188 
Eivay, 18H 



Rive, 188 
Rivelin, 188 
Riviere, 188 
Robbe, 187 
Ro^ ert, 372 
Robertet, 518 (note) 
Roberge, 372 
Robi, 187 
Eobichon, 187 
Eobier, 187 
Eobiquet, 187 
Eoblin, 187 
Eobquin, 187 
Eocauld, 253 
Eocaiilt, 253 
Eochard, 253 
Eoche, 252 
Eocher, 253 
Eocque, 253 
Eocquelin, 253 
Eode, 371 
Eodde, 371 
Eodel, 372 
Eodier, 373 
Eodiez, 372 
Eodin, 372 
Eodolplie, 373 
Eodron, 373 
Eoduwart, 373 
Eoge, 253 
Eogeau, 253 
Eoger, 372 
Eoget, 253 
Eogez, 253 
Eogue, 253 
Eoguelin, 253 
Eohard, 253, 372 

Eohart, 372 

Eohault, 253 

Eoland, 373 

Eollin, 372 

Eomeo, 373 

Eomeuf, 374 

Eomieu, 373 

Eommel, 374 

Eommy, 373 

Eonce, 228 

Ronceray, 228 

Rond, 228 

Rondeau, 228 

Eondelle, 228 

Eondy, 228 

Eonze, 228 

Ronzier, 228 

Roqiiebcrt, 253 

Roqucs, 253 

Rofiuctte, 253 

Roscher, 79 

Roscnion, 79 

Roslin, 79 

Rosly, 79 

EoBsel, 79 

Rosaclin, 79 



INDEX OF FllENCll NAMES. 



555 



RoBser, 79 
Rossi, 79 
Rost, 448 
Rostaii, 448 
Rostang, 448 
Rosteau, 440 
Rostolan, 448 
Rosty, 448 
Rota, 371 
Roth, 371 
Rotta, 371 
Rotte, 371 
Rotti, 371 
Rotival, 373 
Roualt, 373 
Roubaud, 372 
Roucolle, 252 
Rouchou, 372 
Roudiere, 373 
Roudil, 372 
Roudillon, 372 
RouUin, 372 
Roumier, 374 
Roumilly, 374 
Rouvier, 187 
Roubo, 187 
Rouffe, 187 
Rouher, 253 
Rouveau, 187 
Rouvel, 187 
Rovillain, 187 
Rube, 187 
RubeUe, 187 
Rubier, 187 
Rubio, 187 
Ruby, 187 
Rudder, 373 
Rude, 371 
Rudeau, 371 
Rudelle, 372 
Rudemare, 373 
Rummel, 374 
Rupp, 187 
Ruprich, 187 
Ruteau, 371 
Rutten, 372 
Rutter, 373 

Sabart, 424 
Sabaud, 424 
Sabbini, 424 
Sablon, 424 
Sabot, 424 
Sabran, 424 
Sacareau, 171 
Sacquin, 171 
Sacre, 171 
Saffray, 424 
Saillard, 308 
SaiUenfest, 308 
Saillofest, 308 
Sailly, 308 
Sala, 308 



Saladin, 526 
Salard, 308 
Salathe, 308 
Salcssc, 308 
Sal fray, 308 
Saligny, 308 
Saligot, 308 
Sal in, 308 
Salle, 308 
Salle, 308 
Salleron, 308 
Sallier, 308 
Salmon, 308 
Salsac, 443 
Salvaing, 346 
Salvan, 346 
Salverte, 346 
Salvy, 346 
Salzai^, 443 
Salzard, 443 
Salze, 443 
Sance, 430 
Sanchez, 438 
Sandeau, 430 
Sandelion, 430 
Sandoz, 430 
Sandre, 430 
Sandrier, 431 
Sanegon, 170 
Sangouard, 438 
Sangouin, 438 
Sannier, 170 
Santerre, 430 
Santi, 430 
Santry, 431 
Sanzel, 430 
Sapia, 423 
Sapicha, 424 
Sapin, 424 
Sapy, 423 
Saqui, 171 
Sar, 230 
Saramon, 230 
Sarasin, 487 
Sarger, 230 
Sari, 230 
Sarra, 230 
Sarrault, 230 
Sarre, 230 
Sarrette, 230 
Sarrion, 230 
Sasse, 451 
Sassere, 451 
Sassier, 451 
Sassy, 451 
Satoiy, 451 
Sauffroy, 424 
Saul, 138 
Sault, 443 
Saunac, 99 
Sauphar, 424 
Saupique, 424 
Sauvage, 424 



( Sauve, 423 
Sauvc, 423 
Sauvel, 424 
Sauveur, 424 
Sauvey, 423 
Sauvicr, 424 
Savard, 424 
Savart, 424 
Savarin, 424 
Savary, 424 
Savelon, 424 
Savigny, 424 
Savin, 424 
Savit, 424 
Savy, 423 
Sax, 200 
Say, 171 
Sayer, 171 
Sazerac, 451 
Sazerat, 451 
Scat, 191 
Scatti, 191 
Scellier, 361 
SchaU, 456 
Schefter, 219 
Schener, 389 
SchUte, 227 
Scholder, 457 
Schone, 389 
Scoffier, 442 
Sebault, 172 
Sebillon, 262 
Sebii-e, 321 
Sebron, 321 
Secret, 173 
Sedille, 431 
SediUon, 431 
See, 172 
Seeber, 321 
Seeger, 173 
Segard, 173 
Segaut, 172 
Sege, 172 
Seguier, 173 
Seguin, 173 
Segur, 173 
Seguret, 173 
Selabelle, 308 
SeHn, 308 
Selle, 308 
SeUerin, 308 
Sellier, 308 
Seltier, 443 
Selzer, 443 
Sem, 262 
Seme, 75, 262 
Semel, 262 
Semele, 262 
Semey, 75, 262 
Semichon, 75, 262 
Senac, 170 
Senard, 170 
Sene, 170 



j56 



INDEX OF FRENCH NAMES. 



Seneca, 170 
Seuelle, 170 
Sengel, 438 
Semllou, 170 
Senuegon, 170 
Seiiocq, 170 
Seiituberv, 456 
SeraQ, 230 
Serard, 230 
Serdou, 198 
Sere. 230 
Seiieu, 230 
Seroin, 230 
Serra, 230 
Serre, 230 
SeiTier. 230 
Seit, 198 
Seiy, 230 
Sester, 293 
Sestier, 293 
Seui-iot, 322 
Sevelinges (De), 262 
Sevilla, 262 
Sevry, 262 
Sej-ffert, 173 
Seyssel, 272 
Sezeiie, 451 
Shoenberg, 389 
Sibert, 173, 321 
Sibot, 173 
Sibourc, 322 
Sicard, 173 
Sicbel, 172 
Sichel, 172 
Sidney, 431 
Sidoli, 431 
Siegel, 172 
Siegrist, 173 
Siemers, 173 
Siess, 272 
^iever. 262 
Sigle, 172 
Signet, 173 
biiva, 346 
Silve, 346 
Sdvy, 346 
Simard. 262 
Siniait, 262 
Simier, 262 
Sinni, 262 
feiniond, 173 
Sihius, 262 
Singer, 438 
Singery, 438 
Singes, 438 
Singly, 4-38 
Sine, 456 
iSintard, 456 
Sipie.e, ^^>2 
SifKUey, 441 
Smco, 272 
S)8t.er, 1J93 
Sitt, 431 



SitteU, 431 
Sive, 261 
Six, 200 
Smj-ttere, 461 
Sobbel 304 
Soinard, 99 
Soinoui-y, 99 
Sol, 138 
Solai-d, 138 
Sole, 138 
Soleret, 138 
Solier, 138 
Sombert, 99 
Sommaire, 141 
Sommerard, 141 
Sommervogel, 94 
Sonder, 302 
Sorbet, 230 
Soreau, 441 
Sorel, 230 
Sorieu, 230 
Sorre, 230 
Soto, 266 
SouaUe, 322 
Soucliard, 267 
Souchay, 267 
Soucherad, 267 
Soucherard, 268 
Soucheret, 267 
Souclierre, 268 
Souday, 301 
Souden, 301 
Soudier, 301 
Sougere, 268 
Sougit, 267 
Souin, 99 
Soule, 138 
Soule, 138 
Soulery, 138 
Soult. 443 
Soupault, 304 
Soupe, 304 
Soupe, 304 
Soupeau, 304 
Soupir, 304 
Souply, 304 
Souid, 198 
Sourdeau, 198 
Sourdeval, 198 
Sourdiere, 198 
Sourg, 441 
Soury, 441 
Soussi, 266 
Soutif, 301 
Souty, 301 
Souvemin, 424 
Spada, 199 
Spenner, 445 
Spicq, 207 
Si»ill, 434 
Spiller, 4^34 
Spinn. 445 
Spire, 206 



Spiro, 206 
Sponi, 445 
Staar, 245 
Stach, 213 
Stal, 476 
Stalin, 81, 476 
Steffen, 476 
Stein, 479 
Steinacher, 476 
Sterckeman, 245 
Steuben, 469 
Stevart, 469 
Stival, 469 
Stobin, 469 
Stocq, 213 
Stoffe, 469 
Stoflfell, 469 
Stoffer, 469 
Stokier, 345 
Storelli, 345 
Storez. 345 
Stouf,'469 
Stourza, 345 
Strieker, 245 
Stuppy, 469 
Stui-baut, 345 
Stuve, 469 
Suasso, 266 
Suaid, 322 
Succaud, 267 
Suciiel, 267 
Sue, 267 
Suet, 266 
Suin, 99 
Summer, 141 
Supply, 304 
Suquet, 267 
Surcouf, 441 
Susse, 266 
Sybille, 262 
Sylvert, 346 
Syndic, 456 
Systermann, 293 

Tacbard, 391 
Taffin, 428 
Tagniard, 391 
Tailier, 375 
TaiUefer, 375 
Tainne, 311, 338 
Tains, 338 
Talabot, 375 
Talbert, 375 
Talbot, 375 
Tallard, 375 
Tallon, 375 
Talle, 375 
Talleman, 376 
Talleyrand, 376 
Talma, 24, 375 
Tama, 364 
Tami, 364 
Tauc, 359 



INDEX OF FRENCH NAMES. 



557 



Tandon, 310 
Taudou, 310 
Tangre, 311 
Taniere, 311 
Taiilay, 311 
Tanneur, 311 
Taiiniere, 53, 311 
Tanrade, 311 
Tan ton, 310 
Tapin, 428 
Taquo, 390 
Tarabou, 208 
Taragon, 208 
Taratre, 209 
Tard, 209 
Tardu, 209 
Tardy, 209 
Tare, 208 
Targant, 208 
Taride, 209 
Tarlay, 208 
Tarnaud, 208, 398 
Tarratte, 209 
Tartary, 209 
Tartter, 209 
Tascher, 53, 385 
Tassel, 385 
Tasselin, 385 
Tassert, 385 
Tassily, 385 
Tassot, 385 
Tassy, 385 
Tate, 271 
Tavard, 428 
Taveau, 428 
Tavel, 428 
Taze, 291 
Teigne, 338 
Teigny, 338 
TeiUart, 375 
Tel, 375 
Tellier, 375 
Tenaillon, 310 
Tenard, 311 
Tence, 310 
Tennesou, 311 
Tennevin, 310 
Tenret, 312 
Terray, 208 
Terre, 208 
Terreur, 208 
Terrier, 208 
Terseur, 242 
Tetard, 291 
Tfete, 271 
Thais, 526 
Thenadey, 338 
Thenard, 339 
Thenier, 339 
Theodor, 333 
Theot, 332 
Thiac, 457 
Thibault, 332 



Thibaut, 332 
Thil)ergc, 333 
Thibert, 332 
Thieblot, 332 
Thiedy, 332 
Thiccon, 332 
Thierre, 208 
Thierry, 268 
Thimel, 365 
Thiodon, 332 
Thirault, 268 
Thirouin, 268 
Thiry, 268 
This, 351 
Thisse, 351 
Thorn, 363 
Thome, 363 
Thomel, 364 
Thomet, 364 
Thommeret, 364 
Tieffin, 488 
Tille, 189 
Tilliard, 189 
TiUier, 189 
Tilman, 190 
Tilmant, 190 
Tillon, 190 
Tillot, 190 
Tilly, 189 
Timel, 365 
Tine, 129 
Tinel, 130 
Tingay, 367 
Tiphaine, 488 
Tireau, 268 
Tisci, 229 
Tison, 352 
Tissaire, 352 
Tisselin, 352 
Tisserand, 352 
Tissier, 352 
Titard, 333 
Tittel, 332 
Tixier, 229 
Toche, 427 
Tombe, 363 
Tombel, 364 
Tonne, 129 
TonneUe, 130 
Torin, 208 
Toty, 273 
Toucart, 427 
Tougart, 427 
Tourault, 129 
Tournachon, 190 
Tournaillon, 190 
Tournaire, 190 
Tournal, 190 
Toumay, 190 
Tourne, 190 
Tourneur, 190 
Tournery, 190 
Tousac, 274 



Tout, 273 
Toutan, 274 
Toutay, 273 
Touvce, 103 
Touvy, 103 
Touzeau, 273 
Touze, 273 
Touzel, 274 
Touzelin, 274 
Touzin, 274 
Trabold, 196 
Tracy, 242 
Trager, 413 
Tragin, 413 
Trajin, 413 
Trappe, 196 
Trassard, 242 
Traube, 441 
Trayer, 413 
Trays, 242 
Treboul, 196 
Trecolle, 413 
Treffil, 196 
Tregont, 413 
Trehard, 413 
Treifous, 413 
Trens, 242 
Tress, 242 
Tressan, 242 
Tressard, 242 
Triau, 429 
Tribou, 196 
Tricard, 429 
Triche, 429 
Tricot, 429 
Triebert, 429 
Triefus, 429 
Triger, 429 
Triquet, 429 
Troly, 141 
Troplong, 441 
Tross, 249 
Trote, 270 
Trotte, 270 
Trottier, 271 
Trotrot, 271 
Trou, 195 
Trouble, 441 
Troude, 270 
Troupeau, 441 
Troupier, 441 
Trouplin, 441 
Trousseau, 249 
Trousel, 249 
Trouve, 441 
Trubert, 196, 429 
True, 195 
Trudon, 271 
TrueUe, 195 
Truffier, 441 
Ti-ufy, 441 
Trupel, 441 
Trusson, 249 



558 



INDEX OF FRENCH NAMES. 



Trutey, 270 
Trutiu, 271 
Try, 429 
Tudey, 332 
Tudor, 333 
Tugault, 428 
Tugot, 427 
Tunna, 129 
Tungnand, 362 
Turc, 487 
TureU, 208 
Turgis, 208 
Turquetil, 129 
Turgot, 128 
Tutuny, 332 
Tytgat, 333 

Ude, 282 
Ulliac, 105 
Ulman, 106 
Urier, 83 

Usse, 524 

Vachy, 362 
Vade, 412 
Vaganay, 523 
Vaghi, 523 
Vagney, 523 
Valant, 298 
Valci, 298 
Vald, 344 
Valdeiron, 345 
Valdin, 345 
Valerand, 298 
Valerant, 298 
Valet, 298 
Valfort, 88 
Valfroy, 298 
Valhere, 298 
Valie, 298 
VaUee, 298 
Valleran, 298 
Vallery, 298 
Vallez, 298 
Valuer, 298 
Vails, 298 
Valmer, 298 
Valtat, 345 
Valton, 345 
Vanackere, 394 
Vanard, 394 
Vancy, 316 
Vandale, 317 
Vanden, 316 
Vaneguc, 394 
Vanelli, 394 
Vaiietti, 394 
Vancy, 394 
Van in, 394 
Vannier, 394 
Vauoni, 394 
Vauthielen, 317 
Vantier 316 



( VantUlard, 317 
Vanutelle, 317 
Vaquez, 362 
Vaquier, 362 
Varache, 278 
Varagniac, 305 
Varaine, 279 
Varangot, 305 
Varangue, 278 
Varay, 278 
Vare, 278 
Varichon, 278' 
Variii, 305 
Varinay, 305 
Varinont, 278 
Varnier, 305 
Varrall, 278 
Vart, 277 
Vassal, 244 
Vassard, 244 
Vasse, 244 
Vasselin, 244 
Vasseur, 244 
Vasson, 244 
Vassy, 244 
Vatard, 413 
Vatel, 413 
Vattemare, 413 
Vatier, 413 
Vatton, 413 
Vatry, 413 
Vaude, 344 
Vaudescal, 345 
Vaudin, 345 
Vaudrand, 345 
Vaudron, 345 
Vaudry, 345 
Vaultier, 345 
Vaury, 325 
Vaute, 344 
Vauthier, 345 
Vautrot, 345 
Vedel, 413 
Vedy, 412 
Vee, 523 
Vege, 523 
Veil, 383 
Veillard, 383 
Veiller, 383 
Veillon, 383 
Velic, 383 
Vellard, 383 
Velly, 383 
Velpeau, 88 
Velter, 345 
Veltnian, 345 
Venaut, 304 
Venard, 394 
Venault, 395 
Venelle, 394 
Vendrin, 316 
Ventre, 316 
Verbrugge, 278 



Verchere, 74 
Verdel, 277 
Verdery, 277 
Verdie, 277 
Verdier, 277 
Verge, 73 
Verge, 73 
Vergeon, 74 
Vergnaud, 74 
Vergne, 74 
Vergnot, 74 
Veriere, 278 
VeriUon, 278 
Verite, 257 
Verjus, 526 
Vermon, 278 
Vernaud, 305 
Vera ay, 305 
Vernaz, 305 
Verneau, 305 
Vernel, 305 
Verneret, 305 
Vernert, 305 
Vernet, 305 
Verney, 305 
Vernier, 305 
Vero, 278 
Verry, 278 
Vertu, 257 
Vessier, 244 
Vestier, 303 
Vestraete, 303 
Viard, 165 
Viareingue, 278 
Viault, 165 
Vibert, 165 
Vicart, 165 
Vicaire, 165 
Vicel, 165 
Vichard, 165 
Viclierat, 165 
Viclin, 165 
Vicq, 164 
Vidalenc, 493 
Vidalon, 493 
Vidard, 494 
Videcocq, 27 
Vide, 493 
Videau, 493 
Videl, 493 
Vidocq, 493 
Vidon, 493 
Vidron, 494 
Vidus, 493 
Viel, 383 
Vient, 316 
Viette, 165 
Viey, 164 
Vige, 164 
Vigerio, 165 
Vigier, 165 
Vigla, 165 
Vilbaut, 123 



INDEX OF FRENCH NAMES. 



559 



Vilcere, 123 
Vilcocq, 27 
Vildc, 447 
Villachon, 123 
Villain, 123 
Villard, 124 
Ville, 123 
Ville, 123 
Villegri, 123 
Villemain, 124 
Villeinont, 124 
ViUemot, 124 
Viller, 124 
ViUerie, 124 
Villerm, 124 
ViUeret, 124 
Villette, 124 
ViUetard, 447 
ViUiame, 124 
Villiaume, 124 
Villmar, 124 
ViUy, 123 
Vntard, 447 
Vimar, 165 
Vinay, 263 
Vinbourg, 264 
Vincey, 263 
Vinche, 263 
Vincke, 263 
Vincq, 412 
Vinit, 316 
Vinson, 263 
Vintin, 316 
Vintz, 316 
Violard, 383 
Violete, 468 
Violleau, 383 
Viollier, 383 
VirgiUe, 526 
Virot, 257 
Virquin, 74 
Visier, 351 
Visonneau, 351 
Vissac, 351 
Visse, 351 
Visser, 351 
Vissier, 351 
Visto, 303 
VitaHs, 494 
Vite, 493 
Viteau, 493 
Vitel, 493 



Vitococq, 494 
Viton, 493 
Vitrac, 494 
Vitry, 4i>5 
Vitte, 493 
Vittier, 494 
Vittiz, 493 
Vittu, 493 
Voilin, 384 
Voillemier, 384 
Voilleniont, 384 
Voilquin, 384 
Voiiy, 325 
Vol, 383 
Volf, 71 
VoUee, 383 
Vollet, 384 
Vollier, 384 
Voltier, 378 
Voulquin, 93 
Vuillaume, 384 
VuiUefroy, 384 
VuiUemot, 384 

Wal, 298 
Walder, 345 
Walferdin, 88 
Wallart, 298 
WaUes, 298 
Walter, 345 
Walz, 298 
Wanner, 394 
Waree, 278 
Warengue, 278 
Warin, 305 
Warinier, 305 
Warme, 108 
Warnet, 305 
Waro, 278 
Waroquier, 278 
Warre, 278 
Watel, 413 
WateKn, 413 
Watin, 413 
Watteau, 412 
Wauthier, 435 
WegeUn, 523 
Wegman, 523 
Weisse, 351 
Weil, 383 
Wei, 383 
Weld, 344 



Weldell, 344 
Wcldon, 345 
Welling, 383 
Welhoff, 383 
Wenk, 412 
Werle, 325 
Wernle, 305 
Wey, 523 
Weyn, 523 
Wiart, 165 
Wibaille, 63 
Wicart, 165 
Wicot, 165 
Wideman, 494 
Widmer, 494 
Wigy, 164 
Wilbrod, 123 
Willard, 124 
SViUaume, 124 
WiUerme, 124 
Willemin, 124 
WiUemot, 124 
Winnen, 264 
Wissocq, 351 
Witier, 494 
Witlich, 494 
Wizemann, 351 
Woillaume, 72, 384 
Woillez, 384 
WoiUot, 72 
Wolter, 378 
Wulveryck, 72 

Yoxif, 367 
Yslin, 475 
Ytasse, 449 
Ytier, 450 
Yunc, 419 
Yve, 366 
Yvose, 366 
Yvert, 367 
Yzard, 475 

Zeiller, 433 
Zelger, 433 
ZeUe, 433 
ZeUer, 433 
Zircher, 441 
Zorgo, 441 
Zurcher, 441 



INDEX OF ENGLISH NAMES. 



Abba, 60 
Abbe, 60 
Abbey, 60 
Abbiss, 61 
Abbott, 61 
Abdy, 39, 61 
Abson, 61 
Achard, 209 
Ache, 209 
AchHn, 209 
Acken, 211 
Acorn, 210 
Acre, 210 
Acron, 210 
Acroyd, 210 
Addicott, 288 
Addiss, 288 
Addy, 287 
Addlehead, 337 
Ade, 519 
Adie, 519 
Adier, 288 
Adkin, 288 
Adlam, 337 
Adlan, 337 
Adlard, 337 
Ad^er, 96 
Ad nans, 288 
Adolph, 72, 288 
Adolphus, 338 
Agan, 211 
Agar, 210 
Agg, 209 
Aggas, 193 
Aggis, 193 
Aglin, 154 
Agombar, 211 
Ague, 209 
Aguilar, 154 
Aikin, 211, 471 
Aikman, 210, 471 
Ailger, 154 
Ailman, 154 
Air, 89, 94 
Airey, 94 
Airy, 89 
Akass, 193 
Ake, 209 
Akey, 209 
Alban, 134 
Albany, 134 
Albert, 516 
Albery, 135 
Aldebert, 418 
Alden, 28, 418 
Alder, 418 



Alderdice, 419 
Alderman, 338, 462 
Aldham, 418 
Aldis, 418 
Aldiss, 64, 65 
Aldred, 418 
Aldrich, 41, 418 
Aldridge, 41, 419 
Aldritt, 418 
Ale, 154 

Aleman, 154, 461 
Alfred, 41, 135 
Alger, 516 
Alice, 300 
Alker, 142 
Allain, 238 
Allan, 238 
AUard, 516 
Allaway, 517 
Allbright, 516 
Allbut, 299 
AUcard, 142 
Allchin, 299 
Allday, 418 
Alley, 516 
Allfrey, 516 
AUgood, 299 
AUick, 142 
AlUes, 300 
AUix, 142 
AUmack, 517 
Ailman, 517 
Allnutt, 517 
Alio, 516 
AUt, 418 
Allty, 418 
Allvey, 517 
Allward, 517 
AUwood, 517 
AUwright, 460 
Almar, 517 
Almiger, 143, 225 
Almond, 473, 517 
Aloe, 516 
Alp, 134 
Alpenny, 134 
Alpha, 134 
Alsager, 300 
Altman, 418 
Alton, 418 
Altree, 419 
Alvary, 135 
Alvert, 135 
Alvey, 134 
Alvis, 134 
Alwin, 517 



Amber, 312 
Ambleman, 143 
Ambler, 143 
Ambridge, 312 
Ames, 492 
Amett, 284 
Amey, 492 
Amiss, 284 
Amor, 130 
Amory, 130 
Ampleman, 143 
Ancrum, 289 
And, 100, 432 
Anderson, 32 
Andlan, 432 
Andoe, 100, 432 
Andrade, 432 
Ang, 212 
Angel, 213 
Angelo, 213 
Angleman, 213 
Angler, 213, 460 
Angley, 213 
Anghn, 213 
Anguish, 293 
Angwin, 212 
Anhault, 289 
Anne, 65, 289 
Anning, 289 
Anniss, 289 
Anns, 119 
Ansell, 119 
Ansekne, 119 
Anser, 119 
Anslow, 119 
Anster, 274 
Anstey, 274 
Anthem, 432 
Antill, 432 
Antley, 432 
Antridge, 432 
App, 60 
Appach, 60 
Applin, 61 
Appold, 61 
Apsey, 61 
Arabella, 486 
Arber, 386 
Arbery, 386 
Arbon, 386 
Arch, 387 

Archambaud, 11, 432 
Archard, 388 
Archbell, 388 
Archbold, 388 
Archbutt, 388 



INDEX OF ENGLISH NAMES. 



561 



Archer, 388 
Arculus, 387 
Arden, 251 
Arding, 250 
Ardouin, 251 
Argent, 388 
Argue, 387 
Argument, 276, 388 
Ariell, 95 
ArkeU, 387 

Arkwright, 41, 388, 400 
Arle, 95, 339 
Arliss, 340 
Arm, 418 
Armat, 147 
Armeny, 146 
Armgold, 147 
Armiger, 147 
Arminger, 8, 146 
Armine, 146 
Armor)', 147 
Armour, 147 
Arms, 147 
Am, 95 
Arnaman, 95 
Arney, 95 
Arno, 95 
Arnold, 95 
Arnulphe, 95 
Amum, 95 
Arpin, 386 
Arreud, 96 
Arrowsmith, 462 
Arter, 250 
Arundel, 152 
Asay, 119 
Asberry, 119 
Asbridge, 119 
Ascough, 217 
Ash, 142, 216 
Ashbold, 217 
Asher, 217 
Ashkettle, 11, 128, 

(note,) 512 
Ashlin, 216 
Ashman, 217 
Ashmore, 217 
Ashpart, 217 
Ashwin, 217 
Ashwith, 217 
Ashwood, 217 
Aslin, 119 
Aslock, 120 
Ask, 142, 216 
Askey, 216 
Askwith, 42 
Asman, 120 
Aspern, 119 
Asperne, 39 
Aaqwith, 37, 217, 223 
Ass, 89, 119 
Assey, 119 
Aste, 216 



Astle, 216 
Astor, 216 
Astray, 216 
Astwood, 216, 223 
Atack, 288 
Atkey, 288 
Atkin, 288 
Atkiss, 40, 288 
Atley, 288 
Atmore, 288 
Attey, 19 
Attle, 288 
Attoe, 287 
Attride, 288 
Attridge, 288 
Atts, 288 
Attwood, 288 
Atty, 287 
Aubery, 135 
Audritt, 382 
Auger, 382 
Aught, 381 
Aughtie, 381 
Aukward, 142 
Avdeef, 514 
Auriol, 524 
AusteU, 302 
Auth, 381 
Auther, 382 
Auton, 381 
Autram, 382 
Aveline, 290 
Avehng, 290 
Aver, 290 
Avery, 290 
Avila, 290 
Avill, 290 
Avis, 290 
Aviz, 290 
Awl, 516 
Ayer, 210 
Aylard, 154 
Ayle, 154 
Ayley, 154 
AyUffe, 210, 419 
AyKng, 154 
Aylmer, 154 
Aylward, 154 
Aylwin, 154 
Ayscough, 39 

Babb, 291 
Babbage, 291 
Babe, 291 
BabeU, 291 
Baber, 291 
Babin, 291 
Baby, 291 
Bacchus, 143 
Back, 172 
Backer, 172 
Backhouse, 144 
Bad, 166 

s 3 



Badder, 166 
Baddeley, 166 
Badge, 378 
Badger, 89 
Badgery, 90 
Badock, ICQ 
Badkin, 1G6 
Badman, 167 
Bagg, 172 
Baggett, 172 
Bagley, 48, 172 
Baghn, 172 
Baguley, 172 
Bail, 192 

Bailey, 48, 172, 192 
Balaam, 192, 482 
Balcliin, 241 
Balder, 131, 241 
Baldey, 240 
Baldhead, 241 
Baldick, 241 
Baldridge, 241 
Baldry, 41, 241 
Baldwin, 42, 242 
Balfe, 73, 379 
Ball, 192 
BaUard, 192 
BaUer, 192 
BaUey, 192 
Balling, 192 
BaUock, 192 
BaUs, 241 
Babner, 192 
Balsam, 26, 241, 470 
Baltic, 241 
Balyer, 192 
Bance, 235 
Bancker, 182 
Band, 235 
Bander, 236 
Banderet, 236 
Bang, 182 
Banger, 175 
Banghart, 182 
Bank, 182, 490 
Bankart, 182 
Bankier, 182 
Bann, 175 
Banner, 175, 234 
Bannick, 175 
Banny, 175 
Banter, 87 
Banting, 236 
Bantock, 235 
Banton, 236 
Banyard, 175 
Bard, 222 
BardeUe, 222 
Bardin, 222 
Barding, 222 
Bardolf, 72 
Bardolph, 222 
Bardouleau, 222 



562 



INDEX OF ENGLISH NAMES. 



Bardy, 222 
Barebone, 70 
Barefoot, 158 
Barehard, 69 
Barlas, 354 
Barlass, 353 
Barley, 22, 61 
Barling, 61 
Barlow, 22, 61 
Barmore, 69 
Barnacle, 158 
Barnard, 423 
Barnett, 423 
Barney, 423 
Barr, 22, 61 
Barrass, 61 
BarreU, 22 
Barrett, 61, 62 
Barreyman, 62 
Barrow, 22, 61 
Barry, 22, 61 
Barter, 222 
Bartie, 222 
Bartlett, 222 (note) 
Bartman, 222 
Bartram, 222 (note) 
Barwise, 68, 69, 355 
Baseke, 181 
BasH, 181 
Basin, 181 
Bask, 181 
Bass, 181 
Bastard, 12, 183 
Baste, 183 
Bastick, 183 
Basting, 183 
Baster, 183 
Bastow, 183 
Basti-ay, 183 
Bath, 166 
Batho, 166 
Bather, 166 
Batkin, 166 
Batley, 166 
Batt, 166 
Batting, 166 
Battle, 166 
Batty, 166 
Baud, 240 
Baugh, 291 
Bavarian, 314 
Bavin, 291 
Beacall, 222 
Beach, 222 
Beachman, 222 
Beadle, 166 
Beadman, 167 
Beagle, 48 
Beakem, 222 
Bcalo, 48 
Bear, 68 
Boarbcnn, 70 
lieater, 166 



Beath, 166 
Beatley, 166 
Beatty, 166 
Beau, 224 
Beautyman, 455 
Beaver, 90, 91 
Bebb, 414 
Beck, 222, 490 
Beckett, 222 
Beckman, 222 
Bed, 166 
Beddard, 167 
Bedding, 166 
Beddoe, 166 
Bede, 166 
Bee, 47, 378 
Beecher, 222 
Beechey, 222 
Beer, 68 

Begg, 47, 64, 222 
Beetle, 166 
Befford, 414 
Beldam, 241 
Belfry, 269 
Bell, 192 
Bellamy, 192 
Beller, 269 
Bellett, 269 
Bellew, 192 
Bellies, 521 
Belliss, 269, 521 
Bellman, 269, 461 
BeUmain, 269 
Bellment, 269 
Bellmore, 192, 269 
Belly, 192 
Bellord, 269 
Bellow, 192 
BeUows, 521 
Belser, 521 
Belsey, 269 
Belt, 240 
Beltram, 241 
Belward, 270 
Ben, 484 
Bence, 235 
Bench, 182 
Bender, 236 
Bendelow, 235 
Bending, 236 
Bendlo, 235 
Bendy, 235 
Benger, 177 
Benjamin, 484 
Benkin, 22, 177 
Benmore, 177 
Bonn, 21, 22, 176 
Bennell, 21, 176 
Banner, 177 
]ienney, 176 
Bcnnickc, 176 
Benning, 177 
Bennocli, 176 



Benns, 177 
Bense, 177 
Benson, 236 
Bent, 235 
Bentall, 235 
Bentinck, 236 
Benton, 236 
Bentwright, 236 
Berger, 69 
Beringer, 70 
Bernard, 40, 70 
Bernhard, 40 
Bernold, 71 
Berrett, 69 
Berridge, 69 
Berrier, 69 
Berrill, 69 
Berringer, 70 
Bertham, 370 
Berbie, 370 
Bertin, 370 
Bertram, 41, 370 
Bei-trand, 41, 370 
Berward, 69 
Besley, 181 
Bessel, 181 
Bessemer, 181 
Bessett, 181 
Best, 183 
Bethell, 166 
Bethray, 167 
Betkin, 166 
Betteley, 166 
Bettell, 166 
Betteridge, 167 
Betty, 65, 166, 484 
Beugo, 378 
Bevan, 414 
BeviUe, 414 
Bew, 47, 378 
Bewley, 48 
Bewly, 379 
Beyerman, 313 
Bibb, 414 
Bibby, 414 
Biber, 91 
Bible, 414 
]5ick, 77, 84, 177 
Bicker, 178 
Bickle, 177 
Bickley, 177 
Bid dick, 166 
Biddulph, 42, 72, 167 
Bidgood, 40 
Biffin, 414 
Bigelow, 177 
Bigg, 47, 64, 77, 177 
]}iggar, 178 
Bigman, 178 
Bilke, 13, 269 
Bill, 17, 269, 484 
Billamorc, 269 
Billet, 13, 269 



INDEX OF ENGLISH NAMES. 



r)63 



Billeter, 219 
IJillliam, 209 
Milliard, 13, 209 
Billin, 270 
Billing, 209 
Billingay, 209 
Billis, 209 
Billnian, 209 
Billow, 13, 17, 209 
BUly, 17, 209 
BiUyeald, 270 
Biiulen, 230 
Binder, 2:^0 
Bingey, 178 
Binney, 176 
Biuns, 177 
Birch, 106 
Bird, 92, 329 
Birdlock, 370 
Birdmore, 370 
Birdseye, 370 
Birne, 70 
Birnei% 70 
Birney, 70 
Birt, 370 
Birtle, 370 
Birtles, 370 
Biscoe, 181 
Bisgood, 181 
Bishop, 182, 463 
Bisney, 181 
Biss, 181 
BisseU, 181 
Bissmii-e, 181 
Bitch, 84, 177 
Bithrey, 167 
Black, 395 
Blacker, 395 
Blackie, 395 
Blackman, 395 
Blacow, 393 
Blade, 370 
Blain, 396 
Blake, 393 
Blakeman, 393 
Blaker, 393 
Blakey, 393 
Blanch, 392 
Blanchard, 393 
Blanchett, 393 
Blancliflower, 468 
Blancker, 393 
Bland, 390 
Blanden, 397 
t Blaney, 390 
Blank, 392 
Blankman, 393 
Blate, 376 
Bleach, 393 
Bleacher, 393 
Bleak, 393 
Bleay, 396 
Bledy, 440 



Blenky, 392 
BUnkin, 392 
Blciikinsop, 392 (note) 
Blenkiron, 393 
Blessed, 441 
lilosslcy, 440 
Blethyn, 440 
Blevin, 184 
Blew, 390 
Blewer, 396 
Blick, 393 
]51igh, 393 
Blight, 440 
Blinckhorn, 393 
Blinco, 392 
Blindell, 397 
Bliss, 440 
Blissett, 441 
Blizzard, 441 
Block, 214 
Blockey, 214 
Blogg, 214 
Blomeley, 465 
BlondeU, 397 
Bloodgood, 440 
Bloom, 465 
Bloomer, 465 
Bloomy, 465 
Bloss, 466 
Blossett, 466 
Blossom, 465 
Blow, 214, 396 
Blowen, 215, 396 
Blower, 215, 396 
Bluck, 214 
Blunkell, 513 
Blyth, 440 
Boadella, 454 
Boag, 224 
Board, 229 
Boarder, 229 
Boardman, 229 
Boardwine, 229 
Boast, 409 

Boatwright, 455, 460 
Boaz, 482 
Bobart, 422 
Bobbin, 422 
Bobbitt, 422 
Bobby, 484 
Bobkin, 422 
Bock, 224 
Bodda, 454 
Bodell, 454 
Boden, 454 
Bodgener, 225 
Bodger, 455 
Bodily, 454 
Bodicker, 455 
Bodkin, 454 
Bodley, 454 
Bodman, 455 
Bodmer, 455 



Body, 454 
Boctofcur, 455 
Botr, 421 
BofTey, 421 
Bogard, 225 
Bogg, 224 
Boggis, 455 
Boggon, 225 
Bogie, 224 
Bogle, 224 
Bogman, 225 
Bogue, 47 
Bold, 240 
Bolden, 29, 242 
Boldero, 131, 242 
Boldery, 241 
Bolding, 241 
Boling, 281 
Bollin, 281 
Bollman, 281 
Bolt, 240 
Bolter, 241 
Boltwood, 242 
Bomgarson, 176 
Bonar, 176 
Bonbright, 176 
Bond, 225 
Boney, 175 
Boniger, 37, 170 
Bonken, 175 
Bonnell, 175 
Bonner, 176 
Bonnick, 175 
Bonning, 175 
Bonny, 175 
Bonnyman, 176 
Bonser, 236 
Bonsey, 175, 235 
Bonter, 236 
Boodle, 454 
Bookless, 353. 354 
Bool, 280 
Boore, 452 
Boorman, 452 
Boot, 454 
Booth, 454 
Booty, 454 
Border, 229 
Bosher, 408 
Bosley, 408 
Bosnian, 408 
Boss, 408 
Bossard, 408 
Bossey, 408 
Bossom, 408 
Bostel, 409 
Bostock, 409 
Bostridge, 409 
Bothy, 224 
Botly, 454 
Bott, 454 
Botten, 454 
Botting, 454- 



564 



INDEX OF ENGLISH NAMES. 



Bottle, 454 
Botwright, 455 
Bouch, 378 
Boucliey, 378 
Boucher, 379 
Boucherett, 379 
Boudrow, 242 
Boughtwhore, 241 
Boully, 280 
Boulting, 241 
Boutflower, 455 (note) 
Bouverie, 422 
Bouvier, 422 
Bovay, 421 
Bovey, 421 
BoviUe, 421 
Bow, 224 
Bowdry, 241 
Bowe, 47 
BoweU, 224 
Bowen, 225 
Bower, 452, 490 
Bowerman, 452 
Bowker, 379 
Bowkett, 379 
Bowl, 280 
Bowler, 281 
Bowman, 225 
Bowmer, 225 
Box, 32 
Boy, 313 
Boyer, 313 
Boyman, 313 
Bracher, 185 
Brack, 184 
BradneU, 221 
Bradshaw, 501 
Bragan, 185 
Bragg, 130 
Bragger, 130 
Braham, 371 
Brain, 185 
Brainard, 185 
Brake, 184 
Brakeman, 185 
Bramble, 371 
Brame, 371 
Bramer, 371 
Bramley, 371 
Brammell, 371 
Brand, 198 
Brandard, 199 
Brander, 199 
Brandis, 199 
Brandish, 199 
Brandlc, 198 
Brandling, 199 
Brandram, 199 
Brandreth, 199 
Braiulrick, 199 
Brandy, 19, 198 
Biant, 198 
Branier, 443 



Brass, 443, 476 
Brassbridge, 495 
Brassell, 443 
Brassey, 443 
Bray, 184 
Brayer, 185 
Brayman, 185 
Brazier, 53, 443 
Brazill, 443 
Braznell, 221 
Breach, 184 
Breakell, 185 
Breaker, 185 
Bream, 106 
Breazard, 186 
Breecher, 185 
Breem, 371 
Breeze, 185 
Bremer, 371 
Bremond, 371 
Bremridge, 371 
Brent, 198 
Breslin, 186 
Bressey, 185 
Brett, 185 
Brettell, 185 
Brew, 193 
Brewer, 194 
Brewes, 185 
Breysic, 186 
Briand, 185 
Briant, 185 
Brick, 184 
BrickeU, 185 
Bricker, 185 
Brickman, 185 
Bridge, 184 
Bridgeman, 185 
Bridgen, 185 
Bridger, 185 
Bridges, 185 
Brier, 185 
Brigg, 184 
Briggs, 185 
Bright, 106, 370 
Brighting, 370 
Brightland, 370 
Brightly, 370 
Brightman, 370 
Brightmore, 370 
Brightwine, 42 
Brighty, 370 
Brigman, 185 
Brim, 371 
Brimble, 371 
Brimelow, 371 
Brimiley, 371 
Brisco, 186 
Brise, 185 
Brisk, 188 
Brisley, 186 
Brisman, 186 
Brissey, 185 



Brittell, 185 
Britnen, 221 
Britter, 185 
Brix, 185 
Brixey, 23, 185 
Broad, 218 
Broadwood, 501 
Brocard, „194 
Brock, 90, 193 
Brockmann, 194 
Broderick, 218 
Brodie, 218 
Brodhead, 218 
Broke, 193 
Broker, '194 
Brond, 198 
Brook, 193 
Brooker, 194 
Brooking, 193 
Brookman, 194 
Brookson, 193 
Bros, 480 

Brother, 218, 293, 513 
Brotherson, 293 
Brown, 126, 398. 400 
Brownell, 399 
Browning, 400 
Brownlow, 399 
Brownett, 400 
Brownrigg, 400 
Brownsmith, 462 
Brownsword, 462 (note) 
Bruce, 185 
Brane, 399 
Brunker, 400 
Brunner, 400 
Bruzand, 186 
Bruzaud, 186 
Buba, 421 
Bubb, 421 
Buck, 85, 378 
Bucket, 379 
Buckie, 378 

Buckle, 379 

Buckley, 379 

Bucklin, 379 

Buckney, 379 

Buckridge, 379 

Bucksey, 379 

Budd, 454 

Budden, 454 

Buddicombe, 455 

Budding, 454 

Buddie, 454 

Buddo, 454 

Buddrich, 455 

Budge, 454 

Budlong, 454 

Budmore, 455 

Buffin, 422 

Buffrey, 422 

Bugg, 47, 110, 378 

Buggeln, 379 



INDEX OF ENGLISH NAMES. 



565 



Bugffin, 379 
Buglea, 48, 379 
Builder, 219 
Buist, 408 (note), 409 
Bulck, 281 
Bulfinch, 104 
Bulger, 281 
Bull, 82, 280 
BuUaker, 281 
Bullard, 281 
Bullen, 281 
Buller, 281 
Bulley, 280 
Bulling, 281 
BuUion, 281 
Bulliss, 281 
Bullmore, 281 
BuUock, 281 
Bullstrode, 3 
Bulman, 281 
Bulmer, 281 
Bulwer, 281 
Bundle, 235 
Bundock, 235 
Bundy, 235 
Bunn, 416 
Bunnett, 416 
Bunney, 416 
Bunning, 416 
BuBsaU, 235 
Bunse, 235 
Bunsen, 236 (note) 
Bunt, 102 
Bunten, 236 
Bunter, 236 
Bunting, 102, 236 
Bunyan, 416 
Bunyer, 416 
Burchard, 279 
BurcheU, 279 
Burd, 239 
Burdekin, 93 
BurdeU, 329 
Burden, 329 
Burder, 330 
Burdett, 330 
Burdock, 329 
Burge, 279 
Burger, 279 
Burgess, 279 
Burgwin, 279 
Burke, 279 
Burley, 69 
Burling, 452 
Bum, 70 
Burnell, 70 
Bumess, 70 
Bumidge, 70 
Burning, 70 
Burnish, 24, 70 
Burnman, 69 
BurreU, 452 
Burt, 106, 370 



Buss, 407 
Bussell, 407 
Bussey, 407 
Bussing, 407 
Bussman, 407 
Busst, 409 
Bustard, 102, 409 
Buszard, 407 
Butiman, 455 
Butlin, 454 
Butling, 22, 454 
Butolph, 72 
Butt, 454 
Buttel, 454 
Buttemer, 455 
Butter, 455 
Butterfly, 455 (note) 
Butterick, 455 
Buttery, 455 
Button, 454 
Buttress, 455 
Bvizzard, 102 
Byard, 313 
Bye, 47, 313 
Byer, 313 
Bynner, 177 
Byron, 70 

Cable, 285 
Caddick, 525 
Caddy, 525 
Cade, 206 
CadeU, 525 
Cadman, 525 
CadweU, 169, 525 
Cahan, 174 
Cain, 174, 482 
Cains, 174 
Calderon, 42, 477 
Cale, 436 
Caley, 436 
Calf, 83 
Calkin, 437 
Calkling, 307 
Callaway, 437 
CaUow, 436 
Camalary, 419 
Camel, 89 
Camm, 436 
Cammegh, 436 
CammeU, 419 
Camp, 171 
Campkin, 171 
Camplin, 171 
Campling, 171 
Canary, 444 
CandaU, 74 
Cande, 74 
Candelin, 74 
Candy, 74 
Caney, 174 
Cann, 444 
Cannar, 444 



Cannel, 444 
Canney, 444 ■ 

Canniffc, 201 
Canning, 444 
Cannon, 444 
Cant, 74 
Canty, 74 
Cantelo, 74 
Cantle, 74 
Cantor, 74 
Capstick, 227 
Carary, 203 
Caravan, 204 
Card, 276 
Carden, 277 
Carder, 277 
CardweU, 277 
Carew, 202 
Carey, 202 
Cark, 481 
Carl, 59 
Carland, 203 
Carless, 59 
Carley, 59 
Carlin, 202 
Carling, 202 
Carloss, 59 
Carman, 203 
Carr, 202 
Carrett, 329 
Carrick, 202 
Carrier, 203 
CarroU, 59 
Carroway, 204 
Cart, 276 
CarteU, 276 
Carter, 53, 277, 460 
Carthew, 277 
Carton, 277 
Cartridge, 277 
Cartwi-ight, 277, 460 
Carty, 276 
Case, 205 
Casement, 205 
Casey, 205 
Cash, 205 
Cashman, 205 
Cashow, 205 
Cask, 205 
Casky, 205 
CasseU, 296 
Castang, 296 
CasteUo, 296 
Caster, 296 
Castle, 296 
Castley, 296 
Caston, 296 
Cate, 206 
Cater, 206 
Catmore, 499 
Catmur, 168 
Cato, 168, 206 
Catomore, 168, 499 



566 



INDEX OF ENGLISH NAMES. 



Catt, 168 
Cattey, 168 
Cattle, 168 
Cattley, 168 
CattUu, 22, 168 
Catto, 168 
Caulk, 307 
Caulking, 307 
Caunce, 519 
Cause, 309 
Causer, 309 
Causey, 309 
Cayzer, 205 
Cazaley, 205 
Centre, 456 
Chad, 168 
Chadborn, 168 
Chadbot, 168 
Chaddock, 168 
Chadman, 168 
Chadwick, 169 
Cbadwin, 169 
Chaffinch, 104 
Chalk, 307 
Chalker, 307 
Chalkey, 307 
Chalklen, 307 
ChalkUng, 307 
Champ, 171 
Chance, 519 
Chancey, 519 
Chant, 74 
Chanter, 74 
Chantrey, 74 
Chapman, 459 
Chard, 250 
Charie, 231 
Charity, 339 
Charker, 232 
Charles, 59 
Charman, 46, 232 
Charrott, 339 
Chart, 250 
Charter, 250 
Chataway, 169 
ChatweU, 169 
Chaucer, 307 
Cheapo, 460 
Cheek, 357 
Cheese, 459 
Cheeseman, 459 
Cheesewright, 460 
Cheever, 285 
Chenning, 329 
Chequer, 358 
CherriU, 202 
Cherry, 231 
Chesman, 459 
Chesney, 459 
Chcssen, 459 
Chick, 357 
Chicken, 357 
Chidell, 438 



ChHd, 162 

ChUdren, 42, 46, 162 
Childers, 162 
ChiU, 162 
Chilly, 162 
Chillmaid, 46, 163 
ChiUman, 46, 163 
Chimlen, 423 
Chimney, 423 
Chin, 418 
Chine, 327 
Ching, 329 
Chinnery, 328 
Chipman, 285 
Chipp, 45, 285 
Chippen, 285 
Chipper, 285 
Chirney, 432 
Chisel, 458 
Chisholm, 459 
Chislett, 458 
Chisman, 459 
Chittle, 438 
Chittock, 438 
Chitty, 438 
Choat, 360 
Choote, 360 
Christ, 133, 134, 484 
Christmas, 487, 522 
Christo, 133 
Christy, 133 
Chrystal, 133 
Chubback, 227 
Chuck, 357 
Chunn, 327 
Chuter, 360 
Chutter, 360 
Circuit, 441 
City, 431 
Clack, 352 
Clad, 435 
Claggett, 352 
Claplin, 183 
Clapp, 183 
Clai^per, 183 
Clapson, 183 
Clare, 374 
Claremont, 374 
Claret, 374 
Claridge, 374 
Claringbold, 39, 374 
Claringbull, 39, 374 
Claris, 374 
Clarvis, 374 
Clarvise, 374 
Clary, 374 
Class, 392 
Classon, 392 
Clavey, 183 
Clay, 352 
Clear, 374 
Cleary, 374 
Cleaver, 414 



Clegg, 352 
Cleggett, 352 
Clench, 199 
Cleveley, 415 
Clever, 414 
Cleverly, 415 
Clewett, 352 
Cliff, 415 
CHft, 415 
Clinch, 199 
CUng, 199 
Clingo, 199 
Clink, 199 
Clinkard, 199 
Clissold, 392 
Clive, 415 
Cloak, 352 
Clode, 377 
Clogg, 352 
Close, 391 (note) 
Closer, 391 (note) 
Clothier, 377, 460 
Cloud, 46, 377 
Cloudman, 378 
Clout, 377 
Clouting, 377 
Cloutman, 378, 461 
Clow, 352 
Cluer, 352 
Glutton, 377 
Coachman, 446 
Cob, 248 
Cock, 446 
Cocker, 446 
Cockett, 446 
Cockin, 446 
Cocking, 446 
Cockle, 446 
Cocklin, 446 
Cockman, 446 
Cocks, 446 
Cod, 106 
Codd, 115 
Codley, 17 
Codling, 115 
Cody, 115 
Coe, 336 
Coffey, 248 
Coffman, 248 
Coffin, 249 
Cogger, 446 
Coggin, 446 
Coghill, 446 
Coglin, 446 
Coish, 336 
Colbran, 226 
Colbreath, 226 
Colburn, 226 
Cold, 477 
Coldman, 81, 477 
Coldrick, 477 
CJole, 226 
Colenso, 24, 226 



I 



Coleman, 22G, 461 
Coley, 22G 
Coll, 17 

Colla, 17, 10, 226 
Collamore, 226 
Collar, 226 
Collard, 226 
College, 226 
Colley, 226 
Collide, 226 
Collier, 58, 226, 460 
Colling, 226 
ColHns, 24, 226 
Colman, 226 
Colmer, 226 
Colt, 81, 477 
Coltart, 81 
Colter, 81, 477 
Colthard, 477 
Coltmann, 81, 477 
Combe, 59, 296 
Combrids^r, 59 
Comer, 60 
Comley, 60 
Commin, 63, 297 
Comont, 60 
Comrie, 60 
Conder, 164 
Condron, 164 
Condry, 164 
Condy, 163 
Cone, 327 
Conger, 328 
Conker, 328 
Conlan, 327 
Conne, 327 
Connell, 327 
Connery, 328 
Conny, 327 
Conoff, 328 
Conquest, 328 
Conrath, 328 
Consell, 163 
Const, 360 
Constable, 462, 486 
Conybear, 328 
Conyer, 328 
Coode, 101, 115 
Coolbreath, 226 
Coote, 52, 101, 115 
Cooze, 309 
Copeman, 248, 459 
CopeUn, 248 
Copestake, 227 
Copley, 248 
Copp, 248 
Coppard, 248 
Copper, 476 
CoppernoU, 221 
Coppin, 249 
Coijpock, 248 
Copsey, 23, 248 
Corbettj 98 



OF ENGLISH NAMES. 5()7 


Corbin, 98 


Cow, 336 


Corbould, 202 


Cowan, .'•J.36 


Corby, 98 


Coward, 12, 336 


Core, 202 


Cowell, 336 


Corker, 481 


Cowie, 336 


Corkcry, 481 


Cowing, 336 


Corking, 481 


Cowland, 336 


Corkling, 481 


Cowman, 337 


Corkman, 481 


Cowpcr, 476 


Cornell, 433 


Craig, 97 


Corner, 433 


Craigie, 97 


Corney, 433 


Craik, 97 


Cornick, 433 


Crake, 97 


Corning, 433 


CrakeU, 97 


Cornman, 433 


Cram, 97 


Corsan, 409 


Cray, 401 


Corsar, 409 


Creah, 170 


Corse, 409 


Creak, 170 


Cort, 409 


Creaker, 170 


Cory, 202 


Crealey, 196 


Cose, 309 


Cream, 125 


Cosier, 309 


Creamer, 125 


Cossack, 309 


Crean, 465 


Cossart, 309 


Cree, 170 


Cossey, 309 


Creech, 170 


Cosson, 309 


Creelman, 196 


Cost, 360 


Creer, 170 


Costall, 360 


Crespel, 404 


Costeker, 360 


Crespin, 404 


Costello, 360 


CressaU, 401 


Coster, 360 


Cressy, 401 


Costiff, 360 


Crew, 401 


Costlow, 360 


Cribb, 188 


Costly, 360 


Crickmay, 25, 170 


Cotman, 116 


CriUy, 196 


Cott, 115 


Crimson, 125 


Cottam, 115 


Griper, 188 


Cotter, 116, 514 


Crippen, 188 


Cottle, 115 


Cripps, 404 


Cotton, 117 


Crisp, 404 


Coulthred, 477 


Crispin, 404 


Cound, 163 


Croad, 46, 371 


Counsell, 163 


Croager, 46, 372 


Count, 163 


Crock, 252 


Counter, 164 


Crocker, 253 


County, 163 


Crockett, 253 


Countze, 163 


Croker, 253 


Courage, 337 


CroU, 405 


CourceUe, 409 


Croly, 405 


Courridge, 337 


Crome, 372 


Course, 409 


Cromey, 372 


Courser, 409 


Cromley, 374 


Court, 409 


Croney, 465 


Courtenay, 409 


Crook, 46 


Courtier, 409 


Croon, 373 


CourtneU, 221 


Cropp, 424 


Courtwright, 409 


Cropper, 425 


Cousin, 296, 309 


Croser, 406 


Coutts, 115 


Cross, 405, 490 


Covell, 248 


Crossman, 406 


Coveny, 249 


Crotch, 46 


Covert, 248 


Crothers, 372 


Covey, 248 


Croton, 372 



568 



INDEX OF ENGLISH NAMES. 



Crotty, 371 
Crowden, 372 
Crowdy, 371 
Crowe, 97 
Crown, 465 
Crowson, 97 
Crucknell, 221 
Crum, 373 
Cruse, 404 
Cruso, 404 
CrusseU, 404 
Crutwell, 373 
Cryer, 53, 170 
Cryme, 125 
Cubbidge, 248 
Cubby, 248 
Cubitt, 144, 248 
Cubley, 248 
Cuckoo, 105 
Cudd, 115 
Cuddon, 117 
Cuddy, 115 
Cufman, 248 
Cuff, 248 
Cuffey, 248 
Cuffley, 248 
Cufflin, 248 
Cull, 478 
Cullen, 478 
Culley, 478 
Cumber, 234 
Cumberbatch, 234 
Cumberbeacb, 234 
Cumberpatch, 234 
Cumming, 297 
Cumper, 234 
Cunard, 328 
CundeU, 163 
Cundy, 163 
Cuniffe, 328 
Cunio, 327 
Cunley, 327 
CunUffe, 328 
CunneU, 327 
Cunnew, 328 
Cunnings, 329 
Cunnold, 328 
Cupid, 143, 144 
Cupit, 144, 248 
Curling, 405 
Curll, 405 
Curnick, 433 
Cumo, 433 
Curson, 409 
Curt, 409 
CurtaU, 409 
Curtze, 409 
Curwen, 204 
Cust, 360 
Custance, 24, 360 
Custard, 360 
Cutlove, 40 
Cutmorc, 116 



Cutright, 116 
CutteU, 115 
Cutting, 115 
Cutto, 19 

Dabb, 428 
Dack, 390 
Backer, 391 
Dacombe, 391 
Dadd, 291 
Daddy, 291 
Dade, 291 
Dadmun, 292 
Dafford, 428 
Daffy, 428 
Dagan, 338 
Dagg, 390 
Dagger, 391 
Dagley, 48, 390 
Dagnall, 338 
Daily, 390 
Dainty, 310 
Dairy, 391 
Daisy, 390 
Daldy, 375 
Dale, 375, 491 
DaUas, 375 
DaUen, 375 
Dallimore, 376 
Dalling, 375 
Dallor, 375 
Dallow, 375 
Dalloway, 376 
DaUy, 375 
Dalman, 376 
Damer, 365 
Dames, 365 
Damm, 364 
Damory, 365 
Dana, 311 
Dance, 310 
Dancer, 310 
Dancey, 310 
Dand, 310 
Dandelyon, 12, 310 
Dando, 310 
Dandy, 45, 310 
Dane, 311, 338 
Danes, 338 
Danford, 311 
Danger, 311, 338 
Daniel, 484 
Danks, 359 
Dann, 311 
Dannan, 311 
Dannell, 311 
Danner, 311 
Danson, 310 
Dapp, 428 
Daracott, 208 
Darcli, 397 
Dardy, 208 
Dargun, 208, 397 



Dark, 397 
Darker, 397 
Darkies, 208 
Darkin, 397 
Darkman, 397 
Darley, 208 
Daly, 48 
Darnell, 398 
Darnley, 398 
Darr, 208 
DarreU, 208 
Darrigon, 208 
Darrow, 208 
Dart, 209 
Darter, 209 
Dartnell, 221 
Darwin, 208 
Dasent, 385 
Dassett, 385 
Dassy, 385 
Date, 291 
Datt, 291 
Daunt, 310 
DavaU, 428 
Daven, 428 
Davidge, 428 
Daviron, 428 
Davock, 428 
Davy, 428 
Day, 390 
Daybell, 390 
Dayer, 391 
Dayes, 390 
Daykin, 390 
Dayman, 391 
Daymont, 391 
Daze, 291, 390 
Dazey, 291 
Deal, 101 
Dean, 311 
Dear, 268 
Dearbird, 268 
Deai'love, 268 
Dearman, 268 
Dearth, 209 
Deary, 27, 268 
Deck, 390 
Dederick, 333 
Dedman, 333 
Dedridge, 333 
Deed, 332 
Deedy, 332 
Deer, 85 
Deffell, 428 
Deighen, 338 
Delay, 375 
Delhicr, 375 
Dell, 375 
Dellamore, 376 
Deller, 375 
Dellow, 375 
Delmar, 376 
Domaid, 457 



INDEX OF ENGLISH NAMES. 



569 



Demon, 457 
Dempsey, 3G5 
Dench, lOd, 359 
Dendy, 310 
Denhard, 311 
Denison, 45, 311 
Denman, 312 
Denn, 311 
Dennell, 311 
Denning, 311 
Denny, 311 
Denolf, 312 
Denson, 311 
Denyer, 311 
Dern, 398 
Derwin, 268 
Dessert, 385 
Dettman, 333 
Dettmer, 333 
Devey, 428 
Devick, 428 
Devlin, 428 
DevoU, 488 
Devon, 428 
Dew, 427 
Dewar, 427 
Dewell, 427 
Dewen, 427 
Dewey, 427 
Dewick, 427 
Dewing, 427 
Dey, 457 
Diabogue, 457 
Diack, 457 
Diamond, 457 
Dias, 351 
Dicey, 351 
Dick, 406, 484 
Dicker, 407 
Dickie, 406 
Dickin, 407 
Dickman, 407 
Dietman, 333 
Diggle, 406 
Digman, 407 
Digory, 407 
Digweed, 42 
Dilger, 189 
Dilke, 189 
DiU, 189 
Diller, 189 
DUley, 189 
DiUicar, 189 
Dillick, 189 
Dillimore, 190 
Dillman, 190 
Dillmet, 190 
Dillon, 190 
DiUow, 189 
DiUwyn, 190 
Dilnut, 41 
Dimes, 365 
Dimmett, 365 



Dimmick, 365 
Dimmock, 365 
Dine, 31 
Dinelcy, 130 
Ding, 367 
Dingle, 367 
Dingley, 367 
Dingman, 367 
Dingwell, 367 
Dingy, 367 
Dining, 31, 130 
Dinn, 129 
Dinning, 130 
Disher, 229 
Disliman, 229 
Disniore, 352 
Diss, 64, 65, 351 
Ditchman, 407 
Dix, 229 
Dixie, 229 
Dobel, 103 
Dobie, 103 
Doblin, 103 
Dock, 427 
Docker, 427 
Docking, 427 
Dodd, 45, 273 
Doddridge, 273, 333 
Dodnian, 273 
Doe, 427 
Doggett, 84, 427 
Doke, 427 
Doll, 63 
DoUand, 40 
Dolling, 63 
Dolphin, 184, 513 
Dommett, 364 
Donelan, 130 
Donn, 129 
DonneU, 129 
Donney, 129 
Donno, 129 
Donnor, 128 
Doody, 273 
Door, 208 
Doran, 208 
Dorbon, 208 
Dorey, 208 
Dorman, 208 
Dormer, 208 
Dorrell, 208 
Dorton, 209 
Dotghin, 273 
Dotry, 273 
Dottridge, 273, 333 
Doubt, 273 
Doubty, 273 
Doudney, 274 
Dove, 103 
Dovey, 103 
Dow, 427 
Dowd, 273 
Dowden, 274 

T 3 



Dowdle, 274 
Dowdiken, 274 
Dowding, 274 
Dowdy, 273 
Dowell, 427 
Dower, 427 
Dowey, 427 
Dowland, 428 
Dowling, 22, 427 
Dowse, 273 
Dowsing, 274 
Dowson, 274 
DozeU, 273 
Dozy, 273 
Drabble, 196 
Drage, 100, 413 
Dragon, 413 
Drain, 413 
Drake, 100, 413 
Drawbridge, 495 
Drawsword, 236 
Drawwater, 502 
Dray, 413 
Draysey, 242 
Dresser, 242 
Drew, 195 
Drewell, 195 
Drewery, 196 
Drewett, 429 
Drinkwater, 502 
Droop, 441 
Drought, 270 
Drowdy, 270 
Drown, 196 
Druce, 249 
Druggan, 196 
Drum, 243 
Drummer, 243 
Drummey, 243 
Drummond, 243 (note) 
Drury, 196 
Dry, 429 
Dryer, 429 
Dubbins, 103 
Duck, 100, 427 
Ducker, 427 
Duckett, 427 
Duckling, 100, 427 
Duckmau, 428 
Duddle, 273, 332 
Duddy, 273, 332 
Dudgeon, 427 
Dudin, 332 
Duga, 100 
Dugald, 428 
Dugard, 427 
Duggin, 100, 427 
Dugmore, 428 
Dugood, 428 
DugweU, 428 
I Duke, 427 
, Duly, 427 
! Dumbell, 364 



570 



INDEX OF ENGLISH NAMES. 



Dume, 363 
Dumlin, 364 
Dummelow, 364 
Dummer, 364 
Dummert, 364 
Dumplin, 364 
Dunavin, 130 
Dunger, 130 
Dungey, 361 
Dunkin, 22 
Dunn, 21, 22, 129 
DunneU, 21, 129 
Dunning, 130 
Dunstone, 130 
Durand, 197 
DureU, 208 
Durley, 208 
Durman, 208 
Durre, 208 
Dutliie, 332 
Dutt, 273, 332 
Dyce, 351 
Dye, 457 
Dyer, 457 
Dyett, 332 
Dyson, 352 
Dyte, 332 

Bade, 381 
Eadie, 381 
Eadon, 381 
Eager, 210 
Eagle, 94, 154 
Eagling, 154 
Eames, 254 
Earee, 94 
Earheart, 95 
Earl, 339 
Early, 339 
Earney, 95 
Earwig, 94 
Earwaker, 112 (note) 
Earratt, 94 
Earth, 139 
Earthy, 139 
East, 302 
Easter, 302 
Easterbrook, 303 
Easterday, 303 
Eastman, 302 
Eastinure, 302 
Easto, 302 
Easty, 302 
Eat, 381 
EatweU, 382 
Eaves, 366 
Ebbetts, 61 
Ebbidge, 60 
Eber, 76 
Ebert, 61 
Eborall, 76 
Edbrook, 382 
Eddis, 381 



Eddy, 381 
EdeU, 337 
Edelsten, 338 
Edgar, 40, 382 
Edge, 209 
Ediker, 382 
Edkins, 381 
Edlery, 338 
Edlesten, 338 
Edlow, 337 
Edmans, 382 
Edmead, 382 
Edmett, 382 
Edmond, 382 
Edolph, 382 
Edridge, 382 
Edward, 382 
Edwell, 382 
Edwick, 382 
Edwin, 382 
Eel, 416 
Egg, 209 
Egley, 154 
Ego, 209 
Elbow, 134 
Elden, 418 
Eldred, 418 
Eldridge, 419 
Element, 276, 299 
Eley, 416 
Elgar, 299 
Elgood, 299 
Elk, 142 
Elkin, 299 
EU, 17, 299 
EUa, 17, 19, 299 
EUacot, 299 
Ellard, 299 
EUen, 238 
EUenor, 239 
Ellery, 299 
Elley, 17, 299 
Ellice, 300 
Elliker, 299 
Elliman, 299 
Ellion, 238 
Ellis, 300 
Ellmaker, 143 
Ellwood, 299 
Elmore, 299 
Elphee, 134 
Elphick, 134 
Else, 300 
Elsegood, 300 
Elsey, 300 
Elt, 418 
Eltham, 418 
Elton, 418 
Elve, 134 
Elvery, 135 
Elves, 134 
Elvidge, 134 
Elvis, 134 



Elvy, 134 
Elwin, 299 
Ember, 254, 312 
Emblem, 143 
Emblin, 143 
Emblow, 143 
Emeler, 143 
Emeny, 254 
Emerick, 254 
Emery, 254 
Emly, 143 
Emlyn, 143 
Emmett, 110, 284 
Emms, 254 
Emus, 284 
EngaU, 213 
England, 213 
Engleburtt, 213 
Engleheart, 213 
English, 318 
Enniss. 289 
Enoch, 289, 482 
Enock, 289 
Enough, 289 
Enright, 289 
Enscoe, 119 
EnseU, 119 
Enser, 119 
Enzer, 119 
Epp, 60 
Erasmus, 26 
Erickson, 32 
Erinine, 146 
Erratt, 94 
Erskine, 79 
Esau, 483 
Eslin, 119 
Essel, 119 
Este, 216 
Estle, 216 
Esty, 216 
Ethel, 337 
Ether, 282 
Etheridge, 282 
Etridge, 288 
Etty, 287 
Eve, 306, 482 
Evelyn, 22, 290 
Ever, 76 
Everall, 76 
Everard, 76 
Evered, 76 
Everett, 76 
Every, 76 
Evezard, 290 
Evill, 366 
Ewald, 367 
Ewart, 366 
Ewe, 85, 366 
Ewell, 366 
Ewer, 366 
Ewing, 366 
Eye, 209 



INDEX OF ENGLISH NAMES. 



571 



Eyes, 475 

Fachney, 435 
Faddy, 62 
Faed, 256 
Fagan, 435 
Fagg, 435 
Faggots, 435 
Fahey, 435 
Fail, 307, 435 
Fair, 323 
Fairbeard, 323 
Fairey, 323 
Fairday, 325 
Fairfoot, 323 
Fairfoul, 93 
Fairlan, 323 
Fairless, 353, 354 
FairUe, 467 
Fairman, 324 
Fairne, 324 
Fairweather, 139 
Faith, 256 
Faithy, 256 
Fake, 435 
Faker, 435 
FaU, 307 
FaUbright, 333 
FaUon, 307 
FaUow, 307 
Fanline, 234 
Fann, 64, 234 
Fanner, 234 
Fanning, 64 
Fannon, 234 
Fanny, 64, 234 
Fantom, 417 
Faraday, 325 
FardeU, 325 
Farden, 325 
Fardo, 325 
Farefowl, 93 
Farewell, 324 
Fargo, 323 
Farmont, 324 
FarneU, 324 
Farra, 323 
Farragat, 324 
Far rand, 323 
FarreU, 323 
Farren, 323 
Farrer, 324 
Farrier, 324 
Farrimond, 324 
Farrow, 323 
Farthing, 325 
Fast, 251 
Fastaff, 72, 252 
Faster, 252 
Fastin, 251 
Fastolf, 72 
Father, 293 
Fatman, 62 



Fatt, 62 
Fatty, 62 
Faullon, 93 
Faultless, 355 
Faunce, 246 
Fay, 4.35 
Fearon, 323 
Feasal, 247 
Feast, 251 
Feaster, 252 
Fechter, 257 
Feddon, 256 
Fees, 246 
Fehon, 435 
FeUow, 307 
Felthouse, 518 
Feltoe, 518 
Feltus, 518 
Feltuss, 42 
FendaU, 417 
Fender, 417 
Fendick, 417 
Fenlon, 234 
Fenton, 417 
Fenn, 64, 234 
FenneU, 234 
Fenner, 234 
Fenning, 64 
Fentiman, 417 
Fentum, 417 
Ferdinand, 325 
Feriner, 324 
Fermin, 215 
Fern, 324 
Fernald, 324 
Ferner, 324 
Fernie, 324 
Fernilow, 324 
Ferny ough, 324 
Ferrand, 323 
FerreU, 323 
Ferrier, 324 
Ferriman, 324 
Ferry, 323 
Fester, 252 
Fetman, 62 
Fett, 62 
Fetter, 293 
Fetterman, 293 
Ficker, 249 
Ficklin, 249 
Fickling, 249 
Fiddaman, 430 
Fiddament, 430 
Fiddey, 430 
FideU, 430 
Fidge, 249 
Fidoe, 430 
Fieldhouse, 518 
Figg, 249 
Filbert, 473, 518 
File, 517 
Fileman, 518 



Filer, 518 

Filkin, 517 

Fill, 517 

Fillary, 518 

Filldew, 518 

Filley, 517 

FiUing, 517 

Fillmer, 518 

Filpot, 518 

Finbow, 315 

Finch, 104 

Fine weather, 139 

Finger, 315 

Fink, 104 

Finn, 315 

Finney, 315 

Finnimore, 315 

Firing, 323 

Firkin, 323 

Firminger, 216 

Fish, 106, 247 

FishHne, 247 

Fisk, 106, 247 

Fisken, 247 

Fist, 251 

Fister, 252 

Fitkin, 430 

Fitman, 430 

Fitt, 430 

Fitter, 430 

Fix, 247 
Fixson, 247 
Fiz, 21 (note), 246 
Fize, 246 
Fizard, 247 
Flack, 411 
Flagg, 411 
Flambard, 220 
Flane, 220 
Flatau, 393 
Flatman, 394 
Flatt, 393 
Flattely, 394 
Flatter, 394 
Flattery, 12, 394 
Flawn, 220 
Flea, 411 
Fleck, 411 
Fleeman, 411 
Flegg, 411 
Flett, 393 
Flewitt, 411 
Flint, 131 
FUtton, 394 
Flook, 411 
Floss, 412 
Flowerday, 466 
Fluck, 411 
Finer, 411 
Fly, 411 
Flyer, 411 
Flyger, 411 
Fog, 136 



572 



INDEX OF ENGLISH NAMES. 



Foggo, 136 
Folk, 333 
Folkard, 334 
Folker, 334 
Folkitt, 334 
Ford, 325 
Forder, 325 
Fordred, 325 
Forget, 324 
Forland, 324 
Forney, 324 
Fort, 325 
Fortin, 325 
Fortune, 325 
Forty, 325 
Fortyman, 325 
Forward, 324 
Foskey, 247 
Foss, 246 
Fossey, 246 
Fossick, 246 
Fouke, 333 
Fowell, 10, 93 
Fowkes, 333 
Fowle, 10, 93 
Fox, 247 
FoxeU, 247 
Foxen, 247 
Foxery, 247 
Frame, 215 
France, 306 
Franco, 306 
Francourt, 306 
Frank, 306 
Frankel, 306 
Franklin, 306 
Frasi, 312 
Fraser, 313 (note) 
Fread, 261 
Freak, 132 
Freck, 132 
Fred, 201 
Frederick, 41, 261 
Freebody, 261 
Freeborn, 261 
Freeborough, 261 
Freebout, 261 
Freebridge, 261 
Freeland, 261 
Freeling, 261 
Freelove, 261 
Freem, 215 
Freestone, 42, 261 
Freeth, 261 
Freeze. 312 
Freezor, 313 (note) 
Fremlin, 205 
Fremont, 215 
French, 300 
Fresh, 449 
Fresher, 449 
Frctliy, 261 
Freutel, 350 



Fricke, 132 
Fricker. 132 
Frickey, 132 
Frid, 261 
Friday, 261 
Friend, 263 
Friendship, 263, 351 
Frisian, 313 
Friskey, 449 
Frith, 261, 491 
Froger, 350 
Fromunt. 215 
Frood, 350 
Frost, 135 
Frostick, 136 
Frostman, 136 
Froude, 350 
Frowd, 350 
Frudd, 350 
Fuel, 10, 93 
Fuggel, 93 
Fuggle, 10 
Fulcher, 334 
Fulke, 333 
Full, 517 
FuUalove, 518 
Fulleck, 517 
FuUerd, 518 
Fullmer, 518 
Furlong, 323 
Furnell, 324 
Furze, 449 
Furzer, 449 
Fuss, 246 
Fussell, 246 
Fussey, 246 
Fuszard, 246 
Fux, 247 

Gabb, 285 
Gable, 285 
Gadban, 208 (note) 
Gadd, 525 
Gade, 206 
Gadlan, 206 
Gaff, 285 
Gaffery, 285 
Gaffin, 285* 
Gagan, 174 
Gahan, 174 
Gain, 174 
Gainer, 174 
Gainey, 174 
Gains, 174 
Gaiter, 206 
Galbot, 437 
Gale, 436, 483 
Galcy, 436 
(Jalilee, 437 
Galindo, 437 
Gall, 436 
Gallager, 437 
Galland, 437 



GaUant, 437 
Gallard, 437 
Gallery, 437 
GaUon, 437 
GaUow, 436 
Galloway, 437 
Gallows, 437 
GaUy, 436 
Gait, 76 
Gamble, 419 
Gambler, 419 
Gamlin, 419 
Gambling, 419 
Game, 436 
Gamer, 436 
Gammage, 436 
Gammon, 436 
Gande, 74 
GandeU, 74 
Gander, 74, 100 
Gandy, 74 
Gann, 444 
Gannaway, 318, 444 
Gannon, 444 
Gannow, 444 
Gansman, 518 
Gant, 74 
Ganter, 74 
Gapp, 285 
Garbett, 203 
Garbrand, 203 
Garbutt, 39, 203 
Gard, 276 
Garden, 276 
Gardie, 276 
Gare, 20, 202 
GareU, 202 
Garey, 202 
Garforth, 39, 203 
Garing, 202 
Garland, 40, 203, 276 
Garlick, 203, 473 
Garling, 202 
Garman, 203 
Garment, 41, 203 
Garnett, 203 
Garrard, 203 
Garras, 202 
Garraway, 204 
Garrett, 41 
Garrick, 20, 202 
Garrod, 203 
Garrold, 204 
Garrow, 202 
Garstin, 42 
Garter, 277 
Garvey, 204 
Garwood, 37, 204, 223 
Gash, 205 
Gashry, 205 
Gaskcll, 205 
Gast, 296 
Gaster, 296 



INDEX 


OF ENGLISH NAMES. 573 


Gastin, 203, 296 


Gidlow, 438 


Gleadall, 435 


Gastineau, 2*.)G 


Gidnian, 438 


Glecd, 435 


Casting, 290 


Gievc, 44, 285 


Gleig, ;i52 


Gataker, 206 


GifTard, 285 


Glew, 352 


Gate, 206 


Giffin, 285 


Gliddon, 435 


Gathergood, 525 (note) 


Gilbert, 458 


Glide, 435 


Gatlitfe, 525 


Gilbody, 458 


Glissan, 392 


Gatty, 525 


Gilby, 442 


Gloag, 352 


Gaussen, 309 


Gildawie, 478 


Glock, 352 


Gavelle, 285 


Gilder, 478 


Gloss, 391 (note) 


Gavey, 285 


Gildert, 478 


Gluer, 352 


Gayleard, 437 


Gilding, 478 


Goad, 115 (note) 


Gayler, 437 


Gilford, 458 


Goat, 85 


Gazard, 205 


Gilfred. 458 


Goater, 116 


Gaze, 205 


Gill, 458, 491 


God, 106, 115, 484 


GazeUe, 205 


GiUard, 458 


Godbold, 115 


Gearing, 202 


Gillen, 458 


Godbolt, 115 


Geary, 202 


Giller, 458 


Goddam, 115 


Geazey, 205 


Gillett, 458 


Goddard, 116 


Gebhard, 285 


GiUey, 458 


Godden, 28, 115 (note), 


Gedd, 525 


GilHam, 458 


117 


Gedney, 525 


GiUibrand, 39, 199, 458 


Godding, 49, 115 


Geere, 202 


GiUihom, 458 


Goddy, 115 


Geldert, 478 


Gilling, 458 


Godfrey, 115 


Gelding, 478 


Gill man, 458 


Godhead, 116, 484 


GeU, 436 


Gilloch, 458 


Godkin, 115 


Gellan, 437 


GiUow, 458 


Godier, 116 


GeUard, 437 


Gilmore, 458 


Godliman, 30, 117 


GeUer, 437 


Gilpin, 442 


Godman, 49, 116 


Gemble, 419 


GHt, 478 


Godmund, 116 


GemmiU, 419 


Gimber, 148 


Godi-ich, 49 


Gender, 74 


Gimbert, 444 


Godrick, 116 


Genna, 444 


GingeU, 419 


GodscbaU, 116 


Genner, 444 


Ginger, 419 


GodseU, 116 


Gent, 74 


Ginman, 444, 461 


GodskaU, 116 


Gentery, 75 


Ginn, 444 


Godso, 114 


Gentle, 74 


Ginneau, 444 


Godsoe, 23, 114, 115 


Gentry, 75 


Ginvej', 444 


Godward, 117 


Geoffry, 437 


Gipp, 44 


Godwin, 49, 117 


Gerard, 203 


Gippert, 285 


Goe, 336 


Gerduck, 276 


Gijjps, 285 


Gogay, 446 


Gerhold, 204 


Gipsy, 285 


Goggin, 446 


Gerich, 202 


Gii-1, 202 


Goggs, 446 


Gerish, 202 


Girling, 202 


Going, 336 


Gerkin, 202 


Gissing, 459 


Gold, 81, 477 


Gerloff, 203 


Gist, 296 


Goldbom-n, 477 


German, 203 


Given, 285 


Golden, 477 


Germany, 203 


Glad, 435 


Golder, 477 


Get, 525 


GladdeU, 435 


Goldfinch, 104 


Getler, 525 


Gladden, 435 


Goldie, 477 


GetUve, 525 


Gladding, 435 


Golding, 477 


Gettman, 525 


Gladdisb, 435 


Goldingay, 477 


Getty, 525 


Gladman, 435 


Goldman, 81, 477 


Gibb, 44, 285 


Gladwin, 435 


Goldney, 41, 477 


Gibbard, 285 


Gladwish, 435 


Goldrick, 477 


Giberne, 285 


Glaisber, 395 


Goldridge, 477 


Giblen, 285 


Glaskin, 392 


Goldwin, 477 


Gibbon, 285 


Glass, 392 


Gomery, 59 


Gibbs, 285 


Glassey, 392 


Gomm, 59 


Gibby, 285 


Glasson, 392 


Gondish, 163 


Gidden, 438 


Glaze, 392 


Good, 101, 115 


Giddy, 438 


Glazard, 392 


Goodacre, 116 


Gidley, 438 


Glazier, 53, 392 


Goodair, 116 



574 



INDEX OF ENGLISH NAMES. 



GoodaU, 115 
Goodday, 115 
Goodear, 116 
Gooden, 117 
Goodenough, 29, 117, 

526 
Goodere, 116 
Goodered, 116 
Goodess, 115 
Goodey, 115 
Goodheart, 116 
Gooding, 49, 115 
Goodlake, 116, 164 
Goodland, 116 
GoodUfife, 116 
Goodluck, 11, 164 
Goodman, 49, 116 
Goodnow, 116 
Goodram, 116 
Goodrich, 49 
Goodrick, 116 
Goodridge, 116 
GoodsaU, 116 
GoodwiU, 117 
Goodwin, 49, 117 
Goodwright, 116, 460 
Goodyear, 116 
Gook, 105 
Goose, 99, 309 
Gooseman, 310 
Goosey, 309 
Gooze, 309 
GorbeU, 203 
Gorbold, 203 
Gore, 202 

Gorebrown, 39, 203 
Goren, 204 
Goring, 202 
Gorman, 203 
Gorway, 204 
Gosbell, 309 
Goshawk, 96 
Gosheron, 310 
Gosland, 310 
Goslee, 310 
Goslin, 309 
Gosling, 100, 309 
Gosmer, 310 
Gosnell, 298 
GospeU, 309 
Goss, 309 
Gossett, 309 
Gostelow, 360 
Goatling, 360 
Goswell, 310 
Goswold, 310 
Goth, 308 
Gothard, 116 
Gott, 115 
Gotto, 115 
Gougou, 105 
Gould, 477 
Goult, 477 



I Goulty, 477 
Gow, 336 
Gowa, 336 
Gowan, 336 
Goward, 336 
Gower, 336 
Gowing, 336 
Gowland, 336 
Gowk, 105 
Goy, 336 
Gozar, 309 
Gozzard, 309 
Grace, 401 
Gracey, 401 
Graseman, 464 
Grass, 464 
Grasset, 464 
Grassick, 464 
Grassie, 464 
Graygoose, 100 
Grayling, 401 
Gream, 125 
Greek, 170 
Greele, 196 
Greely, 196 
Greer, 170 
Green, 465 
Greener, 465 
Greenhouse, 465 
Greening, 465 
Greenish, 465 
Greenman, 465 
Greensmith, 462 (note) 
Greenson, 465 
Greensword, 462 (note) 
Greeny, 465 
Gregg, 170, 401 
GreneU, 465 
Gresley, 401 
Greswold, 401 
Grew, 401 
Grey, 401 
Grice, 77, 401 
Grier, 170 
Giigg, 170 
Grill, 196 

Grimaldi, 125 (note) 
Grimbold, 125 
Grimble, 125 
Grime, 125 
Grimley, 125 
Grimm, 125 
Grimmer, 125 
Grimmet, 125 
Grimmond, 125 
Grimson, 125 
Grisold, 401 
Grissell, 77, 401 
Grist, 134 
Grobe, 424 
Gronow, 405 
Groom, 10, 59 
Groombridge, 41, 59 



Groffmann, 425 

Grose, 45, 48, 346, 405 

Groser, 406 

Grosert, 406 

Grossmith, 462 

Grote, 45, 48, 49 

Grouse, 49, 102, 405 

Grover, 425 

Grossman, 406 

Grove, 424 

Grubo, 424 

Gruby, 424 

Grueber, 401 

Grumble, 11? 

Grumley, 60 

Grumman, 401 

Grummant, 60 

Grummer, 60 

Gruner, 465 

Gruneisen, 462 (note) 

Gruning, 465 

Guelpa, 88 

Guelph, 46 

Guest, 296 
Guestling, 296 

Guilan, 123 
Guild, 478 
Guillaume, 124 
Guille, 122 
Gulbert, 479 
GuU, 478 
GuUen, 478 
GuUet, 479 
Gullick, 478 
GuUiford, 479 
Gulliver, 478, 479 
Gully, 478 
Gum, 10 

GumboH, 11, 50, 164 
Gumm, 59 
Gumma, 59 
Gummoe, 59 
Gundey, 163 
Gundick, 163 
Gundry, 164 
Gunn, 163 
Gunnell, 163 
Gunner, 155, 164, 513 
Gunnery, 39, 164 
Gunning, 163 
Guns, 163 
Gunson, 32, 163 
Gunston, 164 
Gunter, 155, 164 
Gunther, 155, 164 
Gurnard, 433 
GurneU, 433 
Gurner, 433 
Gurncy, 433 
Gurr, 202 
Gurwood, 42, 204 
Gustard, 360 
Gut, 115 



INDEX OF ENGLISH NAMES. 



575 



Guthrie, 164 
Gutman, 116 
Gutterman, 117 
Guy, 336 
Guyatt, 336 
Guyer, 336 
Gwalter, 47, 345 
Gwillam, 47 
Gwillan, 47 
Gwilt, 344, 447 
Gwyer, 165 
Gwynn, 263 
Gwyther, 494 
Gye, 336 

Hack, 209 
Hackaday, 39 
Hackman, 210 
Hacon, 211, 513 
Hadaway, 169 
Haddo, 19 
Haddock, 106, 168 
Hadkiss, 40, 168 
Hadley, 168 
Hadlow, 168 
Hadnutt, 168 
Hadow, 19, 168 
Hadrot, 168 
Hadwen, 169 
Haedy, 168 
Hagan, 155 
Hagar, 210, 482 
Hagdom, 467 
Hagel, 209 
Hagen, 211 
Haggard, 209 
Haggle, 209 
Haig, 209 
HaU, 209 
Hailing, 209 
Hailstone, 480 
Hain, 211 
Halbert, 427 
Haldane, 318 
Halfacre, 135 
Halfhead, 135 
Halfman, 135 
Halfpenny, 134 
Halfyard, 11 
Hall, 480 
HaUbower, 480 
Halley, 426, 480 
HaUgreen, 480 
Halliday, 427 
Halliley, 426 
HaUingman, 239 
Hallowbread, 427 
HaUoway, 427 
Hambling, 143 
Hamer, 492 
Hamlet, 40 
HamUn, 492 
Hamling, 143 



Hammer, 130 
Haramill, 143 
Hammond, 210 
Hamper, 312 
Hance, 119 
Hancock, 27 
Hand, 417, 490 
Handel, 417 
Handey, 417 
Handley, 417 
Handright, 432 
Hang, 212 
Hanger, 289 
Hankey, 289 
Hankin, 289 
Hanlon, 289 
Hanman, 289 
Hanmer, 289 
Hann, 17, 101, 289 
Hanna, 17, 101, 289 
Hannay, 19 
Hannell, 101, 289 
Hanney, 17, 289 
Hauny, 101 
Hanrott, 289 
Hansard, 119 
Hansom, 119 
Hanson, 32 
Happey, 60 
Haradon, 339 
Harbar, 232 
Harber, 232 
Harbert, 232 
Harboard, 232 
Harbord, 232 
Harbour, 232 
Harbud, 232 
Hard, 250 
Hardacre, 250 
Hardaway, 251 
Harden, 251 
Harder, 250 
Harding, 250, 405 
Hardham, 250 
Hardiment, 251, 276 
Hardofif, 251 
Hardman, 251 
Hardwick, 251 
Hardwidge, 251 
Hardy, 250 
Hardyear, 250 
Hare, 89, 231 
Hargill, 40, 232 
Hargood, 40, 232 
Harker, 40, 232 
Harknett, 432 
Harland, 232, 318 
Harle, 157, 231 
Harley, 231 
Harling, 157, 231 
Harlot, 40, 232 
Harlott, 12 
Harlow, 231 



Harman, 40, 46, 232 
Harme, 147 
Harmer, 147, 232 
Harmond, 233 
Harmony, 146 
Harnard, 95 
Harnett, 41 
Harney, 95 
Harnor, 95 
Hamott, 41 
Harold, 233, 513 
Harp, 7, 386, 460 
Harper, 386 
Harral, 231 
Harre, 89, 231 
Harridan, 339 
Harridge, 231 
Harries, 231 
Harris, 231 
Hanitt, 339 
Harrod, 339 
Harrold, 514 
Harrow, 89, 231 
Harry, 89, 231, 484 
Harryman, 232 
Hart, 85, 250 
HarteU, 250 
Harter, 250 
Hartie, 250 
Harting, 250 
Hartland, 251 
Hartman, 461 
Hartnall, 251 
HartneU, 221 
Hartnett, 251 
Harton, 251 
Hartridge, 251 
Hartry, 251 
Hartstonge, 250 (note) 
Hartwright, 251, 460 
Harvest, 95 
Harvey, 42, 233 
Harvig, 42 
Harward, 233 
Harwin, 233 
Harwood, 233 
Hase, 21, 89 
Hasell, 21, 169 
HaskeU, 216 
Hasluck, 120 
Hass, 89, 307 
Hassan, 307 
Hasselquist, 470 
Hast, 448 
Hastie, 448 
Hastilovir, 448 
Hastrick, 448 
Hately, 519 
Hathaway, 169 
Hathway, 42, 169 
Hatley, 168 
Hatred, 519 
Hatrick, 168 



576 



INDEX OF ENGLISH NAMES. 



Hatt, 14, 168 
Hattemore, 168 
Hatten, 28 
Havard, 290 
Havelock, 40, 160, 513 
Haviland, 290 
Haw, 209 
Haward, 155 
Hawke, 96 
Hawken, 96 
Hawthorn, 467 
Hay, 209 
Hayday, 19, 519 
Haydock, 519 
Haydon, 519 
Hayman, 210 
Haymes, 492 
Haysman, 169 
Hayter, 519 
Hayzen, 169 
Hazard, 169 
Haze, 169 
Head, 168 

Headache, 168 (note) 
Heading, 168 
Headlam, 337 
Headrick, 168 
Hearing, 232 
Hearl, 231 
Hearly, 231 
Hearse, 79 
Heart, 250 
Hearty, 250 
Heasman, 475 
Heath, 168 
Heaven, 140 
Heaver, 76 
Heaverman, 76 
Hebb, 60 
Hebbert, 61 
Heber, 76 
Hebson, 32, 61 
Heck, 209 
Heckle, 209 
Hector, 450 
Heddy, 168 
Hedge, 209, 491 
Hedgman, 210 
Hedley, 168 
Heggie, 209 
Heifer, 76 
Height, 519 
Heiser, 475 
Helfrich, 275 
Hellmorc, 163 
Helm, 225 
Helper, 275 
Helps, 275 
Hemberg, 225 
Hcmbery, 225 
Hembrow, 225 
Hemment, 492 
Hemmcr, 130 



Henden, 417 
Hender, 300 
Hendy, 417 
Henfrey, 289 
Henn, 289 
Hennell, 289 
Hennessy, 289 
Henney, 289 
Henniker, 289 
Henman, 289, 461 
Henning, 289 
Henniss, 289 
Henry, 492 
Henton, 417 
Henty, 417 
Heppey, 60 
Herbert, 38, 232 
Herbet, 232 
Herd, 250 
Herdman, 251 
Herepath, 232 
Heringaud, 232 (note) 
Hermon, 232 
Heme, 95 
Herniman, 95 
Herod, 339, 482 
Herp, 386 
Herper, 386 
Herrick, 231 
Herridge, 231 
Herries, 231 
Herring, 106, 232 
Hersant, 42, 233 
Hersey, 79 
Hertocks, 339 
Hesse, 307 
Hessey, 307 
Hession, 307 
Hesson, 307 
Hester, 448 
Hetley, 168 
Hett, 168 
Hettich, 168 
Heward, 357 
Hewer, 358 
Hewish, 357 
Hewit, 358 
Hewland, 358 
He wry, 358 
Hczel, 169 
Hibbert, 01 
Hibbitt, 61 
Hibson, 61 
Hick, 157, 210, 357 
Hickley, 357 
Hicklin, 357 
Hickling, 157, 357 
Hickman, 358 
Hickmott, 41, 358 
Hickock, 210 
Hicks, 357 
Hidden, 449 
Hide, 449 



Hider, 450 
Higgin, 357 
High, 340 
Highatt, 341 
Highmore, 341, 358 
Higley, 357 
Higman, 358 
Hilber, 162 

Hildebrand, 39, 162, 199 
Hilder, 162 
Hilding, 162 
Hildreth, 163 
Hildrup, 163 
HUdyard, 162 
Hilgers, 162 
Hill, 162, 491 
HiUam, 38 
Hillary, 39, 162 
Hilliam, 38 
HiUiard, 162 
Hillman, 163 
HiUock, 358 
HiUson, 162 
Hilly, 162 
HHlyer, 162 
Hilmer, 163 
Hilridge, 163 
HHt, 162 
Hincks, 3, 78 
Hinge, 292 
Hingeston, 78 
Hinch, 292 
Hinchey, 292 
Hinchliff, 292 
Hinchcliff, 292 
Hine, 492 
Hinman, 492 
Hinxman, 78, 80 
Hipkin, 61 
Hipp, 60 
Hipson, 32 
Hipwood, 61 
Hitt, 449 
Hoadley, 168 
Hobart, 341 
Hoblin, 227 
Hobman, 227 
Hockaday, 341 
Hocken, 340 
Hockett, 341 
Hockey, 340 
Hocking, 340 
Hockman, 341 
Hocknell, 221 
Hodd, 1681 
Hodge, 357 
Hodges, 357 
Hodgkin, 257 
Hodgkiss, 358 
Hodgman, 358 
Hoe, 340 
Hoey, 340 
Hogan, 357 



INDEX OF ENGLISH NAMES. 



'oil 



Hogg, 76, 357 
Hogmire, 358 
Holder, 282 
Holderricd, 282 
Holding, 282 
Hole, 282 
Hdleman, 282 
Holeyman, 427 
Holker, 282, 427 
HoU, 282 
Hollaley, 426 
Holland, 282 
Holler, 282 
Hollick, 426 
Holliday, 427 
Holliman, 427 
HoUing, 282 (note) 
Hollingsworth, 282 

(note) 
HoUoway, 427 
Holt, 282 
Holter, 282 
Holtman, 282 
Holy, 227 
Homan, 58, 341 
Home, 492 
Homer, 492 
Homeward, 493 
Homewood, 493 
Honey, 314 
Honeyball, 314 
Honeyman, 314, 463 
.Honis, 314 
Honner, 314 
Hoof, 227 
Hoofman, 227 
Hoofnail, 221 
Hoole, 105, 282 
Hoop, 227 
Hope, 227 
Hopkin, 227 
Hopraan, 227 
Hord, 217 
Horder, 218 
Horn, 520 
Horner, 520 
Hornidge, 520 
Horniman, 520 
Horning, 520 
Hornman, 520 
Hornsby, 520 (note) 
Horrocks, 341 
Horsell, 79 
Horsenail, 221 
Horsey, 79 
Horskins, 79 
Horsman, 79 
Hort, 217 
Hoskin, 442 
Hosking, 442 
Hoste, 302 
Houlet, 105 
House, 491 



Housego, 491 
Household, 524 
Houseman, 491 
Houssart, 491 
Howard, 42, 155, 341, 

513 
Howie, 105 
Howley, 105 
Howman, 290 
Hoyle, 340 
Hubback, 227 
Hubbard, 227 
Hubble, 227, 357 
Hube, 227 
Hubert, 357 
Huck, 357 
HuckeU, 357 
Hucken, 357 
Huckett, 358 
Hucks, 357 
Hudd, 280 
Huddert, 280 
Huddle, 280 
Huddy, 280 
Hudkin, 280 
Huelins, 357 
Hug, 357 
HugaU, 357 
Huggard, 357 
Huggett, 358 
Hugh, 357 
Hughes, 357 
Hughman, 358 
Hugman, 358 
Hugo, 357 
Hugoun, 357 
Huie, 357 
Hulbert, 105 
Hulett, 105 
HuUah, 282 
Hullock, 358 
Human, 358 
Humble, 468 
Humphiey, 40, 314 
Hund, 84 
Hundy, 84 
Hungate, 314 
Hunger, 314 
Hunhold, 314 
Hunibal, 314 
Hunking, 314 
Hunn, 314 
Hunnard, 314 
Hunnex, 314 
Hunns, 314 
Hunt, 84 
Hunting, 84 
Huntress, 456 
Hurdle, 217 
Hurlbat, 340 
Hurlburt, 340 
Hurler, 310 
Hurlock, 340 

u 3 



HuneU, 83 
Hurry, 83 
Husher, 442 
Husk, 442 
Huskisson, 442 
Hussell, 491 
Hussey, 491 
Hussick, 491 
Hutt, 280 
Hutting, 280 
Huttman, 280 
Hutty, 280 
Hux, 442 
Huxen, 442 
Hymes, 254 

Ibbett, 61 
Ibison, 61 
Ice, 475 
Icely, 475 
Iden, 449 
Idle, 449 
Ife, 472 
Igo, 210 
Ihler, 416 
Iley, 416 
Illman, 163, 416 
Image, 254 
Imber, 312 
Imbert, 254 
Inch, 292 
luchbald, 292 
Inchboard, 11, 292 
Inches, 292 
Ing, 292, 491 
Ingelow, 213 
Ingle, 213 
Ingledew, 39, 213 
Inglesent, 213 
IngUs, 318 
Ingoe, 292 
Ingold, 292 
Ingram, 41, 292 
Ingrey, 292 
Ingwell, 428 
Inkaon, 292 
Inman, 492 
Inward, 492 
Ireland, 318 
Iremouger, 146 
Iron, 474 

Ironbridge, 474, 495 
Ironman, 475 
Ironside, 158, 475 
Irvin, 233 
Irwin, 233 
Isard, 475 
Isborn, 326, 475 
Isburg, 475 
Iscariot, 483 
Iselin, 475 
Isern, 474 
Ismer, 475 



578 



INDEX OF ENGLISH NAMES. 



Isnard, 475 
IsneU, 221 
Ison, 474 
Ive, 472 
Iver, 514 
Iverson, 32 
Ivory, 76 
Ivy, 472 
Ivyleaf, 472 
Ivymey, 24, 472 
Izard, 475 
Izod, 475 
Izon, 474 

Jack, 452, 489 
Jackall, 452 
Jackett, 452 
JackHn, 452 
Jackman, 452 
Jacks, 452 
Jael, 483 
Jaget, 453 
Jaggard, 452 
Jagged, 453 
Jagger, 452 
Jago, 452 
Janaway, 444 
Jane, 174 
Janes, 174 
Janeway, 318 
Jannings, 444 
January, 174 
Jarman, 203 
Jarrold, 204 
Jarvie, 204 
Jary, 202 
Jax, 452 
Jealous, 437 
Jeanneret, 444 
JeaiT, 202 
Jebb, 44, 285 
Jeff, 285 
JekyU, 452 
Jell, 436 
Jelley, 436 
JeUicoe, 21, 437 
Jelliss, 21, 437 
Jenkin, 444 
Jenner, 444 
Jennery, 444 
Jennings, 444 
Jennott, 444 
Jenrick, 444 
Jenvey, 444 
Jephson, 32 
Jarrold, 204 
Jervis, 204 
Jerwood, 204 
Jessamine, 472 
Jessiman, 472 
Jessmay, 24, 459 
Jesson, 32 
Jeula, 244 



Jew, 244 
JeweU, 244 
Jewery, 245 
Jewett, 245 
Jewin, 245 
Jewiss, 244 
Jipp, 44i 
Job, 482, 485 
Jobber, 485 
Jobling, 485 
Jockisch, 452 
Jodwin, 306 
John, 484 
Jooth, 305 
Jopling, 485 
Jopp, 485 
Jordan, 140 
Jortin, 140 
Joskyn, 309 
Josland, 310 
Jove, 485 
Jowett, 245 
Jubb, 485 
Jubber, 485 
Judas, 482, 483 
Judd, 305 
Jude, 482 
Judge, 244 
Judkin, 305 
Judson, 305 
Judwine, 306 
Jugg, 244 
Juggins, 244 
Juggo, 244 
Jukes, 244 
June, 420 
Junio, 420 
Junner, 420 
Juo, 244 
Jurd, 139 
Just, 429 
Justamond, 429 
Justey, 429 
Jutson, 305 
Jutting, 305 

Kalkman, 307 
Kalvo, 83 
Karker, 481 
Kay, 336 
Kays, 205 
Keast, 296 
Kebel, 285 
Keel, 322 
Keeling, 322 
Keoly, 322 
Kcll, 436 
Kelland, 437 
Kellaway, 437 
Kclloch, 437 
Kellord, 437 
Kellow, 436 
Kelly, 436 



Kelsey, 437 
Kelting, 478 
Kemp, 171 
Kemplen, 171 
Kench, 327 
Kendray, 75 
Kendrick, 75 
Kenish, 327 
Kenna, 327 
Kennard, 328 
Kennaway, 329 
Kennell, 327 
Kenning, 329 
Kenny, 327 
Kenrick, 328 
Kenward, 329 
Keppel, 285 
Kerley, 202 
Kerman, 203 
Kerr, 202 
Kerrell, 202 
Kerridge, 202 
Kesten, 296 
Kettle, 128 (note) 
Key, 336 
Kibb, 285 
Kibbe, 45 
Kibbey, 285 
Kidd, 438 
Kiddle, 438 
Kiddy, 438 
Kidger, 438 
Kidman, 438 
Kidney, 438 
Kilby, 442 
Kilday, 478 
Kilderry, 478 
Kill, 458 
Killduff, 478 
Killer, 458 
KiUey, 458 
KilUck, 458 
Killman, 458 
Kilpin, 442 
Kilt, 478 
Kilto, 478 
Kilty, 478 
Kimm, 423 
Kinch, 327 
Kinchin, 327 
Kindred, 328 
Kine, 327 
King, 329 
Kinglake, 328 
Kinipple, 328 
Kinkee, 327 
Kinloch, 328 
Kinman, 328 
Kinmouth, ;i28 
Kinnaird, 328 
Kinncar, 328 
Kinnebrook, 328 
Kinnell, 327 



INDEX OF ENGLISH NAMES. 



579 



Kinner, 328 
Kinney, 327 
Kinniburgh, 328 
Kinns, 327 
Kinsey, 23, 327 
Kipp, 44, 285 
KipHng, 285 
Kirner, 433 
Kiss, 459 
KisseU, 458 
Kissick, 459 
Kitt, 438 
Kittle, 438 
Kitto, 438 
Kitty, 438 
Knapman, 422 
Knapp, 422 
Knapping, 422 
Knife, 201 
Knipe, 201 
Knitt, 255 
Knope, 422 
Knyvett, 201, 224 

Labern, 387 
Labor, 387 
Labram, 387 
Laby, 387 
Lack, 365 
Lackay, 365 
Lackey, 365 
Lackman, 366 
Lacy, 353 
Ladd, 195 
Lady, 194 
Ladyman, 195 
Laggon, 366 
Lahee, 365 
Laid, 194 
Laidman, 195 
Lamb, 86 
Lambert, 335 
Lambey, 86 
Lamboll, 86 
Lambrook, 335 
Lamelin, 86 
Lamert, 86 
Lammas, 522 
Lamp, 86 
Lampee, 86 
Lamping, 86 
Lampkin, 86 
Lamprey, 86 
Lampson, 86 
Lanaway, 336 
Lance, 335 
Lancey, 335 
Land, 335 
Landell, 335 
Landen, 335 
Lander, 335 
Landfear, 335 
Landless, 353, 354 



Landlord, 336 
Landon, 28, 335 
Landridgc, 336 
Landy, 335 
Lane, 366 
Lanfear, 335 
Lankin, 335 
Lanning, 335 
Lant, 335 
Lanwer, 336 
Lara, 356 
Larard, 356 
Larey, 356 
Larkin, 356 
Larman, 356 
Larmer, 356 
Larmuth, 356 
Laroux, 356 
Larrey, 356 
Larwill, 356 
Lassel, 353 
Last, 355 
Late, 194 
Later, 195 
Lateward, 195 
Lath, 195 
LathaU, 194 
Lathangue, 194 
Lathy, 194 
Latimer, 195 
LatHff, 195 
Latta, 195 
Latter, 195 
Lattey, 195 
Laud, 377 
Laiirel, 356 
Laurie, 356 
Lavell, 387 
Laver, 387 
Laverick, 387 
Lavey, 387 
Lavin, 387 
Lavis, 387 
Law, 365 
Lawes, 366 
Lawley, 366 
Lawless, 353, 354, 366 
Lawman, 366 
Lawyer, 366 
Lay, 365 
Layard, 366 
Layman, 366 
LayzeU, 353 
Lazard, 353 
Leader, 195 
Leah, 365 
Lean, 274 
Leaning, 274 
Leap, 265 
Lear, 356 
Learmouth, 356 
Learra, 356 
Leary, 356 



Leason, 353 
Lcasure, 353 
Loath, 194 
Lcathart, 195 
Leather, 195, 481 
Leatherby, 481 
LeatherbaiTow, 481 
Leatherdale, 481 
Leatherhead, 481 
Leathley, 194 
Leddy, 330 
Ledgard, 331 
Ledger, 330 
Ledward, 331 
Ledwith, 331 
Lee, 366 
Leeding, 194 
Leete, 194 
Lefroy, 265 
Legett, 366 
Legg, 365 
Leggy, 365 
Legless, 353, 354, 366 
Lely, 470 
Lender, 335 
Lennard, 87 
Lent, 110 
Leo, 87 
Leonard, 87 
Leopard, 87, 265 
Leowolf, 87 
Lepper, 265 
Lerew, 356 
Lerigo, 356 
Lerway, 356 
Le Souef, 353 
Lesser, 353 
Lessware, 353 
Lessy, 353 
Lester, 355 
Lesty, 355 
Lethead, 331 
Letley, 194 
Leuty, 330 
LeveU, 265, 387 
Lever, 265 
Leveret, 387 
Leveridge, 387 
Levett, 387 
Levey, 387 
Levin, 387 
Levinge, 265 
Levis, 387 
Lew, 87 
Lewen, 87 
Lewey, 87 
Leyser, 353 
Lezard, 353 
Libbis, 265 
Liberty, 265 
Liddard, 331 
Liddelow, 330 
Lief, 264 



580 



INDEX OF ENGLISH NAMES. 



Life, 264 
Lill, 470 
Lilliman, 470 
LiUo, 470 
Lillyman, 470 
LUy, 470 
Lind, 110 
Lindegreen, 109 
Lindeman, 110 
Linder, 110 
Lindo, 110 
Lindquist, 470 
Line, 274 
Liney, 274 
Ling, 109 
Lingard, 109 
Lingen, 109 
Lingo, 109 
Lining, 274 
Link, 87 
Linn, 274 
Linnegar, 274 
Linnell, 274 
Linnet, 104, 274 
Linney, 274 
Lion, 87 
Lipp, 265 
Liptrot, 265 
Lisney, 353 
Lissimore, 353 
List, 355 
Lister, 355 
Liston, 355 
Litolflf, 331 
Litt, 330 
Livemore, 265 
Livesey, 265 
Livey, 31 
Livick, 265 
Living, 31, 265 
Loaden, 377 
Loader, 377 
Loadman, 378 
Loat, 377 
Lock, 446 
Locke, 2, 131 
Locker, 447 
Lockett, 447 
Lockie, 19, 131, 446 
Lockhart, 4, 447 
Locknian, 447 
Loft, 131 
Lollard, 284 
Looney, 139 
Loose, 331 
Loosely, 331 
Looscmore, 331 
Lorey, 356 
Lorimer, 356 
Lorkin, 356 
Lonirnan, 356 
LoBh, 88 
Lot, 482 



Lotcho, 377 
Lote, 377 
Loton, 377 
Lott, 377 
Loud, 46 
Loudon, 377 
Lound, 495 
Loup, 264 
Love, 20, 265 
Lovechild, 521 
Loveday, 39, 265 
Lovegod, 484 
Lovegood, 484 
Lovekin, 265 
Lovelace, 354 
Loveland, 265 
Loveless, 353, 354 
LoveU, 265 
Loveman, 265 
Lover, 265 
Loveridge, 265 
Lovesey, 265 
Lovesy, 23 
Loveys, 265 
Lovick, 20, 265 
Loving, 265 
Lowance, 87 
Lowdell, 377 
Lowder, 377 
Lowe, 87 
Lowen, 87 
Lowless, 366 
Lowly, 366 
Lowman, 366 
Lowson, 32 
Lowy, 87 
Lubbock, 265 
Luby, 265 
Lucar, 330 
Lucas, 331 
Luce, 331 
Lucre, 331 
Lucy, 65, 331 
Ludbrook, 330 
Luden, 330 
Ludkin, 330 
Lugar, 330 
Lulman, 284 
Lull, 284 
Lully, 284 
Lumb, 86 (note) 
Lump, 86 (note) 
Lunii)kin, 86 (note) 
Lumpy, 86 (note) 
Lund, 495 
Lundy, 495 
Lune, 139 
Lunt, 495 
Lush, 88 
Lusk, 88 
Lutlicr, 331 
Lutman, 331 
Luton, 330 



Lutto, 330 
Lutwidge, 331 
Lutwyche, 331 
Lyde, 330 
Lydekker, 330 
Lynch, 87 
Lyons, 87 
Lys, 353 
Lyteman, 331 
Lyth, 330 

Mabb, 471 
Mabbutt, 471 
Machine, 445 
Maddam, 342 
Madden, 342 
Maddern, 342 
Maddock, 341 
Maddy, 341 
Mader, 342 
Madle, 361 
Madlin, 361 
Mager, 410 
Maggot, 410 
Maggy, 410 
Mahood, 66 
Maiden, 342 
Maidman, 342 
Maine, 410 
Maisey, 410 
Maize, 410 
Malady, 180 
Male, 410 
Maliff, 179 
Malkin, 178 
MaU, 178 
Mallard, 102, 179 
Malley, 178 
Mailing, 178 
MaUock, 178 
Mallory, 179 
Malt, 180 
Malthouse, 179 
Malthus, 42, 179 
Maltman, 181 
Maltwood, 181 
Mancer, 434 
Manchee, 58 
Manchin, 58 
Mander, 434 
Man die, 434 
Mandy, 434 
Manfred, 40, 58 
Manger, 58, 410 
Ma gles, 68 
Manhood, 66 
Manigault, 58 
Manlove, 40, 58 
Manly, 58 
Mann, 21, 57, 58 
Mannakay, 21, 58 
Mannell, 58 
Mannico, 21, 58 



INDEX OF ENGLISH NAMES. 



581 



Manning, 58 
Manuix, 58 
Mannse, 434 
Manship, 66 
Mant, 434 
Mantle, 434 
Manton, 434 
Iklanus, 514 
Many, 58 
Maple, 471 
Mara, 79 
March, 80 
Marcher, 80 
Marcus, 80 
Mare, 79 
Margot, 369 
Mariga, 368 
Marigold, 12, 369 
Llarine, 369 
Mariner, 369, 460 
Maris, 368 
Mark, 80, 482 
Marker, 80, 460 
Markey, 80 
MarkHle, 80 
ISIarklove, 80 

Itlarkwick, 80 

Marlin, 368 

Marling, 368 

Marman, 369 

Marner, 369 
' Marmont, 369 

Marner, 369 

Marr, 368 

Marramore, 80 

Marrs, 368 

Marrian, 369 

Marrow, 368 

^larry, 368 

Mars, 143, 144 

Marvin, 369 

Marvy, 369 

Marwick, 369 

Mary, 79 

Maryman, 80 

Mash, 445, 526 

Mashman, 445, 523 

Itlaskell, 445 

Maslin, 522 

MassaU, 522 

Massie, 522 

Massina, 522 
Massingberd, 48, 523 
Masson, 32, 522 
Massure, 522 
Matchin, 341 
Mathams, 342 
Mather, 342 
Matilda, 411 
Matkin, 341 
Matland, 342 
Mattam, 342 
Matthewman, 342 



Matthie, 341 

INIattock, 341 

Matts, 341 

]\Iaule, 178 

Blaury, 402 

]\Iawnoy, 138 

Maxey, 445 

Maxon, 445 

Maxse, 445 

May, 410 

MayaU, 410 

Mayer, 410 

ISIayhew, 410 

Maylin, 410 

Mayman, 410 

INIajTiard, 48, 410 

Mayne, 48 

Mayo, 410 

Mc.Auliffe, 514 

Mc. Cambridge, 59 (note) 

McCaskill, 514 

Mc.Gary, 514 

Mc.Hitterick, 514 

Mc. Oscar, 514 

Mc. Otter, 514 

Mc RagnaU, 514 

Mc.Shitterick, 514 

Mc.Swiney, 514 

Mc. Vicar, 514 

Mead, 341, 379 

Meaden, 342 

Meader, 342 

INIeadway, 342 

Meall, 403 

Mearing, 79 

Measel, 522 

Measure, 522 

Meatman, 342 

Medal, 361 

INIedary, 342 

Medd, 341 

Medden, 342 

Meddiman, 342 

Medland, 342 

Ttledlar, 361, 473 

Medlen, 361 

Medley, 361 

Medlock, 342 

Medhcott, 361 

INIedwin, 342 

Mee, 410 

Meech, 200 

Meek, 200 
Meeker, 200 
Meekey, 200 
Meeking, 200 
Meers, 79 
Megen, 47 
Meggy, 410 
Megrin, 410 
MeUer, 180 
Melliard, 180 
Melhs, 179 



Mellish, 24, 179 
Mello, 179 
Mellodew, 180 
MeUow, 179 
Mellowday, 180 
Melody, 12, 180 
Mence, 4;i4 
]\Ienday, 434 
Mendes, 434 
Menne, 58 
Mennie, 58 
Llennow, 58 
Menser, 434 
Mercy, 368 
Merle, 368 
Merrell, 368 
Merrick, 368 
Merriman, 80, 369 
Merrin, 369 
Merry, 368 
Merryment, 369 
Mesher, 445 
Messeena, 522 
Messiah, 485, 522 
Messing, 522 
Methold, 342 
Methley, 361 
]Methwin, 342 

IMetman, 342 

Mettam, 342 

Mettee, 341 

Metz, 341 

Miall, 403 

ISHchie, 406 

Mico, 406 

JNIichelmore, 406 

Bfickle, 346, 406 

]\Iicklewright, 406 

mddle, 379 

MieU, 403 

IMiette, 379 

Might, 411 

Mighter, 411 

Mildert, 283 

INIildmay, 25, 282 

Mildred, 283 

MHe, 17 

MUey, 17, 179 

IVmk, 179 

Millard, 180 

Miller, 53, 180 

MiUie, 179 

Millicent, 42, 180 

INIillige, 179 

Millikin, 179 

Millinge, 179 

Millis, 23, 179 

Mills, 23 

Milo, 17, 179 

Minard, 266 

Mince, 266 

Minchin, 266 
Miner, 266 



582 



INDEX OF ENGLISH NAMES. 



Minke, 266 
Minn, 106, 266 
IVIinnet, 266 
Minney, 27, 266 
Minnow, 106, 266 
IVHnns, 266 
Minoch, 266 
Missing, 380 
Mist, 136 
Mister, 136 
MitteU, 379 
Mitton, 380 
Mizon, 380 
Moat, 237 
Mode, 237 
Model, 237 
Moder, 237 
Moderate, 237 
Moist, 238 
Mole, 92, 178 
MoU, 65, 92, 178, 484 
Mollard, 179 
MoUey, 178 
MoUing, 178 
Moncnr, 68 
Monger, 58 
Money, 58, 359 
Montgomery, 485 
Monument, 276, 359 
Mood, 237 
Moody, 237 
Moon, 8, 138 
Mooney, 3, 138 
Mootham, 237 
Moran, 402 
Morday, 258 
Morde, 258 
Mordue, 258 
More, 402 
Morebread, 402 
Morell, 402 
Moreman, 403 
Morey, 402 
Morling, 402 
Morlock, 402 
Moore, 402 
Moorhen, 402 
Moorman, 403 
Morrow, 402 
Morse, 258 
Morsel, 258 
Morsman, 259 
Mort, 258 
Mortal, 258 
Mortar, 258 
Mortram, 258 
Morward, 403 
Mose, 237 
Moaer, 237 
Mosey, 237 
Moslin, 237 
MoBH, 237, 491 
Mosaman, 237 



Mostran, 238 
Mote, 110, 237 
Bloth, 110, 237 
Mother, 293 
Motion, 238 
Motley, 237 
Mott, 237 
Mottow, 237 
Mottram, 237 
Mouat, 237 
Mould, 180 
Moulder, 180 
Mouldick, 180 
Moulding, 180 
Moult, 180 
Mound, 276 
Mount, 276 
Mountain, 276 
Mouse, 92, 237 
MouseU, 237 
Mouser, 237 
Mouth, 237, 418 
Moutrie, 237 
Mouttell, 237 
Mouzon, 238 
Moxey, 445 
Moxon, 445 
Much, 406 
Muckelt, 406 
Muckle, 406 
Mucklewrath, 406 
Muddiman, 237 
Muddock, 237 
Muddle, 237 
Mudlin, 237 
Mudridge, 237 
Munday, 276 
MundeU, 276 
Munden, 276 
Mundy, 276 
Munn, 359 
Munnew, 359 
Munnings, 359 
Munting, 276 
Murdoch, 258 
Mursel, 258 
Murt, 258 
Murta, 258 
Murtard, 258 
Murtha, 258 
Musick, 237 
Muspratt, 237 
Mussard, 237 
MusseU, 237 
Must, 238 
Mustard, 238 
Muster, 238 
Mustill, 238 
Musto, 238 
Mustolph, 42 
Mustoph, 238 
Musty, 238 
Mutimer, 41 



Mutlow, 237 
Mutter, 237 
Mutton, 238 
Muzzy, 237 
Mynn, 266 
Myrtle, 258 

Nabb, 422 
NadaU, 256 
Nadauld, 275 
Nagle, 10, 220 
NaU, 10, 220 
Nalder, 256 
Naldrett, 256 
Nance, 239 
Nann, 239 
Nannery, 239 
Nanny, 239, 484 
Nans, 239 
Nanson, 32, 239 
Napkin, 422 ^ 
Narrowcoat, 301 
Natkins, 275 
Natt, 275 
Navin, 420 
Nay, 420 
Naylor, 220 
Neate, 255 
Neck, 126, 418 
Need, 258 
Needle, 256 
Needier, 256 
Nefflen, 151 
Negus, 255 
Nenner, 239 
Nerod, 421i 
Nestle, 256 
Nestling, 256 
Nettle, 256 
Neve, 420 
Neville, 151 
Nevin, 420 
New, 420 
Newey, 420 
Newcome, 297, 421 
Newcomb, 421 
Newen, 420 
Newick, 420 
Newling, 420 
Newlove, 421 
Newman, 297, 421 
Nex, 126 
I^iavi, 420 
Nibbs, 8 
Nibbctt, 255 
Nibloe, 151 
Nice, 255 
Nick, 126 
Nickcrson, 126 
Nicklcn, 126 
Nicss, 255 
Nightingale, 104 
Nisbet, 255 



INDEX OF ENGLJSIl NAMES. 



583 



Nivolcy, 151 
Nix, 12() 
Nixie, 120 
Noad, 240 
Nobbs, 8 
Noble, 151 
Noddle, 240 
Nodder, 240 
Noding, 240 
Noel, 522 
Noon, 439 
Nooning, 439 
Norcott, 301 
Norfor, 301 
Norgate, 301 
Norlan, 301 
Norman, 301 
Norquest, 301 
Norramore, 301 
Norrie, 300 
North, 300 
Northard, 240 
Northcott, 301 
Northeast, 301 
Northey, 240, 300 
Northmore, 301 
Noser, 240 
Notman, 240 
Nott, 240 
Notter, 54 
Nottidge, 240 
NoveU, 151 
Nunley, 439 
Nunn, 439 
Nunnery, 439 
Nunney, 439 
Nutt, 240, 473 
NuttaU, 240 
Nutter, 240 
Nutting, 240 
Nuttman, 240 
Nusser, 240 

Oake, 471 
Oakey, 471 
Oborn, 156 
O'Bruadaii', 514 
Odam, 381 
Oddy, 217 
OdeU, 334 
Oden, 120 
Odierne, 382 
Odlam, 334 
OdUn, 334 
Odling, 334 
Offen, 385 
Offer, 385 
Offey, 385 
OffiU, 385 
Offley, 385 
Offlow, 385 
Offord, 3S5 
Ogborn, 193 



Ogg, 193, 482 
Ogicr, 193 
Oiley, 154 
Oldacre, 418 
Old, 418 
Oldis, 418 
OhUng, 418 
Oldnian, 418 
Oldridge, 419 
Oldry, 419 
Oliff, 471, 513 
Oliphant, 88 
Olive, 471 
Oman, 341 
Omer, 492 
Onslow, 119 
Orchard, 388, 491 
Ord, 217 
Ordish, 217 
Ordward, 218 
Ordway, 218 
Ore, 524 
Organ, 524 
Orgar, 217 
Orger, 524 
Oriel, 524 
Ormau, 59 
Orme, 108 
Ormerod, 148 
Orridge, 341 
Orrin, 524 
Orriss, 524 
Orrock, 341 
Orth, 217 
Osborn, 119 
Osburn, 39 
Osgood, 119 
Osman, 120 
Osmer, 120 
Osmond, 120 
Ost, 302 
OsteU, 302 
Ostermoor, 303 
Ostrich, 102, 303 
Oswald, 42, 120 
Oswin, 120 
Osyer, 119 
Ott, 194 

Otter, 91, 513, 194 
Ottey, 194 
OttiweU, 382 
Otway, 194 
Ough, 385 
Ought, 381 
Oughton, 38] 
Ousey, 524 
Outing, 381 
Outlaw, 12, 381 
Outram, 41, 382 
Outred, 382 
Outridge, 382 
Ouvry, 76 
Oven, 524 



Over, 76 

Overacre, 76, 112 (note) 

Overall, 76 

Ovcred, 76 

Overctt, 76 

Overmore, 76 

Overy, 76 

Ovey, 290 

Ower, 290 

Owle, 105 

Owler, 106 

Owley, 105 

Owst, 302 

Oyster, 302 

Oysterman, 303 

rack, 172 
Packard, 172 
Packer, 53, 172 
Packett, 172 
Packman, 172 
Paddick, 166 
PadcUe, 166 
Padley, 166 
Paddy, 166 
Padman, 167 
Padmore, 167 
Pail, 192 
Paillard, 192 
Pairo, 68 
Painter, 87 
Palairet, 192 
Paler, 192 
Paley, 192 
Palfrey, 81, 192 
Palfriman, 81 
PaUng, 192 
PaUace, 521 
PaUiser, 521 
Palmer, 192 
Palsy, 241 
Pan, 143 
Pander, 87 
Pann, 175 
Pannell, 175 
Pannier, 175 
Pant, 31 
Panter, 87, 236 
Panther, 87, 236 
Panting, 31, 236 
PantUn, 235 
Panton, 236 
Pantry, 236 
Pape, 291 
PapiUon, 291 
Paraday, 61 
Paradise, 62 
Paragreen, 69 
Paragren, 69 
Paramour, 12, 69 
ParceU, 453 
Pardar, 222 
Pardew, 62 



584 



INDEX OF ENGLISH NAMES. 



Parding, 222 
Pardee, 19, 222 
Pardon, 12, 222 
Parfrey, 61 
Paris, 61 
Parish, 61 
Parkin, 22, 61 
Parman, 62 
Parr, 22, 61 
Parramore, 69 
Parrell, 61 
Parrot, 62 
Parry, 61 
Parsey, 61 
Parsley, 453 
Part, 222 
Parter, 222 
Partrick, 370 
Partridge, 102, 370 
Pascoe, 487 
Pash, 487 
Pask, 487 
Pass, 181 
Passman, 181 
Passmer, 181 
Passey, 181 
Paste, 183 
Patmoi-e, 167 
Patridge, 167 
Patry, 167 
Patte, 166 
Pattie, 166 
Pattle, 166 
Pattman, 167 
PatuUo, 166 
Paulding, 241 
Pavey, 291 
Pavier, 291 
Paxman, 487 
Pay, 101 
Pea, 101 
Peabody, 39 
Peach, 222 
Peachy, 222 
Peacock, 101 
Peak, 222 
Pear, 68 
Pearl, 69 
Pearman, 69 
Pearse, 453 
Peartree, 370 
Peascod, 181 
Peat, 166 
Peatie, 166 
Pechell, 222 
Pecker, 222 
Peckett, 222 
Pedder, 166 
Pedley, 166 
Peede, 166 
Peel, 219 
Peeling, 219 
Peer, 68 



Peevor, 91 
Peffor, 91 
Pegg, 64, 65 
Pelham, 269 
Pell, 192 
PeUett, 269 
PeUew, 192 
Pelly, 192 
PendaU, 235 
Pender, 236 
Pendered, 236 
Penk, 182 
Penkett, 182 
Penman, 177 
Penn, 176 
Pennant, 41, 177 
Pennell, 177 
Penner, 177 
Pennick, 176 
Penny, 176 
Pennycad, 177 
Pennymore, 177 
Penson, 236 
Pentecost, 487 
Pentelow, 235 
Pentin, 236 
Pepin, 414 
Peploe, 414 
Peppard, 414 
Peppercorn, 467 
Percival, 453 
Perch, 106 
Percher, 69 
Percy, 453 
Perdue, 69 
Peregrine, 69 
Perkin, 69 
Perley, 69 
Perner, 69 
Pero, 68 
Perown, 69 
Perram, 69 
Perriam, 69 
Perrigo, 69 
Perrin, 70 
Perrott, 69 
Persac, 453 
Pert, 370 
Perton, 370 
Perwort, 69 
Pest, 183 
Pester, 183 
Pether, 166 
Pethick, 166 
Peto, 166 
Petley, 166 
Pctrick, 167 
Pctric, 167 
Pett, 166 
Potter, 166 
Petty, 166 
Peverall, 91 
Pevrell, 91 



Pewtress, 455 
Phair, 323 
Pharaoh, 323, 482 
Phillibrown, 39 
PhUlimore, 41, 518 
Physic, 21| 
Physick, 247 
Pick, 77, 177 
Pickard, 178, 318 
Pickell, 177 
Picker, 178 
Pickett, 178 
Pickman, 178 
Pidduck, 166 
Pigg, 64, 77, 177 
Piggott, 178 
Pigram, 178 
Pilate, 483 
Pilbeam, 219 
Pilford, 269 
Pilgrim, 12, 269 
Pill, 13, 17, 269 
PiUey, 17, 269 
Pillman, 269 
PiUow, 13, 17, 269 
PHon, 270 
Pilot, 269 
Pinard, 236 
Pinch, 178 
Pincheon, 178 
Pinder, 236 
Pingo, 178 
Pink, 178 
Pinkert, 178 
Pinkey, 178 
Pinn, 176 
Pinnock, 176 
Pinny, 176 
Pino, 176 
Pipe, 414 
Piper, 91 
Pippin, 414 
Pippy, 414 
Pitcher, 178 
Pitt, 491 
Pittock, 166 
Plain, 396 
Planche, 392 
Plank, 392 
Planner, 396 
Plant, 396 
Plater, 376 
Platon, 376 
Piatt, 376 
Platten, 376 
Play, 440 
Player, 440 
Pleaden, 440 
Pledger, 440 
Plevin, 184 
Pleydoll, 440 
Pliinmer, 440 
Plinckc, 392 



INDEX OF ENGLJSH NAMES. 



585 



Plomor, 4(55 
Plough, 214 
Ploughman, 215 
Pluck, 214 
Plucknett, 215 
Plugg, 214 
l*luni, 465 
Pluinbridge, 465 
Plume, 465 
Plumer, 465 
Plumley, 465 
Plumridge, 465 
Plunkett, 215 (note) 
Pocock, 101 
Podger, 455 
Podmore, 455 
Poe, 101 
Pofley, 421 
Pogmore, 225 
Poignard, 225 
Polden, 242 
Pole, 281 
Poleman, 281 
PoUard, 281 
PoUey, 281 
PoUo, 281 
PoUock, 281 
Polwin, 281 
Pond, 235 
Ponder, 236 
Ponson, 236 
Pony, 175 
Poodle, 454 
Pool, 491 
Poole, 280 
Pooley, 281 
Poore, 452 
Poorman, 452 
Pope, 421 
Popkin, 422 
Pople, 421 
Poplett, 422 
Popoff, 422 
Poppy, 421, 473 
Port, 229 
Portman, 229 
Portwine, 229 
Post, 409 
Postle, 409 
Poston, 409 
Poticary, 455 
Potiphar, 483 
Potipher, 455 
Potman, 461 
Pott, 454 
Potten, 454 
Potter, 53, 54, 455 
Pottier, 455 
Pottle, 454 
Pottman, 455 
Potto, 454 
Potwine, 455 
Poulter, 241 



Poupard, 422 
Poui)art, 422 
I'oupin, 422 
Povey, 421 
Power, 12, 452 
Powter, 241 
Powder, 241 
Prain, 185 
Pram, 371 
PrangneU, 221 
Pratt, 2 
Pray, 184 
Preacher, 185 
Preslin, 186 
Pi'ess, 453 
Pressey, 453 
Pressney, 453 
Presswell, 453 
Preter, 185 
Pretty, 185 
Prettyman, 185 
Prickle, 185 
Priddy, 185 
Pride, 185 
Prigg, 184 
Prime, 371 
Primerose, 467 
Primmer, 371 
Prisley, 186 
Priseman, 186 
Prissey, 186 
Prissick, 186 
Pritt, 185 
Prosser, 480 
Protheroe, 218 
Protyu, 218 
Proud, 447 
Proudfoot, 447, 455 
Prout, 447 
Prouting, 447 
Prowse, 447 
Pruday, 447 
Prudence, 447 
Pruse, 186 
Pucket, 379 
Puckle, 379 
Puckridge, 379 
Puddefoot, 447, 455 
Puddick, 454 
Pubdicombe, 455 
Puddifer, 455 
Pudding, 454 
Puddy, 454 
Pudney, 455 
Pugin, 379 
PuU, 281 
Pullan, 281 
PuUar, 281 
PuUey, 281 
Pulling, 281 
Pulman, 281 
Punelt, 416 
Punnett, 416 

V 3 



Punter, 236 
Puplet, 422 
Pupp, 421 
Purcell, 453 
Purchase, 12, 69 
Purches, 69 
Purdie, 39 
Purgold, 69, 279 
Purkis, 69 
Purland, 09 
Purling, 69 
PurneU, 70 
Purney, 70 
Purrior, 69 
Purse, 453 
Purser, 453 
Pui'seglove, 3, 453 
Purselove, 453 
Pursey, 453 
Piu'selow, 453 
Pm-ssord, 453 
Pui-t, 370 
PurteU, 370 
Purvis, 69 
Pustard, 409 
Pustin, 409 
Putman, 455 
Putt, 454 
Puttick, 454 
Pye, 313 
Pyeman, 313 

Quail, 102, 298 
Qualey, 298 
QuaUet, 298 
Quantock, 316 
Quaritch, 47 
Quarman, 278 
Quarrell, 47, 278 
Quarrier, 47, 278 
Quarry, 278 
Quash, 244 
Queen, 63, 263 
Quennell, 263 
Quick, 164 
Quickly, 165 
Quier, 165 
Quiggle, 164 
Quilke, 123 
Quill, 47, 122 
Quillan, 47 
Quilliams, 47, 63, 124 
Quilhnan, 41, 47, 124 
Quillish, 123 
Quillman, 124 
Quilter, 345, 447 
Quin, 47, 63, 263 
Qmnce, 263 
Quincey, 263 
Quiney, 263 
Quiner, 264 
Quinlin, 263 
Quint, 316 



586 



INDEX OF ENGLISH NAMES. 



Quintin, 316 
Quomman, 03, 297 
Quy, 164 

Eaban, 97 
Eabbit, 89 
Rabone, 97 
Raby, 187 
Rack, 362 
Racket, 363 
Rackhal, 363 
Radcliffe, 318 
Raddall, 347 
Radden, 348 
Raddick, 347 
Radish, 348 
Radmond, 348 
Radmore, 348 
Radway, 348 
Raflfell, 187 
Raffold, 187 
Rafter, 228 
Raftery, 228 
Ragg, 362^ ^ 
Raggett, 363 
Ragin, 349 
Ragless, 354 (note) 
Ragon, 349 
Rain, 85, 349 
Rainbird, 349 
Rainbold, 349 
Rainbow, 137 
Rainey, 349 
Rainford, 349 
Rainforth, 349 
Rains, 349 
Ralph, 72, 363 
Ram, 85 
Ramin, 97 
Rampling, 228 
Ramridge, 97 
Ranaker, 349 
Ranee, 228 
Rancour, 230 
Rand, 228 
Randle, 228 
Randolph, 42, 72, 228 
Ranger, 48, 189, 349 
Raniker, 189 
Rann, 189 
Rannic, 189 
Ransom, 228 
Rantem, 228 
Raper, 187 
Rap kin, 187 
Rapp, 187 
Rarcy, 363 
Rastall, 448 
Ras trick, 448 
Rat, 347 
Ratcliff, 40 
Itather, 348 
Ratherarn, 348 



RatUffe, 348 
Ratt, 92 
Ratter, 348 
Rattham, 348 
Rattical, 348 
Rattle, 347 
Ratton, 348 
Rattray, 348 
Ratty, 347 
Raven, 97 
Ravenor, 97 
Ravenshear, 97 
Ravey, 187 
Ray, 362 
Raybaiild, 362 
Rayment, 363 
Raymond, 363 
Rayner, 48, 350 
Ray n ham, 350 
Reader, 348 
Reading, 348 
Readman, 348 
Readwin, 348 
Ready, 347 
Reavell, 188 
Reckless, 344, 354 
ReckneU, 349 
Record, 343 
Redband, 348 
Reddall, 347 
Reddaway, 348 
Redden, 348 
Reddelein, 348 
Redding, 348 
Reddish, 348 
Redgell, 348 
Redhead, 348 
Redline, 348 
Redman, 40, 348 
Redmayne, 348 
Redmond, 348 
Red more, 348 
Redmont, 41 
Redout, 254 
Redwar, 348 
Redwood, 349 
Redyear, 348 
Reed, 347 
Reffol, 188 
Regal, 362 
Regan, 349 
Regans, 349 
Reginald, 350 
Regnart, 349 
Reidy, 347 
Rein, 349 ^ 
llchiman, 350 
]leinwcll, 350 
Ralph, 363 
Remnant, 41 
Renard, 48, 349 
Jlenaud, 350 
Rondol, 228 



Render, 228 
Renn, 104, 189 
Rennell, 189 
Rennie, 104, 189 
Rennison, 189 
Renno, 104, 189 
Renter, 228 
Rentle, 228 
Rentmore, 228 
Repuke, 188 
Restell, 448 
Restorick, 448 
Retgate, 348 
Revere, 188 
Revill, 188 
Reynal, 349 
Reynard, 349 
Reynolds, 350 
Rhodes, 372 
Ribb, 188 
Ribbeck, 188 
Ribread, 343 
Rich, 343 
Richan, 343 
Richard, 343 
RichbeU, 343 
Richer, 343 
Riches, 23, 343 
Richley, 343 
Richman, 344 
Richmond, 344 
Richold, 344 
Rickard, 343 
Rickett, 343 
Rickman, 344 
Ricks, 23, 343 
Riddell, 254 
Riddick, 254 
Ridding, 254 
Ride, 254 
Rideout, 254 
Rider, 254 
Ridey, 254 
Ridge, 343, 491 
Ridger, 254 
Ridges, 343 
Ridgeway, 344 
Ridgwell, 344 
Ridgyard, 343 
Ridhard, 254 
Riding, 254 
Ridlon, 254 
Riekie, 343 
Riff, 188 
Riggall, 343 
Rignault, 350 
Rind, 140 
Riudor, 140 
Rindlc, 140 
Iting, 230 

Ringer, 53, 230, 4G0 
Ringgold, 230 
Rink, 230 



INDEX OF ENGLISH NAMES. 



587 



Kipcr, 188 
llipei-e, 188 
Kii)key, 188 
Kiplcy, 188 
Jvippin, 188 
Kist, 13:3, 134 
Ritchie, 343 
Ritchings, 343 
River, 188 
Rivers, 188 
Riviere, 183 
Roach, 252 
Roaf, 187 
RoaiU, 514 
Roake, 252 
Robb, 187 
Robbie, 187 
Robert, 372 
Robley, 187 
Roblow, 187 
RoboHn, 187 
Rochez, 253 
Rock, 252 
Rockey, 252 
Rockett, 253 
Rodaway, 373 
Rodber, 372 
Rodbourn, 372 
Rodd, 371 
Roddam, 372 
Roddis, 372 
Rode, 46 
Roden, 372 
Rodgard, 372 
Rodger, 40, 372 
Rodick, 371 
Rodman, 373 
Rodney, 41, 373 
Rodrick, 373 
Rodway, 373 
RodweU, 373 
Rodyard, 372 
Roff, 187 
Roffie, 187 
Roger, 46 
Roget, 253 
Roker, 253 
Rolf, 72 
Rolf e, 253 
RoUand, 373 
Roman, 318 
Rome, 373 
Romer, 374 
Romilly, 374 
Rondeau, 228 
Roof, 187 
Rook, 46, 252 
Rooke, 98 
Rooker, 253 
Room, 373 
Roope, 187 
Rooper, 187 
Root, 371 



Rooth, 371 
Roots, 372 
Rootsey, 372 
Rope, 187 
Roper, 187 
Rosbcrt, 79 
Roscoe, 79 
Roseblade, 467 
Rosery, 79 
Rosethorn, 467 
Rosier, 79 
Rosinbloom, 467 
Roskell, 79 
Rosling, 79 
Rosoman, 79 
Ross, 79 
Rosser, 79 
Rost, 448 
Rosterne, 467 
Rotch, 46 
Roth, 371 
Rotheram, 373 
Rothery, 372 
Rothon, 372 
Rothney, 373 
RothweU, 373 
Rottenfysche, 107 
Rottenheiyng, 107 
Rotton, 372 
Rough, 187 
Round, 228 
RoupeU, 187 
Rout, 371 
Routh, 371 
Routley, 372 
Routledge, 373 
Rowen, 472 
Rowntree, 472 
Rubb, 187 
Ruby, 187 
Rubery, 187 
Rubidge, 187 
Ruck, 252 
Ruckei-, 253 
Rudd, 371 
Ruddell, 372 
Rudder, 372 
Ruddick, 372 
Ruddiman, 373 
Rudding, 372 
Rudgard, 372 
Rudkin, 372 
Rudman, 373 
Rudolph, 373 
Rudwick, 373 
Rue, 252 
Ruff, 187 
Ruffle, 187 
Ruffy, 187 
Rugg, 252 
Rugman, 253 
Rum, 373 
Rumball, 38 



Rumbclow, 374 
liumblc, 38 
Rumbold, 38, 374 
Rumley, 374 
Rummer, 374 
Rummej', 373 
Rundle, 228 
Runicles, 22 
Rust, 448 
Rustich, 448 
Ruston, 448 
Ruth, 371, 482 
Rutledge, 373 
Rutky, 372 
Rutt, 371 
Rutter, 372 
Rutty, 371 
Rybauld, 343 
Rye, 343 
Ryman, 344 
Rymer, 344 

Sabbage, 424 
Sabey, 423 
Sabine, 424 
Sable, 424 
Sack, 171 
Sackelld, 171 
Sacker, 171 
Sackmau, 171 
Sadd, 430 
Safe, 423 
SaffeU, 424 
Saffery, 424 
Safford, 424 
Safrau, 424 
Sager, 171 
Sago, 171 
Sailor, 308 
Sala, 308 
Salamon, 308 
Sale, 308 
Saleman, 308, 461 
Salkeld, 171 (note) 
Sail, 65 
Sallaway, 308 
SaUes, 308 
Sally, 484 
Salmon, 308 
Salt, 45, 44a 
Salter, 443 
Salve, 346 
Salvin, 346 
Sam, 75 
Sampkiu, 75 
Sandell, 430 
Sanden, 431 
Sander, 430 
Sandman, 430 
Sandoe, 430 
Sands, 430 
Sandwer, 431 
Sandy, 430 



588 



INDEX or ENGLISH NAMES. 



Sandys, 430 

Saner, 170 

Sang, 438 j 

Sangwin, 438 

Sankey, 438 

Sans, 430 

Sant, 430 

Santer, 430 

Santley, 430 

Santy, 430 

Saphin, 424 

S-iplin, 424 

Sapp, 423 

Sapper, 424 

Sapte, 424 

Sarah, 230 

Sarasin, 487 

Sarch, 231 

Sare, 230 

Sarel, 230 

Sargood, 230 

Sarratt, 230 

Sass, 451 

Satcliell, 171 

Satow, 451 

Satter, 131, 451 

Sauce, 266 

Saul, 138, 482 

Sault, 443 

Savage, 424 

Saveall, 424 

SaveU, 424 

Saverick, 424 

Savidge, 424 

Savory, 424 

Saward, 322 

Saxe, 200 

Saxl, 201 

Say, 171 
Sayer, 171 
Scaddan, 191 
Scadlock, 191 
Scaffold, 219 
Scamp, 442 
Scarfc, 356 
Scarman, 223 
Scarnell, 221 
Scarr, 223 
Scari'ow, 223 
Scharb, 356 
Schooley, 513 
Scobell, 442 
Scobie, 442 
Scolding, 148, 228 
Score, 223 
Scotchmer, 317 
Scotland, 317 
Scott, 317 
Scottock, 317 
Scotting, 317 
Scottoh, 19 
Scottsmith, 317, 462 
Scow, 495 



Scullion, 12 
Scurry, 223 
Sea, 172 
Seaber, 321 
Seaborn, 321 
Seabright, 321 
Seabrook, 322 
Seabury, 322 
Seage, 172 
Seago, 172 
Seahorse, 323 
Seaman, 322 
Seamark, 323 
Seamer, 173 
Sear, 230 
Search, 231 
Seare, 173 
Searight, 322 
Seavy, 261 , 
SeawaU, 322 
Seaward, 322 
Seawen, 495 
Seawood, 323 
Seeker, 173 
Sedger, 173 
Sedgwick, 173 
Seffert, 173 
Sefowl, 94, 322 
Segar, 173 
Seguin, 173 
Self, 346 
SeU, 308 
Sellar, 308 
Selley, 308 
Sellick, 308 
Selling, 308 
Sellis, 308 
Sellon, 308 
Selman, 308 
Selves, 346 
Selvey, 346 
Selway, 308 
Semy, 75 
Sendall, 456 
Senlo, 170 
Sent, 456 
Seppings, 262 
Serbutt, 230 
Serle, 230 
Sermon, 230 
Serrcll, 230 
Sctriglit, 451 
Sew, 267 
Seward, 42, 322 
Sewell, 322 
Scwoy, 267 
Sex, 200 
Scxcy, 200 
Scxmcr, 201 
Seybuiri, 321 
Scyfiicd, 173 
Soymour, 7, 173 
Shadbolt, 168 



Shaddock, 168 
Shade, 191 
Shadrake, 168' 
Shadwell, 191 
Shaft, 219 
Shafter, 219 
Shafto, 219 
Shakeshaft, 236 
Shakespere, 236 
Shalley, 456 
ShaUow, 456 
Shank, 438 
Shankey, 438 
Shark, 231 
Sharkey, 231 
Sharkley, 231 
Sharp, 356 
Sharpey, 356 
Sharpin, 357 
Sharpus, 356 
Shaqjless, 354, 357 
Sharpley, 357 
Shaw, 495 
Shawkey, 456 
Shawman, 223, 457 
Sheaf, 148 
Shear smith, 462 
Sheath, 191 
Sheather, 191 
Shebeare, 321 
Sheen, 389 
Sheer, 223 
Sheniman, 389 
Sherman, 223 
Sherrell, 223 
Sherry, 223 
Shether, 191 
Shick, 431 
Shickle, 431 
Shield, 148, 227 
Shierbrand, 199, 223 
Shillibeer, 361 
Shilling, 360 
Shillito, 361 
Shin, 418 
Shine, 389 
Shiner, 389 
Shinn, 389 
Shinner, 389 
Shipman, 322 
Shirk, 231 
Shirkey, 231 
Shiverick, 262 
Shlange, 108 
Shoe, 495 
Sliolto, 457 
Shone, 389 
Shoner, 389 
Slioobcrt, 495 
Shoobrick, 495 
Shopp, 442 
Shoppce, 442 
Shopperie, 442 



INDEX OF ENGLISH NAMES. 



589 



Shore, 223 
Shorey, 223 
Shorman, 223 
Shotbolt, 317 
Shoulder, 457 
Shoult, 450, 457 
Shovell, 442 
Shover, 442 
Shurey, 223 
Sibbaia, 172 
Sibbick, 262 
Sibel, 2G2 
Sibert, 173 
Sibery, 262 
Sibley, 262 
Sibson, 262 
Sibthorp, 262 
Sickens, 172 
Sickle, 172 
Sicklemore, 30, 173 
Sicklen, 172 
SickHng, 172 
Sickman, 173 
Siddell, 431 
Sidden, 431 
Siddons, 431 
Side, 431 
Sidey, 431 
Sidgear, 431 
Sidney, 431 
Sier, 173 

Sievewiight, 262, 460 
Sievier, 262 
Siffken, 262 
Siggers, 173 
Siggs, 8, 172 
Sigley, 172 
Sigmund. 7, 173 
Sigournay, 173 
Sigourney, 30 
Sigrist, 173 
Sike, 172 
Silliman, 433 
SHva, 346 
SHve, 346 
Silver, 479 
Sim, 21 
Simco, 21, 262 
Simberd, 456 
Simkin, 262 
Simkiss, 262 
Simm, 262, 484 
Simmell, 262 
Simmonds, 173 
Simmons, 7 
Simon, 484 
Sindrey, 456 
Sinden, 456 
Sinder, 456 
Singer, 438 
Single, 438 
Sinker, 438 
Sinton, 456 



Sipless, 262 
Sipling, 262 
Sipp, 261 
Sipthorp, 262 
Sirkett, 441 
Sisley, 272 
Sistcrson, 293 
Sitton, 431 
Sivrac, 262 
Six, 200 
Size, 272 
Sizeland, 272 
Sizen, 272 
Sizer, 272 
Skate, 191 
Skatliff, 191 
Skeen, 389 
Skeet, 191 
Skelding, 148, 228 
Skelt, 227 
SkiU, 360 
Skiller, 361 
Skillett, 361 
Skiney, 389 
Skipper, 322 
Skipwith, 37 
Skoggin, 495 
Skone, 389 
Skoulding, 148, 228 
Sky, 431 
Slack, 257 
Slade, 201, 491 
Sladen, 201 
Slader, 201 
Slagg, 257 
Slate, 201 
Slater, 201, 460 
Slay, 257 
Slee, 257 
Sleeman, 258 
Slegg, 257 
Slewey, 257 
Slewman, 258 
SUght, 201, 257 
Slow, 257 
Slowey, 257 
Slowman, 258 
Sly, 257 
Slybody, 257 
Slyman, 258 
Slyoff, 258 
Smelt, 106, 270 
Smith, 461 
Smither, 461 
Smiter, 461 
Smithy, 461 
Smytha, 461 
Snagg, 108 
Snake, 108 
Snare, 24S 
Snarey, 246 
Snipe, 102 
Sneezy, 256 



Snelgar, 245 
Sncll, 245 
Snelling, 245 
Snook, 108 
Snow, 130 
SnowbaU, 137 
Snowman, 403 
Snugg, 108 
Soane, 99 
Soar, 441 
Sodden, 431 
Soddy, 430 
Sodo, 430 
Solberry, 138 
Sole, 138 
Soley, 138 
SoUy, 230 
Soltau, 443 
SorHe, 230 
Sorter, 198 
SortweU, 198 
Soul, 138 
Souper, 304 
Sour, 441 
Sourk, 441 
South, 301 
Southard, 301 
Souther, 302 
Southey, 301 
Southon, 301 
Southward, 301 (note) 
Spade, 200 
Spademan, 200 
Spader, 200 
Spadey, 200 
Spain, 317, 445 
Spaniel, 445 
Spar, 104 
Spark, 415 
Sparling, 104 
Sparrow, 104 
Sparrowhawk, 96 
Speak, 207 
Speakman, 207 
Spear, 206 
Spearing, 206 
Spearman, 206 
Speck, 207 
Speed, 207 
Speight, 200 
SpeUar, 434 
Spelman, 434 
Spendlove, 445 
Spenlove, 445 
Sperling, 104 
Sperwin, 206 
Spice, 207 
Spike, 207 
Spikeman, 207 
Spill, 434 
Spillard, 434 
Spiller, 434 
Spilling, 434 



590 



INDEX or ENGLISH NAMES. 



Spillman, 434 
Spinney, 445 
Spiring, 206 
Spiiit, 485 
Spite, 207 
Spitta, 207 
Spitty, 207 
Spon, 445 
Spoonei', 445 
Sporne, 321 
Sprack, 415 
Spracklin, 415 
Spragg, 415 
Spratt, 207 
Spray, 415 
Spreck, 415 
Spreckley, 415 . 
Sprice, 415 
Sprigg, 415 
Spritt, 415 
Sproat, 207, 415 
Sprout, 207, 415 
Spruce, 415 
Spiy, 415 
Spurge, 416 
Spurgeon, 416 
Spyer, 206 
Sqxxare, 450 
Squarey, 450 
Stack, 213 
Stackard, 213 
Stackler, 213 
Stackman, 213 
Stag, 213 
StaggaU, 214 
Stagg, 85 . 
Stagman, 213 
Stain, 479 
Stainburn, 479 
Stainer, 480 
Staker, 213 
Staley, 476 
Stalon, 476 
StaUard, 476 
StaUion, 81, 476 
Stalman, 476 
Stand, 252 
Standing, 252 
Stanger, 214 
Stank, 214 
Stannah, 479 
Stannard, 480 
Stark, 245 
Starker, 245 
Starkey, 245 
Starkman, 245 
State, 252 
Stead, 252 
Steady, 252 
Steal, 476 
Steulin, 476 
Ste;ini})urg, 479 
Stebbing, 469 



Stedman, 252 
Steed, 252 
Steedman, 252 
Steel, 476 
Steelfox, 476 
Steelman, 476 
Steen, 479 
Steggall, 214 
Stelfox, 476 
Stembridge, 479 
Steneck, 479 
StenneU, 479 
Stenning, 479 
Stent, 252 
Sterckeman, 245 
Stericker, 245 
Stibbard, 469 
Stick, 213 
Sticker, 213 
Stickle, 214 
Stickler, 214 
Stickman, 213 
Stidolph, 72, 252 
Stiff, 469 
Stiffel, 469 
Stiffin, 469 
Stinchman, 214 
Sting, 214 
Stinger, 214 
Stirk, 245 
Stith, 252 
Stitt, 252 
Stobart, 469 
Stobie, 469 
Stobo, 469 
Stock, 213 
Stocker, 213 
Stockill, 213 
Stockman, 213 
Stocqueler, 214 
StoffeU, 469 
Stoker, 213, 460 
Stonah, 479 
Stonard, 480 
Stone, 479 
Stonebridge, 479 
Stoneheart, 480 
Stonel, 479 
Stoncman, 480 
Stoner, 480 
Stonhold, 480 
Stonier, 480 
Stony, 479 
Stop, 469 
Stopher, 469 
Storah, 345 
Store, 345 
Storer, 345 
Stork, 245 
Storr, 345 
Storron, 345 
Storrow, 345 
Storrs, 345 



Story, 345 
Stovell, 469 
Stover, 469 
Stovin, 469 
Stovold, 365 
Stow, 365 
StoweU, 365 
Stower, 365 
Straker, 245 
Street, 171, 491 
Streeten, 171 
Streeter, 171 
Strettell, 171 
Stride, 171 
Strude, 190 
Strudwick, 191 
Struthers, 191 
Strutt, 48, 190 
Stubbe, 469 
Stubber, 469 
Stubbert, 469 
Stubbing, 469 
Stuber, 469 
Stuck. 213 
Stuckey, 213 
Stupart, 469 
Sturge, 106, 245 
Sturgeon, 106 
Sturia, 345, 513 
Sturrock, 345 
Such, 267 
Suck, 267 
Suckey, 267 
Sucker, 268 
Suckermore, 268 
Suckley, 267 
Suckling, 267 
Suckman, 267 
Sudden, 301 
Suett, 206 
Sugar, 268 
Sugarman, 268 
Sugg, 76, 267 
Suggett, 267 
Suit, 266 
Summer, 140 
Summersell, 94 
Sumpter, 301 
Sun, 8, 138 
Sunday, 301 
Sunrise, 139 
Sunshine, 139 
Sunter, 301 
Supple, 804 
Surgett, 441 
Surgcy, 441 
Suri^lice, 357 
Susans, 45 
Suse, 45, 206 
Sutcliff, 267 
Sutliery, 301 
Sutlifr, 267 
Swuaj), 304 



INDEX OF ENGLISH NAMES. 



591 



Swabb, 304 
Swabey, 304 
Swain, 513 
Swainsou, 513 
Swale, 104 
Swallow, 104 
Swanberg, 99 
Swann, 99 
Swannack, 99 
Swannell, 99 
Swanwick, 99 
Swearer, 450 
Swearing, 450 
Sweai's, 450 
Sweat, 266 
Sweden, 318 
Sweeby, 304 
Sweet, 45, 266 
Sweetapple, 467 
Sweeten, 45 
Sweeting, 267 
Sweetlove, 267 
Sweetman, 267 
Sweetsur, 318 
Swenwiight, 99 
Swire, 450 
SwonneU, 99 
Sword, 198 
Sworder, 198 
Sycamore, 30, 173 
Sykes, 172 
Syme, 262, 484 
Syster, 293 

Tabram, 428 
Tackabarry, 391 
Tackle, 390 
Tackley, 390 
Tackman, 391 
Tadd, 291 
Taddy, 291 
Tadloo, 291 
Tadman, 292 
Tagart, 391 
Tagg, 390 
Tait, 271 
Talbei-t, 375 
Talbot, 39, 375 
Talfourd, 375 
Talker, 375 
Tall, 375 
TaUack, 375 
Tallemach, 376 
TalHss, 375 
Tallman, 376 
Tallon, 375 
Talmage, 376 
Tamborine, 365 
Tame, 364 
Tamiet, 365 
Tamlyn, 365 
Tammage, 365 
Tamplin, 365 



Tancred, 41, 359 
Tandy, 45, 310 
Tank, ^59 
Tankard, 359 
Tanker, ^59 
Tanklin, 359 
Tann, 311 
Tanner, 53, 311 
Tannock, 311 
Tanqueray, 359 
TanseU, 310 
Tansey, 310 
Tant, 310 
Tanton, 310 
Taplin, 428 
Tapp, 428 
Tappin, 428 
Tappy, 428 
Targett, 128 
Tarn, 398 
Tarner, 398 
Tarr, 208 
Tarratt, 209 
Tarry, 208 
Tarryer, 208 
Tart, 209 
Tarter, 209 
Tasker, 53, 385, 460 
Tasman, 385 
TasseU, 385 
Tassiker, 385 
Tate, 271 
Tatlock, 292 
Tattle, 291 
Tatuin, 292 
Tay, 390 
Tayburn, 391 
Teale, 101, 375 
Tear, 268 
Tearey, 268 
Teat, 271 
Teather, 292 
Tedd, 291 
Tedder, 292 
Tedman, 292 
Teeling, 375 
Tegart, 391 
Tegg, 390 
Teggiu, 338 
TekeU, 390 
Telbin, 375 
Telfer, 375 
Telford, 375 
TeUer, 375 
Telling, 375 
Ten, 311 
Tench, 106, 359 
TendaU, 310 
Tennant, 311 
TenneUy, 311 
Tenneman, 312 
Tennyson, 45, 311 
Tent, 310 



Ternouth, 208 
Terrier, 208 
Terry, 208 
Tetlow, 291 
Teuten, 332 
Tewart, 42, 427 
Thackeray, 359 
Thackwell, 359 
Thain, 338 
Thane, 338 
Theed, 332 
Theobald, a32 
Theodore, 333 
Teuthorn, 333 
Thew, 457 
Thick, 406 
Thicket, 407 
Thistle, 469 
Thoden, 332 
Thody, 332 
Thomas, 484 
Thorburn, 128 
Thorgate, 128 
Thorold, 129 
Thoroughgate, 128 
Thoroughgood, 11, 128 
Thoroughwood, 129 
Thotman, 129 
Throssell, 103 
Thrush, 103 
Thumm, 363, 418 
Thunder, 128 
Thurber, 128 
Thurgar, 128 
Thurgood, 11, 128 
Thurkettle, 129, 512 
Thurkle, 129 
Thurmott, 129 
Thurston, 129 
Thyer, 457 
Tick, 406 
Tickle, 406 
Tidball, 332 
Tidd, 332 
Tiddeman, 333 
Tidemore, 333 
Tidman, 333 
Tidy, 332 
Tiffany, 488 
Tiffin, 488 
Tigg, 406 
Tileman, 190 
Tilgman, 190 
Tilke, 189 
TiU, 189 
Tilleard, 189 
Tiller, 189 
TiUey, 189 
Tillick, 189 
TiUier, 189 
Tilling, 189 
Tillman, 190 
TiUott, 189 



592 



INDEX OF ENGLISH NAMES. 



Tim, 364 
Times, 365 
Timlin, 365 
Timperon, 365 
Tims, 365 
Tingey, 367 
Tingle, 367 
Tink, 367 
Tinker, 367 
TinkUng, 367 
Tinley, 130 
TinliHg, 130 
Tinney, 129 
Tinning, 130 
Tisoe, 351 
Titchen, 332 
Titcomb, 297 
Tite, 271, 332 
Titmus, 104 
Tizard, 352 
Toby, 103 
Todd, 45, 273 
Toddy, 273 
Todman, 273 
Todrig, 333 
Toe, 427 
Toker, 427 
Tolcher, 184 
Tolken, 184 
Tolkien, 184 
Tom, 363 
Tomb, 363, 484 
Tombs, 364 
Tomey, 363 
Tomkies, 364 
Tomkin, 364 
Tomlin, 22, 364 
TommeU, 364 
Tomsey, 364 
Ton, 129 
Tonge, 361 
Tongman, 362 
Tongue, 361 
Tonner, 128 
Toodle, 274 
Toogood, 428 
Toomer, 364 
Toot, 273 
Tootal, 274 
Toothaker, 274 
Toovey, 103 
Torr, 127 
Torry, 127, 208 
Totman, 273 
TotteU, 273 
Totten, 273 
Tottcy, 273 
Tournay, 190 
Tovey, 103 
Tow, 427 
Towart, 427 
Towell, 427 
Tower, 427 



Towgood, 428 
Tozier, 273 
Trace, 242 
Tracy, 242 
Traer, 413 
Trahar, 413 
Traies, 242 
TraU, 141, 413 
Train, 413* 
Traiser, 242 . 
Trapp, 196 
Trass, 242 
Travel, 196 
Tray, 413 
Treasure, 242 
Treble, 196 
Tree, 429 
Tremble, 11, 243 
Tress, 242 
Tricker, 429 
Trickett, 429 
Trickey, 429 
Trigg, 429 
Trigger, 429 
Tripp, 196 
Trist, 249 
Trister, 249 
Tristram, 249 
Trodden, 271 
Troke, 195 
Troll, 141 
Trood, 270 
Trott, 270 
Trotter, 271 
Trottman, 271 
Troughton, 271 
Troup, 441 
Trout, 106, 270 
Trow, 195 
TroweU, 195 
Trower, 196 
Trowse, 249 
Troy, 429 
Truby, 441 
Truce, 249 
True, 195 
Truefitt, 429 
Truelove, 429 
Trueman, 196 
Trumbull, 243 
Trump, 243 
Trumper, 243 
Trumpy, 243 
Trush, 103 
Truss, 249 
Trussell, 249 
Try, 429 
Tubb, 103 
Tubby, 103 
Tuck, 100, 427 
Tucker, 427 
Tuckey, 427 
Tuckwell, 428 



Tudor, 333 
TufeneU, 220 
Tuggy, 427 
Tubman, 428 
Tuke, 427 
Tuita, 332 
Tulk, 184 
Tun, 129 
Tunaley, 130 
Tungay, 361 
Tunn, 106 
Tunnay, 129 
Tunnell, 130 
Tunno, 129 
Tunny, 106, 129 
Tunstan, 130 
Tupp, 103 
Turk, 487 
TurnbuU, 3, 243 
Turnell, 190 
Turner, 190, 460 
Turney, 190 
Turnley, 190 
Turrell, 208 
Turtle, 103 
Tutching, 332 
Tuting, 332 
Tutt, 332 
Tuttle, 332 
Tutty, 332 
Tway, 521 
Twice, 521 
Twigg, 521 
Twine, 521 
Twining, 521 
Twiss, 521 
Twyman, 521 
Tyas, 131, 351, 457 
Tysack, 352 
Tyser, 352 
Tyson, 352 
Tyus, 131 

Udall, 334 

Udy, 282 
Uffell, 385 
UUer, 106 
UUock, 358 
UUmer, 106 
Ulman, 106 
Ulp, 71 
Ulph, 71 
Uncle, 294 
Uncles, 354 (note) 
Undey, 322 
Ungless, 354 
Unit, 286 
Unna, 286 
Unwin, 286 
Urch, 387 
Urc, 83 
Urie, 83 
Urling, 340 



INDEX OF ENGLISH NAMES. 



593 



Urlwin, 340 
Urquhart, 388 
Urwick, 83 
Urwin, 83 
Usher, 442 
Uttridge, 450 

Vague, 523 
Valder, 345 
Valiant, 298 
VaUer, 298 
Vallily, 298 
Vallis, 298 
Valpy, 88 
Vance, 316 
Vandeleur, 317 
Vandy, 316 
Vane, 394 
Vann, 394 
Vanneck, 394 
Vanner, 394 
Vant, 316 
Vanzller, 317 
Varick, 278 
VarneU, 305 
Vamish, 24, 305 
VarreU, 278 
Vassall, 244 
Vasser, 12, 244 
Vaudelin, 344 
Veale, 383 
Venn, 394 
VenneU, 394 
Venner, 394 
Venning, 394 
Vension, 316 
Vent, -316 
Venus, 143 
Verco, 73 
Verge, 65, 73 
Verger, 74 
Vergoose, 278 
Verity, 7, 257 
VerUng, 278 
Vermon, 278 
Vemer, 305 
Verney, 305 
Vest, 303 
Vestal, 303 
Vesterman, 303 
Vesty, 303 
Vetch, 154, 493 
Vibert, 165 
Vick, 164 
Vicary, 165 
Vice, 351 
Vickridge, 165 
Vidy, 493 
Vigor, 165 
VinaU, 263 
Vindin, 316 
Vine, 263 
Vinegar, 12, 264 



Vinen, 264 
Viney, 263 
Vingoe, 412 
Vink, 412 
Vint, 316 
Vinter, 316 
Violett, 468 
Virgin, 05, 73, 74 
Viigo, 65, 73 
Virtue, 257 
Viscord, 351 
Vise, 351 
Visick, 351 
Vizard, 351 
Vizer, 351 
Voak, 333 
Volckman, 334 
VoUam, 384 
VoUer, 384 
VoUet, 384 
VoUum, 384 
VoweU, 93 
Vowles, 93 
Vulliamy, 71 
Vyse, 351 

Wack, 362 
Wadd, 152, 412 
Wadden, 413 
"Waddicar, 413 
Waddilove, 413 
Waddle, 412 
Waddy, 412 
Wade, 152, 412 
Wadey, 412 
Wadge, 413 
Wadkin, 413 
Wadling, 413 
Wadman, 413 
Wadmore, 413 
Wageman, 362 
Wager, 523 
Wagg, 47, 523 
Wagman, 523 
Wain, 523 
Wainman, 394 
Wainwright, 395, 461 
Wake, 362 
Wakelin, 362 
Wakem, 24, 362 
Wakeman, 362 
Waker, 362 
Wakley, 362 
Waland, 298 
Walden, 28, 345 
Waldie, 344 
Waldman, 345 
Waldo, 340 
Waldron, 42, 345 
Walduck, 344 
Waldwin, 345 
Wale, 102, 298 
Waley, 298 

w 3 



Walford, 88 
Walk, 298 
Walker, 298, 460 
Walkey, 298 
Walking, 298 
Walkley, 298 
Walklin, 298 
Wolkman, 298 
Walko, 298 
Wall, 298, 491 
AVaUace, 298 
WaUack, 298 
Waller, 298 
WaUet, 298 
Wallfree, 298 
Walliker, 298 
Wallis, 23 
Walliss, 298 
WaUower, 298 
Wallraven, 298 
WaUs, 23, 298 
Walrond, 41, 298 
Walter, 47, 345 
Wambey, 417 
Wampen, 417 
Wand, 316 
Wander, 316 
Wanding, 316 
Wane, 394 
Wanless, 354 
WanneU, 394 
Wannod, 394 
Wansey, 316 
Want, 316 
Wantman, 316 
Wanton, 12, 316 
Warbolt, 278 
Warbrick, 278 
Ward, 277 
Wardell, 277 
Warder, 277 
Wardman, 277 
Wardy, 277 
Ware, 278 
Waiing, 278 
Warland, 278 
Warlock, 278 
Warman, 278 
Warmer, 39, 278 
Warne, 305 
Warner, 305 
Warnett, 305 
Warnock, 305 
Warraker, 278 
Wan-e, 278 
Warrell, 47, 278 
Warren, 278, 305 
Warrenburg, 305 
Warrener, 305 
Warrier, 47, 278 
Warring, 278 
Warry, 278 
Warter, 277 



594 



INDEX OF ENGLISH NAMES. 



Warwicker, 278 
Wash, 244 
Washer, 244 
Washman, 244 
Wasman, 244 
Wasp, 107 
Wass, 244 
WasseU, 244 
Waste, 244 
Wastell, 244 
WastHng, 22 
Waterfall, 502 
Wathen, 413 
Watker, 413 
Watkin, 413 
Watkiss, 40, 413 
Watley, 412 
WatKng, 413 
Watmore, 413 
Watney, 413 
Watt, 32, 152, 412 
Wattle, 412 
Watts, 32, 413 
Waud, 344 
Way, 10, 47, 523 
Wayland, 152, 383 
Waygood, 523 
Waylen, 523 
Wayman, 523 
Weakley, 362 
Weaklin, 362 
Weale, 383 
Wearey, 278 
Wearg, 73 
Webling, 63 
Wedd, 412 
Weddell, 412 
Weddon, 120 
Wedge, 154, 413, 493 
Wedlake, 40, 224, 494 
Wedlock, 12, 224, 494 
Weed, 493 
Weedin, 493 
Weeding, 494 
Weekly, 362 
Weeks, 362 
Wegg, 10, 523 
Weible, 63 
Weir, 278 
Weland, 152, 383 
Welcome, 123, 297 
Weld, 344 
Welder, 345 
Welding, 345 
Weldon, 345 
Welford, 88 
Welland, 383 
Wellard, 383 
Wellcr, 383 
Wellflin, 88 
Welling, 383 
Well man, 383 
Wellock, 383 



WeUow, 383 
Welp, 88 
Welpley, 88 
Welton, 345 
Wendelken, 317 
Wendon, 316 
Wenlock, 394 
Wenman, 394 
Wenmoth, 394 
Wenn, 394 
Wenning, 394 
Went, 316 
Werge, 73 
Werk, 73 
Werner, 305 
Werrett, 257 
Werritt, 7 
Wesson, 244 
West, 303 
WestaU, 303 
Wester, 303 
Westerday, 303 
Westerman, 303 
WestfaU, 303 
Wetman, 303, 413 
Weybret, 523 
Whalebelly, 107 
Whatman, 413 
Whatmare, 413 
Wheelan, 383 
Wheeler, 53, 383 
Wheeley, 383 
Wheeling, 383 
Wheelock, 383 
Wheelwright, 383 
Wheen, 263 
Whellock, 383 
Whenman, 264 
Whenn, 263 
Whewell, 357 
Whibley, 63 
Whichelo, 165 
Whigam, 165 
Whincopp, 39 
Whipday, 63 
Whipp, 62 
Whippy, 62 
Whish, 121 
Whisker, 122 
Whiskered, 351 
Whiskin, 351 
Whiskyman, 122 
Whistle, 351 
Whitbread, 494 
Whitburn, 494 
White, 398, 400 
Whitcar, 494 
Whitecar, 494 
Whitehart, 494 
Whitehead, 494 
Wliiteheat, 494 
Whitchorn, 494 
Whitehouse, 494 



Whitelaw, 366, 494 
Whitelegg, 366, 494 
Whitell, 493 
Whitelock, 494 
Whiteman, 494 
Whiter, 494 
Whiterod, 494 
Whitethread, 494 
Whitewright, 494 
Whitheron, 494 
Whiting, 106, 494 
Whitley, 493 
WhitUng, 493 
Whitmee, 24, 493 
Whitmore, 494 
Whitridge, 495 
Whitsey, 493 
Whittaker, 494 
Whittock, 154 
Wholey, 383 
Wholework, 384 
Whorlow, 325 
Whytock, 493 
Wibby, 62 
Wiche, 164 
Wichett, 165 
Wick, 164 
Wicker, 165 
Wickey, 164 
Wickson, 165 
Wicking, 165 
Wickman, 165 
Widehose, 494 
Wideman, 494 
Widger, 494 
Widow, 47, 493 
Wigg, 164 
Wiggett, 165 
Wigle, 164 
Wigman, 165 
Wigmore, 165 
Wigram, 165 
Wigson, 165 
Wilberforce, 500 
Wilbourn, 123 
Wilbraham, 123 
Wilbur, 123 
Wilcock, 27 
Wilcomb, 123 
Wild, 447 
Wilday, 447 
Wilder, 447 
Wildey, 447 
Wildgoose, 100 
Wilding, 447 
Wildish, 447 
Wildman, 447 
Wildsmith, 462 
Wilford, 123 
Wilfred, 123 
Wilgoss, 123 
Wilke, 123 
Wilkie, 21, 123 



I 



INDEX OF ENGLISH NAMES. 



595 



Wilkin, 22 
Will, 22, 31, 47, 122 
Willam, 38 
Willament, 124 
Willan, 47, 123 
Willard, 124 
Wilier, 124 
Willett, 124 
Willey, 21, 122 
William, 38, 47 
Williams, 47, 124 
WilUment, 276 
WiUin, 123 
Willing, 31, 123 
WiUink, 123 
Willis, 23, 32, 123 
Willmer, 124 
Willmot, 41 
Willmott, 124 
Willock, 123 
Willoe, 122 
Wills, 23, 123 
Wnt, 447 
Willthew, 42 
Wimble, 48, 264 
Winbolt, 264 
Winbridge, 264 
Winch, 263, 412 
Wincup, 264 
Wind, 316 
Windeler, 317 
Winder, 316, 490 
Windle, 317 
Window, 316 
Windram, 316 
Windred, 264 
Wine, 263 
Winegar, 264 
Wineman, 264 
Winer, 264 
Wing, 412 
Wingate, 264 
Winger, 412 
Wingood, 264 
Winlo, 263 
Winlock, 264 
Winmen, 264 
Winn, 47, 263 
Winney, 263 
Winning, 263 
Winship, 263 
Winson, 263 
Winston, 264 
Wint, 316 
Winter, 140, 316 
Wintle, 317 
Wipkin, 63 
WippeU, 7, 63 
Wire, 165 



Wirgman, 74 
Wisdom, 351 
Wise, 351 
Wiseman, 351 
Wisewould, 351 
Wish, 121 
Wishart, 121 
Wisher, 122 
Wishman, 122 
Wiss, 351 
Witcher, 165 
With, 493 
Wither, 494 
Withered, 494 
Witherick, 495 
Withy, 493 
Wittering, 494 
Wittewrong, 494 
Wittich, 154 
Witton, 493 
Witty, 493 
Woledge, 384 
Wolf, 71, 513 
Wolf em, 71 
Wolfram, 72 
WoU, 383 
WoUatt, 72, 384 
WoUen, 384 
WoUey, 383 
Wolper, 72 
Woh-ige, 384 
Wolsey, 71 
Wolter, 378 
WoodaU, 493 
Woodard, 494 
Woodbridge, 495 
Woodcock, 494 
Wooden, 493 
Wooderson, 494 
Woodey, 493 
Woodger, 494 
Woodhead, 494 
Woodhouse, 494 
Wooding, 494 
Woodlin, 493 
Woodman, 494 
Woodyer, 494 
Woolbert, 71 
Woolcott, 71 
Wooldridge, 378 
Woolfolk, 71 
Woolfreys, 71 
Woolgar, 71 
Woolger, 71 
Woolhead, 71 
Woollams, 72 
WooUard, 71 
Woolley, 72 
Woolmer, 72 



Woolnoth, 72 
Woolrych, 72 
Woolston, 72 
Woolwright, 460 
Worry, 325 
Workey, 73 
Workman, 74 
Worknot, 74 
Worin, 513 
World, 325 
Wormald, 108 
Wormbolt, 108 
Worme, 108 
WorreU, 325 
Worrow, 325 
Wren, 104, 189 
Wrentmore, 228 
Wrinkle, 230 
Write, 254 
Writt, 254 
Wright, 254 
Writer, 254 
Wroth, 371 
Wurr, 325 
Wyard, 165 
Wyatt, 165 
Wyberg, 165 
Wybrow, 165 
Wye, 164 
Wyfolde, 63 
Wyman, 165 
Wymer, 165 

Yea, 366 
Yealfe, 367 
Yeaj33Jrti, 367 
¥^tman, 306 
Yeld, 418 
Yem, 253 
Yeo, 366 
Yeoman, 367 
Yeoward, 367 
Yesterday, 303 
Yett, 305 
Yewd, 282 
Yorick, 367 
Yost, 302 
Youd, 282 
Young., 419 
Younger, 419 
Youngman, 420 
Youngmay, 25 
Youring, 83 
Yowden, 282 

Zealey, 433 
ZeaU, 433 
Zetterquist, 470 



INDEX OF GERMAN NAMES. 



Aar, 94 
Abbe, 60 
Abendrot, 139 
Abendstern, 139 
Abich, 60 
Acke, 209 
Acker, 210 
Adal, 337 
Ade, 287 
Adelbart, 337 
Adelung, 337 
Adler, 338 
Adolf, 288 
Adolph, 72 
Ablmann, 517 
Ahlwardt, 517 
Ahr, 94 
Aicher, 210 
Albel, 134 
Albrecht, 516 
Alder, 418 
Alert, 516 
Alf, 134 
Alker, 516 
AUe, 516 
AUehn, 238 
Allmer, 517 
AUner, 239 
Alt, 418 
Alten, 418 
Alter, 418 
Altmann, 418 
Ameis, 284 
Amelung, 143 
Anderburg, 300 
Angele, 213 
Anke, 212 
Anselm, 119 
Anser, 119 
Anshelm, 227 (note) 
Appe, 60 
Arnhold, 95 
Arnold, 95 
Artelt, 251 
Arve, 386 
Asche, 216 
Ascher, 217 
Asel, 119 
Asser, 119 
Avcmann, 290 

Babe, 291 
Backc, 172 
Bade, 166 
liador, 166 
Bader, 166 



Badicke, 166 
Bage, 172 
Bahr, 68 
Bald, 241 
Baldauf, 242 
Baldenius, 242 
Balding, 241 
BaU, 192 
Baltz, 241 
Baltzer, 241 
Balz, 241 
Banck, 182 
Bandel, 235 
Bandke, 235 
Bang, 182 
Banger, 175 
Bannwart, 175 
Banse, 235 
Barde, 222 
Bardel, 222 
Barecke, 69 
Barnhard, 423 
Bart, 222 
Barten, 222 
Barth, 222 
Barther, 222 
Baithmann, 222 
Basch, 181 
Basel, 181 
Baske, 181 
Bass, 181 
Bassmann, 181 
Bath, 166 
Bauch, 378 
Baucke, 378 
Bauer, 452 
Bauermann, 452 
Beckcl, 222 
Beckh, 222 
Beede, 166 
Beer, 68 
Beerin, 70 
Behl, 192 
Behn, 176 
Behrens, 70 
Belke, 269 
Bellin, 270 
Benckert, 182 
BendeU, 235 
Bender, 286 
Beneken, 177 
Benicke, 176 
Bennemann, 177 
Bcnnert, 177 
Bcnning, 177 
Bcnnold, 177 



Bense, 235 
Bente, 235 
Bentingck, 236 
Benzel, 235 
Ber, 68 
Berger, 69 
Berghofle, 496 
Bermann, 69 
Bernard, 70 
Berner, 71 
Bernicke, 70 
Berning, 70 
Berringer, 70 
Bert, 370 
Berth, 370 
Bertin, 370 
Bertong, 370 
Bertram, 370 
Bertrand, 370 
Bese, 181 
Beste, 183 
Bethe, 166 
Bethke, 166 
Bettack, 166 
Bette, 166 
Bever, 91 
Bieber, 91 
Bieck, 177 
Biercher, 69 
Bigge, 177 
Bihn, 176 
Bila, 269 
BUger, 269 
Bilhardt, 269 
Bilke, 269 
BiUe, 269 
BiUer, 269 
Billing, 269 
Bilmer, 269 
Binder, 236 
Binnecke, 176 
Bippart, 414 
Blanckardt, 393 
Blang, 392 
Blank, 392 
Blankennagel, 221 
Blecher, 393 
Blede, 440 
Bledow, 440 
Blenk, 392 
]ilock, 214 
Blockmann, 215 
Blum, 465 
Jilume, 465 
]iliimel, 465 
Blumcr, 465 



INDEX OF GERMAN NAMES. 



597 



Blunihardt, 465 
Bobardt, 422 
Bobbe, 421 
Bobol, 421 
Bochmann, 225 
Kick, 224 
Bode, 454 
Bodeck, 454 
Bodemann, 455 
Bodemeyer, 455 
Boden, 454 
B<)ding, 454 
Bodi'ich, 455 
Boehner, 176 
Beige, 224 
Bogenhardt, 225 
Bogert, 225 
Bogner, 225 
Bohl, 281 
Bohling, 281 
Bohn, 175, 225 
Bohnbardt, 176 
Bohtliugk, 454 
Boldt, 241 
BoHcke, 281 
Bolke, 281 
Boll, 281 
Bollert, 281 
Bollmann, 281 
Boltche, 241 
Bonn, 175 
Bonne, 175 
Bonnecke, 175 
Boos, 407 
Booth, 454 
Bopp, 421 
Bosel, 407 
Bosewetter, 139 
Boss, 408 
Bosselt, 408 
Bote, 454 
Both, 454 
Bothmer, 455 
Bottger, 455 
Boye, 313 
Brach, 184 
Brackmann, 185 
Bramer, 371 
Brandeis, 199 
Brandel, 198 
Brandlein, 199 
Brandroth, 199 
Brandt, 198 
Braun, 399 
Brecht, 370 
Brechtel, 370 
Brehm, 371 
Breis, 186 
Brese, 186 
Brocke, 193 
Brocker, 194 
Brockmann, 194 
Broockmanu, 194 



Brosc. 480| 
Bhisel, 480 
Bruch, 193 
Bruchhardt, 194 
Bruckmann, 194 
Briickmann, 185 
Bruder, 218, 293 
Briiderlein, 293 
Brunck, 399 
Brunn, 399 
Brunnert, 400 
Bruno, 399 
Bry, 184 
Bube, 421 
Buck, 378 
Buddel, 454 
Buder, 455 
Budge, 454 
Budich, 454 
Budke, 454 
Bugge, 378 
Buhl, 281 
Buhler, 281 
Buhhnann, 281 
BuU, 281 
Bund, 235 
Biinning, 416 
Bunsen, 236 
Bunte, 235 
Bunting, 236 
Buol, 281 
Burckhardt, 279 
Biirde, 329 
Burger, 279 
Burger, 279 
Burghold, 279 
Burke, 279 
Burth, 329 
Buss, 407 
Bussmann, 407 
Butte, 454 
Butter, 455 
Butting, 454 

Cahn, 174 
Campe, 171 
Christ, 133 
Christel, 133 
Conrad, 328 
Coppel, 248 
Cosmar, 310 
Costis, 360 
Cuno, 327 

Daake, 390 
Dabbert, 391 
Dage, 390 
Dahl, 375 
Dahling, 375 
Dahlmann, 376 
Damm, 364 
Danimer, 365 
Dammert, 365 



Danckcl, :i59 
Dank, 359 
Dankegott, 311 
Dankcrt, 359 
Dann, 311 
Dannecker, 311 
Darold, 208 
Dasse, 385 
Dassel, 385 
Date, 291 
Dau, 427 
Daulf, 391 
DiiumJin, 364 
Deck, 390 
Deckert, 391 
Dederich, 333 
Degel, 390 
Degen, 338 
Dehn, 311 
Dein, 338 
Demme, 364 
Dencker, 359 
Denk, 359 
Dessman, 385 
Detmann, 333 
Dette, 291 
Dettmer, 333 
Dettrich, 333 
Dewe, 427 
Dick, 406 
Dickert, 407 
Didtchen, 332 
Diebold, 332 
Diede, 332 
Diehr, 268 
Diemann, 457 
Dieme, 364 
Dieter, 333 
Dietert, 333 
Dikmann, 407 
Dill, 189 
Dillemann, 190 
Dillert, 189 
Dilling, 189 
Dinger, 367 
Disch, 229 
Ditt, 332 
Dittmer, 333 
Dixmann, 229 
Dode, 273 
Dohm, 363 
Dohmeyer, 364 
Doler, 375 
Donaich, 364 
Donn, 129 
Dooer, 208 
Dorand, 197 
Dormann, 208 
Dormeier, 208 
Dorwald, 268 
Droge, 195 
Drey, 413 
Drude, 270 



598 



INDEX OF GERMAN NAMES. 



Drucker, 196 
Drue, 195 
Drmnann, 196 
Drute, 270 
Ducke, 427 
Diikher, 427 
Dulcken, 184 
Dulk, 184 
Dumhoff, 496 
Dumichen, 364 
Diimling, 364 
Dumm, 363 
Diimmel, 364 
Durand, 197 
Dusendteufel, 488 
Dnttke, 332 

Ebbecke, 60 
Ebbrecht, 61 
Eber, 76 
Eberhard, 76 
Ebermann, 76 
Eckardt, 210 
Ecke, 209 
Eckhoff, 496 
Eckholdt, 210 
Edel, 337 
Edeler, 338 
Ediling, 337 
Egel, 154 
Eger, 210 
Egge, 209 
Eisele, 475 
Eiseln, 475 
Eisemann, 475 
Eisen, 474 
Eisenhardt, 475 
Eiser, 475 
Elbe, 134 
Elben, 134 
EUenberg, 239 
EUert, 299 
Emele, 143 
Emerich, 254 
Emmel, 143 
Emmert, 254 
Ende, 432 
Ender, 300 
Enge, 292 
Engel, 213 
Engelhardt, 213 
Engelin, 213 
Englebrecht, 213 
Englemann, 213 
Englen, 213 
Engler, 213 
Enger, 292 
Engert, 292 
Engwald, 292 
Ensle, 119 
Entrich, 432 
Erb, 386 
Erchc, 387 



Erck, 387 
Erd, 139 
Erdmann, 251 
Erhardt, 95 
Erker, 388 
Erie, 339 
Erlecke, 340 
Erler, 340 
Ermel, 147 
Ermen, 146 
Ermisch, 147 
Erpel, 386 
Erpf, 386 
Esch, 216 
Escher, 217 
Eschmann, 217 
Eschrich, 217 
Essich, 119 
Estrich, 216 
Ette, 287 
Evers, 76 
Ewaldt, 367 
Ewert, 367 
Ewich, 366 
Eyl, 154 

Fack, 435 
Fabl, 307 
Fahne, 234 
Fahr, 323 
Farenbeit, 324 
Faster, 252 
Fechter, 257 
Fecke, 435 
Feder, 293 
Fehr, 323 
Fehrlen, 323 
Fehrmann, 324 
Fendt, 417 
Ferrach, 323 
Fest, 251 
Fetter, 293 
Ficbte, 257 
Fick, 249 
FidaU, 430 
Fiege, 249 
Fielmann, 518 
Filbert, 518 
Fillmer, 518 
Fisch, 247 
Fischart, 247 
Fischhof, 247, 496 
Fix, 247 
Flatbe, 393 
Flogel, 411 
Fluemann, 411 
Fliigel, 411 
Folke, 333 
Folkcl, 333 
Fortmann, 325 
Francke, 306 
Frank, 300 
Franklin, 306 



Freche, 132 
Frede, 261 
Freitag, 261 
Fretter, 261 
Freund, 263 
Freutel, 350 
Frick, 132 
Fricker, 132 
Friderich, 261 
Fried, 261 
Friedel, 261 
Friess, 312 
Frisch, 449 
Friscblin, 449 
Fuchsel, 247 
FiiU, 517 

Gabe, 285 
Gabel, 285 
Gabold, 286 
Gade, 525 
Gaedcke, 525 
Gaide, 206 
GaUiger, 437 
Gamann, 436 
Gamm, 436 
Gammert, 436 
Gans, 518 
Gante, 74 
Ganter, 74 
Ganzlen, 518 
Gapp, 285 
Gast, 296 
Gau, 336 
Gause, 309 
Gavel, 285 
Gayl, 436 
Gebel, 285 
Geber, 285 
Gebhardt, 285 
Gede, 525 
Gehl, 436 
Gehr, 202 
Gehrer, 203 
Geilich, 437 
Geisel, 458 
Geiss, 459 
Gelpke, 442 
Genedl, 74 
Genderich, 75 
Gener, 444 
Genet, 444 
Gennerich, 444 
Gent, 74 
Gentz, 518 
Gepp, 285 
Gerbert, 203 
Gerboth, 203 
Gerhard, 203 
Gerhold, 204 
Gericke, 202 
Gering, 202 
Gerlach, 203 



INDEX OF GERMAN NAMES. 



599 



Germann, 203 
Gem, 4;« 
Gerncr, 4'Mi 
Gernhardt, 433 
Gerning, 4.'^ 
Genilein, 433 
Gerold, 204 
Gerwin, 204 
Gessler, 458 
G€u, 336 
Gey, 3.36 
Gherken, 202 



I Giese, 459 



Giesemann, 459 
Giesing, 459 
Gilbert, 458 
GUI, 458 
Giltemann, 478 
Gisbrecht, 459 
Gisecke, 459 
Gisselbrecht, 458 
Glade, 435 
Gladisch, 435 
Glaser, 392 
Glass, 392 
Gleiss, 392 
Gockel, 446 
Grockingky 446 
Gode, 115 
Godecke, 115 
Godel, 115 
Godehard, 116 
Goemann, 337 
Goethe, 309 
Gogel, 446 
Gohr, 202 
Goldmann, 477 
Gomm, 59 
Goren, 204 
Gorich, 202 
Goring, 202 
Goschen, 309 
Gose, 309 
Goseken, 309 
Gosling, 309 
Gbss, 309 
Gossman, 310 
Gothe, 309 
Gottel, 115 
Gotter, 116 
Gottfried, 116 
Gotthardt, 116 
Gotting, 115 
Gottleib, 116 
GottHeb, 484 
Gbtze, 115 
Graesse, 464 
Gramann, 401 
Grashoff, 496 
Grassmann, 464 
Grau, 401 
Grimm, 125 
Grimmel, 125 



Grimmer, 125 
Griibe, 425 
Grobe, 425 
Griibel, 425 
Grohn, 4G5 
Grohnert, 465 
Gronar, 465 
Groning, 465 
Gross, 405 
Grun, 465 
Griin, 465 
Griiner, 465 
Grunert, 465 
Griinert, 465 
GriinLng, 465 
Gude, 115 
Guibert, 165 
Guldenapfel, 467 
Giilich, 478 
GiiU, 478 
Gummrich, 60 
Gundel, 163 
Giinther, 164 
Gunz, 163 
Giinzel, 163 
Guter, 116 
Giitermann, 117 
Gutte, 115 
Giittel, 115 
Guttman, 116 
Guttwein, 117 
Gutwasser, 502 

Haberkom, 467 
Hachmann, 210 
Hacke, 209 
Hackel, 209 
Hackert, 210 
Hadank, 168 
Hadel, 168 
Hadicke, 168 
Haertel, 250 
Hagart, 210 
Hagedorn, 467 
Hagelen, 209 
Hagen, 211 
Hager, 210 
Hagner, 211 
Hahl, 480 
Haid, 519 
HaU, 480 
HaUich, 426 
Halm, 225 
Hamelmann, 143 
Hammer, 130 
Handel, 417 
Handt, 417 
Hanelt, 289 
Hanewald, 289 
Hanisch, 289 
Hanke, 212 
Hanne, 289 
Hanneken, 289 



Hanneniann, 289 
Haunicke, 289 
Harder, 250 
Hardt, 250 
Hardweck, 251 
Hiiricke, 231 
Harke, 231 
Hiirle, 231 
Hiirlin, 231 
Harless, 340 
Harmann, 232 
Harpe, 386 
Harprecht, 232 
Harring, 232 
Hartmann, 251 
Hiirtnagel, 221, 251 
Harting, 250 
Hartrot, 251 
Hartung, 250 
Hartz, 250 
Harward, 233 
Hass, 307 
Hatt, 168 
Haube, 227 
Hause, 491 
Haussmann, 491 
Haydn, 519 
Hayer, 210 
Haymann, 210 
Heb, 60 
Hecht, 450 
Heckmann, 210 
Hedde, 168 
Hedrich, 168 
Heer, 231 
Heering, 232 
Hehr, 231 
Heidel, 519 
Heilig, 426 
Heiliggeist, 486 
Heiligmann, 427 
Heim, 492 
Heinhardt, 211 
Heinrich, 492 
Heiter, 519 
Helf, 275 
Helfrich, 275 
Helm, 225 
Helmar, 163 
Hemmer, 130 
Henne, 289 
Hennert, 289 
Hennemann, 289 
Hennicke, 289 
Henning, 289 
Herber, 232 
Herbert, 232 
Herbothe, 232 
Herde, 250 
Herden, 251 
Herel, 231 
Herger, 232 
Herken, 432 



600 



INDEX OP GERMAN NAMES. 



Herkner, 432 
Herl, 231, 339 
Herm, 147 
Hermann, 232 
Herold, 233 
Herpfer, 386 
Herr, 231 
Herring, 232 
Herrle, 231 
Herrmuth, 233 
Herth, 250 
Hertrich, 251 
Herwig, 233 
Herzog, 339 
Hess, 307 
Hetz, 169 
Hetzel, 169 
Heyden, 519 
Heydt, 519 
Heye, 209 
Heyne, 211 
Hilbert, 162 
Hild, 162 
HUdebrand, 162 
Hilger, 162 
HiU, 162 
Hiller, 162 
Hillmann, 163 
HiUmer, 163 
Hilt, 162 
HUtmann, 163 
HHtnip, 163 
Himmel, 140 
Hinck, 292 
Hobreclit, 341 
Hoch, 340 
Hock, 340 
Hockel, 340 
Hocker, 341 
Hoffmann, 227 
Hoge, 357 
Hohman, 341 
Hold, 282 
Holder, 282 
HoUe, 282 
HoUer, 282 
Hollmann, 282 
Holt, 282 
Homan, 341 
Honer, 314 
Honicke, 314 
Honigmann, 314 
Honke, 314 
Hopke, 227 
Hiipken, 227 
Horder, 250 
Horn, 520 
Homeck, 520 
Hornemann, 520 
Homhard, 520 
Homig, 520 
Hbmlein, 520 
Homung, 520 



Hoske, 442 » 
Hubert, 357 
Hucke, 357 
Hudemann, 280 
Hufnagel, 221 
Huge, 357 
Hiigel, 357 
Hugo, 357 
Huhn, 314 
Hiihnert, 314 
Hulde, 282 
Humbert, 314 
Humboldt, 314 
Hunecken, 314 
Hunger, 314 
Hunn, 314 
Hunnemann, 314 
Hunold, 315 
Hupe, 227 
Husung, 491 
Huthel, 280 
Hutte, 280 

Ibe, 60 
Icke, 210 
Ide, 449 
Ihl, 416 
Ihle, 416 
Ikm, 253 
Ihn, 492 
Imm, 253 
Immich, 254 
Imse, 254 
Ingel, 213 
Isanbart, 474 
Isenberg, 474 
Isert, 475 
Itter, 450 
Ive, 472 
Iwe, 366 

Jackel, 452 
Jaeger, 452 
Jagemann, 453 
Jagenteufel, 488 
Jechlin, 452 
Jeckel, 452 
Jenichen, 444 
Jochen, 452 
Jocher, 452 
Jock, 452 
Jordan, 140 
Jiide, 305 
Jung, 419 
Jiingerich, 420 
Jungher, 419 
Junghoff, 496 
Jungmann, 420 
Jiinke, 419 
Juppe, 485 
Jiitte, 305 

Kabe, 285 



Kade, 525 
Kahlert, 437 
Kalb, 83 
Kalfs, 83 
Kalker, 307 
Kalthoff, 496 
Kaltwasser, 502 
Kamler, 419 
Kamm, 436 
Kammer, 436 
Kant, 74 
Kanter, 74 
Karl, 59 
Karmann, 203 
KartMn, 277 
Kasch, 205 
Kaske, 205 
Kast, 296 
Katt, 168 
Kaumann, 337 
Kaup, 248 
Kaupert, 336 
Keber, 286 
Kehl, 436 

Kehler, 437 

Kehr, 202 

Kebrer, 203 

Kemp, 171 

Kendel, 74 

Kerhle, 202 

Kern, 433 

Kernmann, 433 

Kerwin, 204 

Kessler, 458 

Kettler, 525 

Kiehl, 322 

Kiesel, 458 

Kille, 458 

Killin, 458 

KHlmer, 458 

Kinreich, 328 

Kiss, 459 

Kissling, 458 

Klaber, 183 

Klapp, 183 

Klass, 392 

Klencke, 199 

KUng, 199 

KHnk, 199 

KHnkhardt, 199 

Klocke, 352 

Klockmann, 352 

Klode, 377 

Kloth, 377 

Kloverkom, 467 

Kluck, 352 

Kluge, 352 

Knabb, 422 

Knapp, 422 

Kniep, 201 

Kocli, 446 

Kocher, 446 

Kochlin, 446 



INDEX OF GERMAN NAMES. 



601 



Kockert, 446 
Kohl, 226 
Kohlhardt, 226 
Kohlmann, 226 
Kohlig, 226 
KoliHng, 226 
Kohnert, 328 
Kohnle, 327 
Kohrssen, 409 
KoU, 226 
KoUer, 226 
Kollmeyer, 226 
Komm, 59 
Kone, 327 
Konemann, 328 
Koner, 328 
Konicke, 327 
Konter, 164 
Kopisch, 248 
Kopp, 248 
Korner, 433 
Koss, 309 
Kost, 360 
Kott, 115 
Kotting, 115 
Krieger, 170 
Kriegk, 170 
Krimmer, 125 
KroU, 405 
Kron, 465 
Kroner, 465 
KruU, 405 
Kruse, 404 
Kubbe, 248 
Kuckkuck, 105 
Kude, 115 
Ktihn, 327 
Kiihnel, 327 
Kuhnert, 328 
Kuhnhardt, 328 
Kiilinhold, 328 
Kubnke, 327 
Kumm, 59 
Kunde, 163 
Kiinemund, 328 
Kuner, 328 
Kiinicke, 327 
Kiinsel, 163 
Kunte, 163 
Kunth, 163 
Kuntke, 163 
Kunz, 163 
Kupfer, 476 
Kupfernagel, 221 
Kutter, 116 

Lachman, 366 
Lacher, 366 
Laiber, 387 
Lambert, 335 
Lamberg, 335 
Lamle, 86 
Lamm, 86 



Lanipe, 86 
Land, 335 
liandherr, 335 
Landt, 335 
Landwehr, 336 
Landwig, 336 
Lanfried, 335 
Lanz, 335 
Laue, 87 
Lebin, 387 
Leder, 195 
Leding, 194 
Leff, 387 
Lege, 366 
Lehn, 366 
Leine, 274 
Leiter, 195 
Lende, 110 
Lenhard, 87 
Leonhard, 87 
Lepert, 387 
Leppoc, 265 
Lepsius, 265 
Lesse, 353 
Lessing, 353 
Lethe, 194 
Lette, 194 
Leuchs, 88 
Leue, 87 
Leuthold, 331 
Leutiger. 331 
Leuze, 331 
Lewald, 87 
Leyde, 194 
Lieb, 265 
Liebegott, 484 
Liebel, 265 
Lieber, 265 
Liebert, 265 
Liebetrut, 265 
Liebich, 265 
Liebig, 265 
Liebmann, 265 
Linck, 87 
Linde, 110 
Lindhof, 496 
Linn, 174 
Liphard, 265 
Lippe, 265 
Lippel. 265 
Lippert, 265 
List, 355 
Listing, 355 
Lochmann, 447 
Lode, 377 
Lohle, 284 
Loth, 377 
Lother, 377 
Lott, 377 
Lotter, 377 
Lubbe, 265 
Lubbecke, 265 
Lude, 330 

X 3 



Liidecking, 330 
Ludolf, 331 
Ludtmann, 331 
Ludwig, 331 
Luth, 330 
Luthardt, 331 
Luther, 331 
Luttkus, 331 
Lutz, 331 
Luz, 331 

Machen, 410 
Machold, 410 
Mack, 410 
Madchen, 341 
Madel, 361 
Mader, 342 
Madicke, 341 
Madler, 361 
Madler, 361 
Mager, 410 
Mahl, 178 
Mahr, 368 
Maldt, 180 
INIaUe, 178 
Mandt, 434 
Manecke, 58 
Manfried, 58 
Mangold, 58 
INIanhardt, 58 
Mann, 58 
Mannchen, 58 
Manneck, 58 
Mannel, 58 
Mannert, 58 
Mannikin, 58 
Manz, 434 
March, 80 
MiireU, 368 
Mark, 80 
Marker, 80 
Markloff, 80 
Markwardt, 80 
Marr, 368 
Martyrt, 258 
Masch, 445 
Maske, 445 
Mass, 522 
Massel, 522 
Massen, 522 
Massl, 522 
Massman, 523 
Mather, 342 
Matticke, 341 
Maurer, 402 
Maywald, 410 
Meeder, 342 
Meer, 368 
Meerbott, 369 
Meerwein, 369 
Mehne, 410 
Mehrle, 368 
Mehrwald, 369 



602 



INDEX OF GERMAN NAMES. 



Meiner, 410 
Meinert, 410 
Mende, 434 
Mennel, 58 
Blense, 434 
Mentzel, 434 
Menzel, 434 
Meske, 445 
Mess, 522 
Messer, 522 
Metke, 341 
Mette, 341 
Metto, 341 
Meye, 410 
Michelmann, 406 
Mielecke, 179 
Mielert, 180 
Miercke, 368 
Milch, 179 
Milcke, 179 
MUde, 283 
Miller, 180 
Mirich, 368 
Mode, 237 
Model, 237 
Moder, 237 
Mohl, 378 
Mohr, 402 
Mohrhard, 402 
Mohrin, 402 
Mohrle, 402 
Mohrmann, 403 
Monscliein, 139 
Mordt, 258 
Mordtmann, 259 
Morgenrot, 139 
Morgenstern, 139 
Morhof, 496 
Moring, 402 
Mortz, 258 
Mortzschke, 258 
Most, 238 
Moster, 238 
Mosthal, 238 
Moth, 237 
Mozart, 237 
Mucke, 406 
Muckel, 406 
Muckert, 406 
Mudder, 293 
Mudel, 237 
Mugge, 406 
Mund, 276 
Munding, 276 
Mundt, 276 
Muntz, 276 
Mushacke, 237 
Mushard, 237 
Miislein, 237 
Muss, 237 
Muth, 237 
Muthrcich, 237 
Mutter, 237 



Mutterlein, 293 
Miitz, 237 
MiitzeU, 237 

Nadelin, 256 
NadeU, 256 
Nadler, 256 
Nagel, 220 
Nagler, 220 
Nahl, 220 
Naning, 239 
Nanne, 239 
Nanny, 239 
Nanz, 239 
Nath, 275 
Nebel, 151 
Neidl, 256 
Nendel, 239 
Nenne, 239 
Nessel, 256 
Nesselrath, 256 
Nessler, 256 
Neue, 420 
Neurath, 421 
Neuwert, 421 
Ney, 420 
Nibel, 151 
Nick, 126 
Nied, 255 
Nieder, 255 
Niedhardt, 255 
Niedling, 256 
Niemann, 297, 421 
Niepoth, 255 
Niete, 255 
Nippolt, 255 
Nitze, 255 
Nitzert, 255 
Nizze, 255 
Nonne, 439 
Nord, 300 
Nordmann, 301 
Nordmeyer, 301 
Normann, 301 
North, 300 
Notel, 240 
Noth, 240 
Notter, 240 
Nuding, 240 
Nutt, 240 
Nutzer, 240 

Oberlin, 76 
Odebrecht, 381 
Odemann, 382 
Oeffele, 385 
Oertling, 217 
Oester, 302 
Oettel, 334 
Off, 385 
Oken, 524 
Orling, 340 
Ort, 217 



Ortel, 217 
Orteln, 217 
Orth, 217 
OrtUeb, 218 
Ost, 302 
Ostermann, 303 
Ostermeier, 303 
Osterrath, 302 
Ostertag, 303 
Ostmann, 302 
Oswald, 120 
Ott, 381 

Packe, 172 
Padel, 166 
Pahl, 192 
Paldamus, 241 
PaUas, 143, 521 
Panse, 235 
Pantke, 235 
Pape, 291 
Pappe, 291 
Pass, 181 
Patel, 166 
Pathe, 166 
Pathe, 166 
Pattke, 166 
Pauck, 378 
Peck, 222 
Pedel, 166 
Peel, 219 
Pelegaard, 269 
Pelldram, 241 
Penn, 176 
Pennicke, 176 
Pesel, 181 
Pethke, 166 
Petter, 166 
Pfanner, 234 
Pfau, 101 
Pfefferkorn, 467 
Pich, 177 
Pick, 177 
Pickel, 177 
Pickhardt, 178 
Piehl, 219 
Pielert, 219 
Pielke, 269 
Piper, 91 
Pippe, 414 
Pippert, 414 
Planck, 392 
Plessing, 440 
Ploger, 215 
Plucker, 215 
Plugge, 214 
Pogge, 224 
Poggel, 224 
Pohler, 281 
Pohlert, 281 
Pohlmann, 281 
Polgar, 281 
Polte, 241 



INDEX OF GERMAN NAMES. 



603 



Polten, 242 
Popel, 421 
Popkeu, 422 
Popp, 421 
Pose, 408 
Poth, 454 
Pott, 454 
Potthoflf, 496 
Prechtel, 370 
Preim, 371 
Preiss, 186 
Prutz, 447 
Puche, 378 
Pupke, 422 
Puppe, 421 
Putter, 455 
Piittmann, 455 

Quaritch, 278 
QuUe, 123 
Quilling, 123 
Quin, 263 

Eaben, 97 
Rabener, 97 
Rack, 362 
Rack, 362 
Rade, 347 
Radel, 348 
Radel, 348 
Rader, 348 
Rademann, 348 
Radicke, 347 
Radle£f, 348 
Raffel, 187 
Rahardt, 362 
Rahn, 189 
Raimund, 363 
Ralfs, 363 
Ralphs, 72 
Rampf, 228 
Rand, 228 
Randolff, 228 
Ranke, 230 
Ranter, 228 
Rath, 347 
Rathen, 348 
Ratter, 348 
Ratti, 347 
Ratting, 348 
Ranch, 253 
Raumer, 374 
Reaumur, 374 
Recknagel, 221 
Redde, 347 
Reden, 348 
Reder, 348" 
Redmann, 348 
Redmer, 348 
Reede, 347 
Regel, 362 
Regenbogen, 137 
Regner, 350 



Reibe, 187 
Reiber, 188 
Reich, 343 
Reichardt, 343 
Reichen, 343 
Reichhelm, 343 
Reichmann, 344 
ReifiF, 187 
Rein, 349 
Reincke, 349 
Reiner, 350 
Reinhard, 349 
Reinhart, 349 
Reinhold, 350 
Reiniger, 349 
Reinmann, 350 
Rencker, 230 
Renter, 228 
Henz, 349 
Reyger, 363 
Reyher, 363 
Reyne, 349^ 
Reynold, 350 
Rhode, 371 
Richard, 343 
Rick, 343 
Rickert, 343 
Rickher, 343 
Rickman, 344 
Ridder, 254 
Rieck, 343 
Riedl, 254 
Riegel, 343 
Riekelt, 344 
Riemann, 344 
Riemar, 344 
Riffel, 188 
Rinck, 230 
Range, 230 
Ringel, 230 
Ringer, 230 
Ringert, 230 
Ringwald, 230 
Ritt, 254 
Ritter, 254 
Robert, 372 
Rocke, 253 
Rodde, 371 
Rodeck, 372 
Rodel, 372 
Rodemann, 373 
Roder, 373 
Rodewig, 373 
Rodger, 372 
Roding, 372 
Rodnagel, 221 
Rodwald, 373 
Roger, 372 
Rogge, 253 
Rohloff, 253 
Rohm, 373 
Rohm, 373 
Rolf, 72 



RoUand, 373 
Rom, 373 
Romei", 374 
Rommel, 374 
Rosenblatt, 467 
Rosenblut, 467 
Rosengarten, 467 
Rosenhagen, 467 
Rosenkranz, 467 
Rosenstengel, 467 
Rosensteil, 467 
Rosenstock, 467 
Rosenweber, 467 
Rosenzweig, 467 
Rosnagel, 221 
Rost, 448 
Rostel, 448 
Roth, 371 
Rothardt, 372 
Rothschnd, 227 (note) 
Rott, 371 
Riibe, 187 
Riicke, 253 
Riicker, 253 
Ruckert, 253 
Rudel, 372 
Rudeloflf, 373 
Ruder, 373 
Rudolph, 373 
Riidon, 372 
Rudrich, 373 
Ruhe, 253 
Rummel, 374 
Rundnagel, 221 
RiippeU, 188 
Rupprecht, 372 
Rust, 448 
Rusting, 448 
Ruth, 371 
Rutte, 371 

Saarmann, 230 
Sach, 171 
Sachs, 200 
Sacke, 171 
Sager, 171 
Sahl, 308 
Sahm, 75 
Salir, 230 
Sallmann, 308 
Saltzmann, 443 
Salz, 45, 443 
Sancke, 438 
Sand, 430 
Sanden, 431 
Sander, 430 
Sandhoff, 431, 496 
Sandt, 430 
Sann, 170 
Santer, 430 
Santz, 430 
Saphir, 424 
Sarrazin, 487 



604 



INDEX OF GERMAN NAMES. 



Sass, 451 
Sause, 266 
Savert, 424 
Sax, 200 
Scar, 223 

Schaarschmidt, 462 
Schade, 191 
Schalk, 456 
Schar, 223 
Schai'f, 356 
Scharpff, 356 
Schat, 191 
Scheer, 223 
Schelck, 456 
Scheurbrand, 223 
Schick, 431 
Schiermann, 223 
Schildt, 227 
SchiU, 360 
Schnier, 361 
Schilling, 360 
Schinnagl, 221 
Schlagenteufel, 488 
Schlauch, 257 
Schlech, 257 
Schmedding, 462 
Schmidlin, 462 
Schmieder, 461 
Schmiedecke, 462 
Schmiedel, 462 
Schnauber, 326 
Schnebern, 326 
SchneU, 245 • 
Schon, 389 
Schoner, 389 
Schonwetter, 139 
Schopf, 442 
Schoppe, 442 
Schuldt, 457 
Schiirmann, 223 
Schurr, 223 
Schwabe, 304 
Schwable, 304 
Schwann, 99 
Schwanecke, 99 
Schweppe, 304 
Schweidt, 198 
Schwinge, 412 
Sebert, 321 
Sebode, 173 
Sceburg, 322 
Seemann, 322 
Seewald, 322 
Sehr, 230 
Selke, 308 
Selle, 308 
Sello, 308 
Semm, 75 
Senke, 438 
Seunc, 170 
Senner, 170 
Scnncrt, 170 
Scppe, 261 



Serre, 230 
Seydel, 431 
Seyer, 173 
Seyfrid, 173 
Seymer, 173 
Sicher, 173 
Sichert, 173 
Sick, 172 
Sickel, 172 
Siebe, 261 
Siebecke, 262 
Siebert, 173 
Siebold, 172 
Sieg, 172 
Siegfried, 173 
Sieger, 173 
Sieghardt, 173 
Siegmann, 173 
Siegmund, 173 
Sieke, 172 
Sieveking, 262 
Sigel, 172 
Sigg, 172 
Sigle, 172 
Sigien, 172 
Silber, 479 
Silberard, 479 
Silbermann, 479 
Simund, 173 
Sint, 456 
Sinz, 456 
Sitte, 431 
Sohl, 138 
Sorg, 441 
Spaeth, 200 
Spanier, 445 
Sparwasser, 502 
Spat, 200 
Speck, 207 
Speckmann, 207 
Speer, 206 
Spiel, 434 
Spieler, 434 
Spielmann, 434 
Spiess, 207 
Spohn, 445 
Sporing, 206 
Si^rotte, 415 
Stacke, 213 
Stackemann, 213 
Stade, 252 
Stiihelin, 476 
Stahl, 476 
Stahlinann, 476 
Stang, 214 
Stark, 245 
Stecker, 213 
Steckcrt, 213 
Steding, 252 
Stedmann, 252 
Stcgomann, 213 
Steinecke, 479 
Steiner, 480 



Steinhart, 480 
Steinhoff, 496 
Steinmann, 480 
Sterk, 245 
Sterker, 245 
Stichert, 213 
Stich, 213 
Stickel, 214 
Stiebel, 469 
Stiegler, 214 
Stobwasser, 503 
Stock, 213 
Stockel, 214 
Stockhardt, 213 
Stockmann, 213 
Stoff, 469 
Strauss, 48, 190 
Streit, 171 
Streiter, 171 
Stucke, 213 
Stiiber, 469 
Stiive, 469 
Suckard, 267 
Summer, 141 
Sundelin, 301 (note) 
Sundrehoff, 496 
Siindrehoff, 302 
Suppe, 304 
Susman, 267 
Siiss, 266 
Sybel, 262 

Tabold, 391 
Tack, 390 
Tade, 291 
Taddel, 291 
Tag, 390 
Tagel, 390 
Tiiger, 391 
Tagmann, 391 
Tanne, 311 
Taube, 103 
Teichhof, 496 
Tegen, 338 
Tell, 375 
Temm, 364 
Tessmann, 385 
Teufel, 488 
Teufelskind, 488 
Teufelskopf, 488 
Thai, 375 
Thaler, 375 
Thalhammer, 376 
Tlialmann, 376 
Thalmeier, 376 
Thamm, 364 
Thein, 338 " 
Thciner, 339 
Tlicinert, 339 
Tlieobald, 332 
Theuor, 268 
Thie, 457 
Thiedt, 332 



INDEX i)F GERMAN NAMES. 



605 



Thiemke, 365 
Thier, 2G8 
Thics, 351 
Thiinm, 364 
Thonia, 363 
Thurnagel, 221 
Tieck, 406 
Tiede, 332 
Tiedemann, 333 
Tiedt, 332 
Tieler, 375 
TiU, 189 
Tillmaun, 190 
Tilo, 189 
Timm, 364 
Tischer, 229 
Titel, 332 
Tock, 427 
Tode, 273 
Todt, 273 
Todtmann, 273 
Tonne, 129 
Tott, 273 
Trappe, 196 
Traswalt, 242 
Traub, 441 
Traum, 243 
Ti-autman, 271 
Treyer, 413 
Troche, 195 
Troder, 271 
Triibe, 441 
Triiger, 196 
Trummei', 243 
Tsjisse, 459 
Tuch, 427 
Tucher, 427 
Tiimmel, 364 
Turhold, 208 
Tiirk, 487 
Tiitel, 332 

Uhle, 105 
Ubr, 83 
Uhthoflf, 496 
Ulbricht, 105 
UUnaann, 106 

Vater, 293 
Vetter, 293 
Vetterlein, 293 
Violet, 468 
Vogel, 93 
Volhardt, 334 
Volk, 333 
Viilker, 334 
Volkmann, 334 

Wach, 362 
Wacker, 362 
Wackemagel, 221 
Wadt, 412 
Wage, 522 



Wager, 523 

Wahl, 298 

Wahler, 298 

Walilort, 298 

Wahliuan, 298 

Wahhnar, 298 

Wahren, 305 

Walcker, 298 

Wald, 344 

Waldniann, 345 

Waldschniidt, 462 

Widke, 298 

WaU, 298 

WaUer, 298 

WaUick, 298 

Walther, 345 

Wande, 316 

Wandel, 317 

Wandt, 316 

Wandtke, 316 

Wannick, 394 

Warbui-g, 278 

WarUck, 278 

Wamecke, 305 

Warner, 305 

Wart, 277 

Warth, 277 
Waiiiman, 277 
Wass, 244 
WasserfaU, 502 
AVassmann, 244 
Wedding, 494 
WedeU, 413 
Wedlich, 494 
Weede, 493 
Wege, 523 
Wegel, 165 
Wegelein, 165 
Weger, 523 
Wegerich, 165 
Wehde, 412 
Wehling, 383 
Wehr, 278 
Wehrlen, 278 
Webrmann, 278 
Weidel, 493 
Weiger, 165 
Weih, 164 
Weiher, 165 
Weilert, 383 
WeiUer, 383 
Wein, 263 
Wyinberg, 264 
Weinen, 264 
Weinger, 264 
Weinhardt, 264 
Weinbold, 264 
Weinkopf, 264 
Weinmann, 264 
Weise, 351 
Weiswald, 351 
Weitmann, 494 
Welde, 344 



Welden, 345 
Welf, 88 
Wellmann, 383 
Welte, 344 
Welten, 345 
Wend, 316 
Wendel, 317 
Wendeler, 317 
WendUng, 317 
Weniger, 394 
Wening, 394 
Went, 316 
Werck, 73 
Werker, 74 
Weme, 305 
Werner, 305 
Wernert, 305 
Wessel, 244 
Westermann, 303 
Westphal, 303 
Weygold, 165 
Weyland, 383 
Weymann, 623 
Wibel, 63 
Wibking, 63 
Wich, 164 
Wichman, 165 
Wick, 164 
Wickardt, 165 
Widmann, 494 
Widmer, 494 
Wiebe, 62 
Wiegel, 165 
Wiehl, 383 
Wieland, 383 
Wiemann, 165 
Wiemer, 165 
Wiesel, 351 
Wiethorn, 494 
Wieting, 494 
Wiggele, 165 
Wiggert, 165 
Wnd, 447 
Wndt, 447 
WilbeLm, 124 
Wilke, 123 
WiUberg, 123 
WiUcomm, 297 
WiUe, 123 
WiUer, 124 
WiUert, 124 
Willet, 124 
WiUicb, 123 
WiUiez, 123 
AYilUng, 123 
Willisch, 123 
Wi]lkomm, 123 
WiUmann, 124 
Wilmar, 124 
Wilz, 123 
Winck, 412 
Wind, 316 
Winder, 316 



606 



■VVinecke, 263 
"Winlieer, 264 
Winke, 263 
Winne, 263 
Winning, 263 
Winter, 316 
Wippel, 63 
Wissman, 351 
With, 493 
Witte, 493 
Witten, 493 
Witter, 494 



INDEX OF GERMAN NAMES. 



Witthaus, 494 
Wittich, 493 
Wittling, 493 
Wittrich, 495 
Wohl, 383 
Wolf, 71 
Wolfer, 72 
WoU, 383 
WoUmer, 384 
Worle, 325 
Wulfert, 71 



Wunsch, 121 
Wunscher, 122 
Wurm, 108 

Zaiser, 272 
Zeiz, 272 
Ziehle, 433 
Zillmann, 433 
Zuck, 267 
Zucker, 268 
Zuckert, 267 



i 



FRENCH NAMES 
Occurring in Notes, and omitted in their proper 'places. 



Anquetil, 128 
Chanteclaire, 74 
Chantoiseau, 74 
Cloez, 391 



Closier, 391 
Closse, 391 
Dietsch, 229 



Drumond, 243 
Frasier, 313 
Frezier, 313 









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I